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Fkoto hy a. W. WUm¥l ] 



{AhfrdtJt^, 



A SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICINE-MAN. 






THE 



Living Races 
of mankind 



/ 




A POPULAR ILLUSTRATED ACCOUNT OF 
THE CUSTOMS, HABITS, PURSUITS, 
FEASTS df CEREMONIES OF THE RACES 
OF MANKIND THROUGHOUT THE WORLD 



H. N. HUTCHINSON 

B.A., F.R.G.S., F.G.S. 

J. W. GREGORY 

D.Sc, F.G.S. 

R. LYDEKKER 

F.R.S., F.G.S,, F.Z.S., ifc. 

ASSISTED BY EMINENT SPECIALISTS 



Vol. II 
WITH 309 ILLUSTRATIONS 



PJio/o by F. Topiq^ 



[Sarajfvo 



A ROSNIAN MAN 



LONDON: HUTCHINSON &> CO., Paternoster Row 



PRINTED BY 

HAZELL, WATSON, AND VINEY, LD., 

LONDON AND AYLESBURY. 



/ 



CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 



CHAP, 

XIIT. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 
XVIII. 



The Negro in General — The 
Bantu Negroes .... 289 

The Bantu of Eastern and 
Western Africa . . .313 

The Equatorial and Nilotic 
Negroes ..... 337 

The Soudanese and Guinea 
Negroes, and the Abyssinian 
AND Ethiopic Groups. . . 361 

The Hamitic and Semitic Eaces 
OF North Africa . . . 385 
Europe : Russia, Caucasia, Fin- 
land, Lapland, Norway, Sweeen, 
and Iceland .... 409 



CHAP. 

XIX. 



XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 
XXIII. 
XXIV. 



Greece and Isles, Turkey, 
Bulgaria, Rumania, Servia, 
Montenegro, Bosnia - Herze- 
govina, Austria-Hungary, the 
Gypsies ..... 433 

Germany, Switzerland, Italy, 
France, Spain, and Portugal . 457 

Denmark, Belgium, Holland, 
Great Britain and Ireland . 481 

Arctic America and Grhexland 505 

North America .... 529 

Central and South America 
(including Mexico) . . . 553 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS, VOL. IL 



PACE 

Ova-Herero women . . . 28!t, 290 

A S\v;izi girl ..... 21U 

A Kaffir wuman, Natal . . 292 

Three Kaffii-s 293 

Khama, chief of the Bamangwato 

Bechuanas 294 

Khama's brother .... 295 

A Cape Kaffir 296 

Kaffirs in fighting-costume . . 297 

A Kaffir wedding-party . . . 298 

Zulu women grinding corn . . 299 
Three Zulu girls . . . .800 

A Basuto girl 301 

Two Zulu girls .... 302 

XTsiiJebu's wives, Zululand . . 303 

A Zulu witch-doctor . . 304 

A Zulu girl ;i05 

Matabili wai-riors .... 30() 

Mashonas bartering . . .%" 

Two Mashona men .... 308 
Chief Unigabe and his followers, 

Ma^honaland ... 309 

TwoXya-saland men and their wive.s 310 
Natives of Kast Central Africa in 

full-dress costume . . . .311 

Confirmation candidates, Nyasaland 312 

Waganda scholars .... 313 

Nubian Police, Uganda . . 314 
A Uganda man and woman in 

native style .... 315 

Wakwafi men of Kavirondo . . 316 

A grouji of Suk .... 317 

Y'suk warrior, Karaniojo . . 318 

Waljeni schcxjl-girls . . 319 

Natives of Lumbwa . . . 320 

Wateita boys, Kast Africa . . 321 

An Elgon chief . . .322 

Unvoro chiefs 323 

An Unyoro girl (full-face) . . 324 



PAGE 

An Unyoro girl (profile) . . 325 

A princess of Unyoro (full-face) . .320 

A princess of Unyoro (profile) . 327 

A Moubuttu negress . . . 328 

Congo natives 329 

Two Congo natives. . . . 330 

A Congo woman .... 331 

A Congo man and woman . . 332 

A gi'oup of Congo men . . . 333 
A Congo native, with primitive 

stringed instrument . . . 334 

A Congo warrior and his wife . 335 
A group of Congo natives dre.ssed 

for a war-dance . . . 33G 

A Congo man in native canoe . 337 

Treaty-making, Kikuyu . . . 338 
Wyaki and his brother chief, 

Kikuyu . . . . .339 

A group of Niam-niam natives . .340 

Niam-niam warriors . .' . 341 

A Niam-niam girl .... .342 

.\ Niam-niam witch-doctor . .343 

A Niam-niam native . . . 344 
Typical women of the Equatorial 

region 345 

Women and children of Equatorial 

Africa . . . . . .340 

Liljerated slaves from Central Africa 347 
A Central African chief and his 

wives 348 

A Monfu woman .... ;149 

A Dinka girl (full-face) ... 350 

A Dinka girl (profile) ... 351 

A Shilluk girl 352 

A Shilluk man . .3.53 

Fajeln men and woman . . . 354 

A IJari girl .'$55 

A Bari woman (side view) . . 3.50 

A Bari woman (front view) . 3.57 



PAUE 

A Madi man 358 

Madi women 359 

A Lango chief, showing peculiar 

he.ad-dress 3G0 

The Mandingan baleiijeh, or native 

piano 361 

Native carriers, Upjjer Mendi . 362 
An Upper Mendi prince.'s . . 303 
-4n Ui)per Mendi chief . . . SG3 
An Upper Mendi chief in war- 
costume .364 

Amazons of Dahomey . . . 365 

Natives of the Niger Delta . . 366 
A native of the Oil Rivers, Nig^r 

Coast Protectorate . . . .''.67 

A Dahomeyan baby . 308 

Dahomeyan Amazons . . 369 

A Dahomeyan warrior . . 370 

A Dahomeyan man . . . 371 

A Yoruba woman .... 372 

A Yoruba man .... 373 

Somali children .... 374 

Somali 375 

A Somali man .... 376 

A Somali man and his wife . . .377 

An Abyssinian girl . . . 378 

A native of Aby.ssinia . . . 379 

A group of Abyssinians . . 380 

Hau.ssa 381, .383 

A Haussa woman .... 382 

A gioup of Haussa . . . 384 

A group of Tuaregs, South Algeria .385 

A Tuareg woman .... 386 

A Tuareg man .... .387 
Mixed tyi>e, BerlxT and Negi'o race, 

Sahara 388 

A Fellah woman .... 389 
Two Nubian girls . . . .390 

Two Nubian dancing-girls . 391 



,4/ 



List of Illustrations and Maps, Vol. U. 



A NiiluAn <laiic-ing-woman 

An I'lwINaVl (Algerian type) 

An Ukxl-Nall woman, Biskra 

An Uled-Nail wuman 

Uled-Nallg and two Negro girU . 

A Kabyle man .... 

A Kabjli- woman . 3yU, 

Two Kabvlc wonKMi, Algeria 

Arab chil<lrt>n at play 

Kabyle children .... 

Street minstri'ls, Cain) . 

An Algerian Moorish girl 

A Moori.'ih lady .... 

An Arab man 

An Arab camp 

A Kuasian mendicant 

A Russian coachman 

A group of Kuaaian women . 

A aergeant in the Russian army . 

A Russian school .... 

Tartars 

A Russian nurse .... 

Two (lancers, Little Russia . 

A Russian bride of the lietter class. 

Map basix) (by |iennigsion) on Pro- 
fessor Keaue's language map of 
Europe in "Stanford's Com- 
pendium of Geography " . 

RoaaiMi peasant in costume . 

A Georguui woman, Caucasia 

Ckuoasian soldiers 



PACK 

. 392 

. 393 

3!M, 390 

. 395 



397 
398 
402 
400 
401 
403 
404 
405 
40G 
407 
408 
409 
410 
411 
412 
413 
414 
415 
41G 
417 



418 
419 
420 
421 



A Finlander 422 

A Lapp child on reindeer 423 

A Mountain I.App .... 424 
A family of LapjH .... 425 
A I'app woman .... 426 
A Norwegian girl in bridal dress . 427 
A Hardaiiger girl .... 428 
Hardant^er jH'asant women 429 

A Swe<ii.Hh girl in bridal dress 430 

A Telleinarken |K-aHant . 431 

An Iceland woman .... 432 
A Greek girl in national costume. 433 

A Greek girl 434 

A Greek soldier .436 

A Turk 43G 

A Turki»h [)edlar .... 437 
A Hunianian bride .... 438 
A Rumanian dairy-maid 438 

A Montj'negrin .... 439 
National dance of Montenegro at 
the present day : dancing the 

hora 440 

Bosnian falconers .441 

A Bosnian belle .442 

A native of ISusnia . . 443, 445 

A Bosnian soldier . 444 

A 'Bohemian woman 440 

Chekha 447, 448 

A Wend (front and Ijack view) . 

Wend woman in full dress 

Octmana of (kiuth Austria 

Hoogarian peasants 

A South Austrian peasant 

A Tyrolne girl ... . 

A Hungarian woman from Szirok 

A Hungarian 

A inn- <;y|»<y, Alsace (profile) 

A jiurv <iy|wy, Alsacv (full-fsoe) . 

A Butieniiun Gypsy girl 

A little (ierman boy 

A Otirmau ladv 

Thim Swiw girls . 

A Swiss man . 

A yoang woman of Rem 

A Bwias girl in bridal dress 

An Italian man 



448 
448 
449 
460 
460 
461 
462 
463 
464 
466 
466 
467 
468 
469 
4G0 
461 
462 
463 



FAOE 

The taranUUc in Naples . 404 

An Italian shepherdess . . 405 

An Italian monk .... 4(i6 

Young women of Valence 467 
An Italian |)easant-girl in her 

wedding-dress .... 468 

A fisher-woman of Portel 409 

An old Frenchwoman . 470 

Two French peasants . . 471 

A French fisherman . . 472 

A Brittany boy .... 473 

A Gypsy of Granada . . 474, 470 

A Spanish fandango, Granada 475 

A Sjmnish lady .... 477 

Two Portuguese boys . . 478 

A Portuguese woman . . 479, 480 
A Danish bride . . .481 

A Danish couple .... 482 

A Danish fisher-girl 483 
A Belgian peasant woman and her 

draught-dogs .... 484 

A native of the Ai-dennes . 485 
A Belgian man and his wife, 

Ardennes 480 

A family group of Markcii people 487 
A Dutch married woman, North 

Holland 488 

A Dutch man, Volendam 489 
A Dutch ixasant woman, showing 

head-cu-ess ..... 490 

A maid-of-all-work, Holland . 490 

A Derbyshire yeoman . 491 

A Lowestoft smacksman 492 

.\ tyix) of Kiiglish beauty 493 

An English girl .... 494 

A group of tishermen, Devonshire 495 

A city waif 490 

A Welsh woman at her spinning- 
wheel 497 

A Newhaven fishwife 498 
In a Shetland crofter's home 499 
An old Scot salt .... 500 
Two old men of Skye 501 
A native of Moume 502 
An old Irishwoman at her spinning- 
wheel 503 

An Irish ix)a.s»nt-girl . 504 

X type of Irish beauty . 504 

Greenland I'jikiiuo in the snow . 505 

A j»rty of Greenland Eskimo . 500 
Eskimo, with their sleighs and 

kayak 507 

An Eskimo man .... 508 

An Jiikimo woman. . 509 

A ])air of Eskimo Ixjys . 510 

Hca<]s of three Eskimo children . 511 

Eskimo and sledge .... 612 

X Gre<-nland Etkirao grandmother 613 
An Eskimo belie . .614 
Distribution of Eskimo and North 

American Indians 
An Eskimo youth .... 
An Eskimo ^irl and child 
A party of Ijikinio, with their tent 

of seal-.skin and liear-skin 
A North American Indian in full 

dress 

A group of North American Indians 
A North American brave 
North American Indian chiefs, 
with their wivi-s and children 
A Chippewa Indian 
Ma-gi-ga-bow (chief) 
A Chipiiewa chief .... 
"Cut-nuse," a Sioux criminal 
A North American Indian (pro- 
file) '. 



615 
610 
517 

518 

619 
520 
521 

622 
623 
623 
623 
523 

624 



PAGE 

A North American Indian (full- 
face), with pipe-tomahawk 525 
A North American chief, with 

feather head-dress . . 526 
A Dakota-Siouan chief, thirty -eight 
years of age, with pijie-toma- 

hawk .527 

A North American Indian chief 

(profile) 528 

A North American Indian, show- 
ing moca.ssins .... 529 
An American Indian and his wife 530 
Indian "sun dance" (the making of 

a brave) ..... 531 
A group of North American Indians 

in full dress .... 532 

North American Indians dressing . 533 

An Indian chief and his sq^uaws . 533 

An Indian hunter, with wapiti skull 534 
North American Indians prejiared 

for a journey .... 535 
An Indian tent in winter, with 

squaw carrying pajioose (child) 536 

A woman of Kiawa . . . 537 
A North American Indian smoking 

tomahattk-pi])e . . 538 

Indian squaw and jiapoose (child) . 539 

An age<l Indian woman. . 640 

A group of Mic-mac Indians 541 

A Dakota-Siouan squaw 542 

A group of North American Indians 543 
A Maiidan Indian in European 

dress 544 

North American Indians in camp 545 

Guanajuato water-carriers, Mexico 546 
A Hopi bride . . . .547 
Guatuso women and child, Costa 

Rica .548 

A Carib woman of Dutch Guiana, 

with leg-l)ands .... 549 
A Carib or Ackawoi woman (pro- 
tile), with spikes in lower lip 

and cArs 560 

A Carib or Atkawoi woman (full- 
face), with spikes in lower lip 

and eare 561 

A Carib man 552 

A Carib woman .... 653 
X Peruvian Indian, with orna- 
ments in the loljes of the ears 554 
Natives of Peru .... 655 
.A. Gaucho of Jm Plata . . .556 
Map sliowing distribution of South 

American Indians . . 567 
A group of Hanajjana men of the 

Paraguayan Chtvco . . 558 
A group of San:i|>ana women of 

the Paraguayan Chaeo . 559 

A iMirty of Botocudixs . 5(iO 

War Indians of the Lciigua trilie 501 

Lenguas of the Paraguayan Chaeo 502 

An em»inpmeiit of Leugua Indians 503 
A group of Lengua children, 

Paraguayan Chaeo . 564 

.\raucjniians aiul their children 505 

Xn Araucanian man . . 566 

A \yitch-doctor of Araucania . . 667 

Civilised Araneanians . 668 

A Chilian native and his wives 569 

An Araucanian Ix'auty 570 
A Tehuelche woman and children, 

dressed in guanaco robes. 571 

Mapuche natives of .Araucania 572 

A Fuegian man .... 573 

A Tehuelche man .... 674 

A Kuegian woman .... 575 

Fuegians 576 



n/ 



4. 



\ 



CHAPTEE XIII. 

TEE NEORO IN GENERAL— THE BANTU NEGROES. 



a. THE NEGRO IN GENERAL. 

For the purposes of this chapter we shall accept the term Negro as the name of the dark, 
frizzly- or woolly-haired peoples who occupy most cf Africa, from the Sahara to the Cape. Their 
range is interrupted by the scattered groups of pygmies in the Equatorial region and the 
Bushmen in South-western Africa, and by immigrant tribes of other races who occupy North- 
eastern Africa and extend southward along the coast to and beyond the Equator. 

The main physical features of the Negro are his dark-coloured skin, woolly hair, and long 
massive skull, with receding forehead and projecting jaws. The colour is not black, as is so 
often stated ; for the blackest Africans are some Soudanese tribes, who are hybrids, and the 
Somali, who are not Negroes at all. The predominant colour is dark brown, varying from dark 
copper-coloured to yellowish brown or dark reddish brown. The colour in the same individual 
varies from time to time, according to his condition of health, and as a rule it darkens with 
age, new-born children being quite light in colour. The hair is generally short; in transverse 
section it is elliptical and not circular, so that it naturally coils into short curls ; it thus 
appears woolly or frizzled. In most tribes the hair is very short, but in others it grows to 
considerable length, and is twisted 
into very elaborate designs. The 
hair on the lower part of the face 
is inconspicuous ; the beard is 
sparse or absent, and the moustache 
represented by a few liairs above 
the corners of the mouth. The 
skull and head characters are very 
typical of the Negroes, thougli 
they vary greatly, owing to the 
influence of intermarriage witli 
other races. The skull as a whole 
is massive, and the bones are 
firmly fused together, so that the 
sutures between them are in- 
distinct. The skull is long and 
broadest at the back ; the forehead 
receding; the nose is broad- based 
and the nostrils are widely ojien, 
so that it apjiears wide and flat. 
The body is well built, and the 
height averages about 5 feet 
7 inches. The proportions of the 
limbs vary with the mode of life 




I'ltoto by Mr. U. E, J^'ripp, 



OTA-BUBEBO WOMEH 



289 



37 



290 



The Living Races of Mankind 



and habits of the diflFerent tribes. Their muscular development is good, and on work which 
de|)ends only on muscle they excel the average European ; but in anything requiring judgment 
they are easily beaten. 'J he nervous system is not very sensitive, and the appreciation of pain 
is dull. Opemtions can be conducted without ana'sthetics which would be fatal to Europeans 
even with their aid. Johnston describes a scene after one of the battles in British Central 
Africa, in which " operations of the most terribly painful character are being carried on, and 
the iwtients are smiling, with an occasional wince or grimace, but meantime plaiting grass with 
their fingers or watching the application of the surgical implements with jwsitive interest." 

Dress varies from absolutely nothing, as in some of the people of Kavirondo, to the 
complete clotliing of the better-class Suahili. As a rule the dress is very simple : children are 
usually nude ; women mostly have a narrow petticoat, covering from the waist to about the 
knees ; men wear a narrow loin-cloth, which they frequently discard. In cold, wet districts, as 




Fkoto »> J/r. //. e. Fripp. 



OVA-UEREBO WOMEK. 



in the inland plateaux, a short skiu cloak is used, which is hung over the shoulders to protect 
the lungs. The skins worn by the Kegroes are untanned, but are rendered soft by scraping 
and beating. In South Africa the untaimed hide of cattle is the principal material used for 
clothing. In Northeni Africa and along the coast skins are replaced by cotton-cloth. Some 
of the l<>iuatx)rial tribes make fabrics of plaited grass. Sheets of fig-bark, hammered until they 
are soft and sujjple, are used in Uganda and some neighbouring countries. 

The ornaments are as varied as the clothing; they mostly consist of iron and brass rings, 
worn round the arms or legs, in the ears, nose, or lips. lirass beads hammered from wire 
and cowry-shells are sewn on the skin garments or on straps; rings of ivory are worn on the 
muscles of the arm among some tribes, while hejid-dresses of feathers and fur are common, 
e8i«cially among the warriors. The medicine-man of the tribe is generally fantastically 
arrayed in assortments of the most eccentric articles available. 

The body is decorated l)y colour-tattooing and scar-tattooing or cicatrisation. True or 




I'holobya. W. nilaon] 



[Aberdeen. 



A SWAZI OIliL. 
291 



292 



The Living Races of Mankind 



colour-tattooing is effected by making 
small cuts in the skin, and then rubbing 
in some dye or pigment, usually charcoal- 
Cicatrisation, which is more common, is 
caused by rej^eated cuts at the same 
place, so that the skin in healing becomes 
thickened, and forms a projecting lump. 
These scars are usually in simple lines, 
but are sometimes worked into elaborate 
designs; in their simplest form they are 
caste or tribal marks; but where best 
developed, as among the Bangala of the 
Congo, their object is personal adorn- 
ment. Tlie lobes of the ear and the lips 
are often greatly extended by the insertion 
of wooden disks, and the teeth filed to 
points or some of them removed. 

The typical Negro weajwu is the 
spear ; it varies from the light, barbed 
throwing-assegai of the Zambesi tribes to 
the massive, long-bladed, two-edged, heavy 
thrusting-spear of the Masai. Bows and 
arrows are widely distributed, and the 
arrows are often poisoned. Clubs and 
knobkerries are used for war, civil execu- 
tions, and hunting. 

The dwellings are mostly huts of 
bent sticks or poles, covered with thatch 
or laced i)alm leaves. Ihey ivre usually 
small, but the palaces of the chiefs of 
the more organised tribes may be very 
large. The huts are mostly beehive- 
shaped, but may be oval, square, or oblong. The nomadic tribes rely on temjwrary reed 
screens or bivouiics, or huts of poles covered by skins. Where the Negroes have fallen under 
the influence of other races, stone buildings aie sometimes erected. The huts are usually built 
on the ground ; but in swampy districts they may be raised on piles, and where white ants 
are troublesome the food-huts are perched like dovecots at the top of a single pole. The 
huts are typically circular; but some square or oblong houses occur among the Guinea 
Negroes and in East Africa. 

ITie food of the Negroes consists mainly of vegetable jiroducts ; the chief cereals are the 
native grains eleusine and sorghum or dhurra, and vaiious introduced grains, such as millet, 
rice, maize, and occasionally wheat; tubers, such as yams, sweet potatoes, and cassava or 
manioc, and various pumi)kins and beans are also largely used. Some tribes live almost 
entirely on plantains and Ixmanas, and others on the coast are largely dei)endent on the 
cocoanut. 'ihe pa-storal tribes have large herds of cattle and flocks of sheep, and live on meat 
and milk ; and some of them are forbidden by religious scruples from eating vegetable food. 
Along the great rivers fish is an important article of diet, though some tribes avoid it 
on considerations which are now religious, but which originally were probably sanitary. 
Canuilwlisnj is widely spread among the African Ncgio races, as it is among the Negroes of 
Tapua-tiu. The u.se of liutnan flesh as food is almost confined to the Congo and Ogowe Basins; 
but it is eaten as medicine or fetish over a much wider area ; as in such cases it is taken 
iecretly, it prolinbly occurs more widely than is thought. Cannibalism, in fact, probably arose 




PKoto hy Iht Trappist ilonasUry] 



[Mariatin UUl, Satat. 



A KAFFIB WOMAN, NATAL. 



The Negro in General 



293 



from superstitious motives. As Sir Harry Johnston says, " INIen will eat the flesh of lions to 
make them brave, and the heart of a brave enemy is cooked and devoured by those who wish 
to share his courage." 

The social organisation of the Negroes is primitive, and usually i)atriarchal. In many 
cases the people live in independent families or in isolated village communities, with an 
elder over each. Groups of villages may unite under a committee of elders or under a chief. 
Many chiefs may be subject to a principal chief or king, whose power may be upheld by a 
feudal system or be an absolute despotism. In either case slavery is nearly always an 
important element in organised states. 

The character of the Negro is marked by extreme contrasts, the agricultural tribes differing 
from the warrior castes of the organised military states. The Negroes are generally described 
as indolent; but they are capable of great exertion, and where they are protected they will 
work steadily in their own way. They are certainly usually avaricious, but on an impulse 
will act with noble generosity ; and their selfishness does not debar them from great feats of 
self-sacrifice and devotion. As soldiers their sanguine disposition renders them naturally brave, 
but in cases of reverse they are liable to panic ; and though usually kind-hearted, in times of 
excitement they are capable 
of fiendish cruelty. 

The Negro industries 
belong to a low stage of 
civilisation. Even as agri- 
culturists their methods 
are crude. Thus the ground 
is cleared by fire, is never 

manured, and is broken up 

by small iron hoes or pointed 

sticks. Weaving is carried 

out among the more ad- 
vanced tribes, and most of 

them extract iron by simple 

hand-forges from grains of 

oxide of iron collected from 

stream-beds. Tanning is 

unknown, except where it 

has been learnt from Berber 

tribes, and the pottery is all 

of the most primitive type. 

Wood-carving is done with 

knives, but the designs are 

crude and the objects made 

are always simple, except 

when affected by non-Negro 

influence. 

The religion of the 

Negroes is tyi^ically fetish- 
ism, though it may be very 

slightly developed. Ap- 
parently all Negroes have 

some idea of a su[)ernatural 

being, even if their ideas 

be vague ; and they apjdy 

their word for god to rain, thbkb kappiiis. 




Photo by Mr. 11. S. Fripp. 



394 



The Living Races of Mankind 




storms, and other natural phenomena, or to anything 
unexpected. But all Negroes seem to have a lively 
faith in the existence of spirits, and generally regard 
them as very numerous. Negroes refer to these 
spirits in explanation of otherwise inexplicable events. 
They believe that every natural agency has its own 
individual spirit. Fetishism thus originates as a 
form of Nature-worship, and is based on the attempt 
to explain natural phenomena by attributing in- 
dwelling sjjirits to all external natural agencies. 

Such worship soon leads to the use of material 
objects as symbols of the various natural agents; 
and, as Burton says, " Of course the symbol is con- 
founded with the thing symbolised; and the statue 
or picture, which the enlightened look upon as they 
would a portrait or memento, becomes amongst the 
vulgar an oljject of absolute worship." 

Thus Nature-worship gradually leads to the use 

of fetishes and fetishism. But the Negro respect 

for fetishes is due to the belief that they are the 

abode of some spirit who can do its owner good or 

harm. Fetishism varies greatly in the extent of its 

influence on different tribes. In East Africa it is less widespread and powerful than in West 

Africa, where it is general ; its priests have great authority, and its ceremonies are accompanied 

by human sacrifices. 

. The faith in spirits is the basis of the typical African judicial system — ordeal by ix)ison 
or torture. The test is theoretically an appeal to the spirits to decide a cjise when the 
elders of the trilie have not sufficient knowledge of the facts to give a verdict. 

The African Negroes may be divided into four groups. The Negroes living south of the 
line from the mouth of the Juba on the east coast to the Rio del Key near the niouth of the 
Niger on the west coast are grouped together as the Bantu, on account of the general 
resemblance between their languages. In West Africa, from the Rio del liey to Senegambia, 
are the Guinea Negroes, who are continued eastward by the Negroes of the Soudan, these being 
much affected by Hamitic influences. Between the northern Negroes and the Bantu are a 
group of Equatorial Negroes, including the Kikuyu, Niam-niam, Monbuttu, and Fans. The 
fourth or Nilotic group occupies the upper basin of the Nile, and now extends south-east to 
Kilima Njaro, owing to the southern advance of the Masai. 



Fhoto by JJr. W. KlUrton fry. 

KHAMA, CHIEF OF TUB BAMANGWATO 
BECHUAXAS. 



0. THE BANTU AND HOTTENTOT NEGROES. 
1. THE HOTTENTOTS. 

At the period of the first European intercourse with South Africa the Hottentots were 
one of the most powerful tribes in Cape Colony ; but they, like their allies the Bushmen, 
have been steadily losing grpund under the i)ressure of other tribes and European colonists. 
Now the Hottentots — or, as they call themselves, the Khoi-Khoi— are numerically unim- 
]iortant, being confined to a few small areas in South-western Africa. Their numbers are 
estimated at alxmt 40,000, which, however, includes many half-breeds. They occur in Griqua- 
land East, in Griqualand West and British Bechuanalnnd, in Namaqualand, and sjwradically 
in Cajie Colony. They belong to four surviving clans— the Namaqua on both sides of 
the mouth of the Orange River, the Konupia of the Vaal River and Upper Orange River, 
the Griqua of (iriqualand West around Kimberley, and the Gonaqua on the western borders 



The Hottentots 



295 



of Kaft'raria. Of these four groups the Namaqua are the purest living representatives 
of the Hottentots. The termination -qua, it may be added, is the masculine plural suffix. 

The physical appearance of the Hot- 
tentots is very distinctive. They have a 
yellowish-brown comjjlexion, woolly hair, a 
long head and triangular face, with a small 
nose, high cheek-bones, and pointed chin. 
They are of less than medium height, the 
average being about 5 feet. The limbs are 
slim and the bones small, so that the build 
is rather effeminate; and the body has 
usually very fleshy, projecting buttocks. 

These characters present a combination 
of those of the Negro races and of the 
Bushmen, the Hottentots being allied to 
the latter by their colour, their broad faces, 
small chins, and prominent cheek-bones. 
They differ, however, from the Bushmen by 
the general form of the skull and the 
character of the hair. The Hottentots are 
accordingly regarded as descendants of the 
original Bushman race, modified by inter- 
marriage with the Bantu. 

The dress of the primitive Hottentots 
consists of a string or belt of leather 
wound round the waist, from which are 
hung strips of fur and strings of beads and 
shells, and of a kaross, or cloak of untanned 
skin. Sandals are used on long marches. 
As ornaments the women wear leg-rings of 
leather, armlets of ivory and iron, brass or 
shell earrings, and necklaces of shells, beads, 
or fragments of ostrich eggs. Their original 
weapons consisted of the assegai, which 
had a 6-foot shaft and 6-inch iron blade, 
various forms of knobkerries or throwing- 
clubs, bows, and poisoned arrows. The 
domestic utensils are clay pots and basins, 
iron knives, horn and shell spoons, and 
bone needles. 

The huts are beehive-shaped, and built 
of bent sticks covered with mats made of 
rushes. They are arranged in circular 
series, or kraals, the space inside being 
kept for the sheep and cattle. The main 
industry of the Hottentots is cattle-breed- 
ing, milk forming an important element in 
their food. This, however, they supplement 
by growing maize and yams, spearing fish, 
hunting, and collecting wild roots and 
herbs. They are daring hunters, and 
face lions single-handed and armed only 




Plwto hji Mr. W. JilUi-ton Fry. 

khama's brother. 



296 



The Living Races of Mankind 




riwto by a. )r. u'liumj 



A OAFB KAFFIB. 



with an assegai. They 
formerly smoked dakka, 
a species of wild hemp, 
now mostly replaced by 
tobacco. 

The customs of the 
Hottentots are often the 
same as those of the 
Kaffirs — as, for example, 
most of the ceremonies 
connected with the birth 
of children ; thus they 
carefully bury the 
placenta, the mother 
undergoes certain rites 
of purification, and the 
infant is smeared with 
cow-dung. Circumcision 
is performed when boys 
are about nine years of 
age. Marriages between 
near blood-relatives are 
forbidden ; the woman's 
consent is asked, after 
which the affair is settled 
by purchase between the 
bridegroom and his 
future father-in-law. 
Polygamy was once 
prevalent. The burial 
customs are interesting : 
the corpse is sprinkled 
with blood, sewii up in 
mats, and buried in a 
sitting attitude facing 
In filling up the grave, the earth 



the east in an excavation made on one side of the grave, 
is therefore not thrown on the corpse. 

The.se rites and the folklore of the Hottentots show their lively faith in a future life and 
in the exi.stence of spirits. Their folklore is extremely rich in tales of the " Uncle Eemus " 
type. Their language is allied to that of the Bushmen, but it contains only four regular clicks. 
It« structure is very specialised ; for it has a gender, and shows whether nouns are masculine, 
feminine, or neuter by the aid of suffixes; it also has three numbers. But, as in some other 
linguistic groups, the meaning of many words varies according to the tone of expression. 



2. THE BANTU OF SOUTH AFRICA. 

TUE Ova-Herero. 

As we have seen in the last section, the most powerful and most typical race of Hottentots 
are the Naniaijua of the lower jmrt of the Orange liiver. They have been reduced in numbers 
by a struggle with a northern race, the Hereros, who are now the dominant people in German 
8outh-west Africa. Between these two jieoples there was once a buffer tribe, known as the 
Hill Damara, who were hybrids between the Namaqua and their northern foes ; but they were 








297 



38 



298 



The Living Races of Mankind 




rkolo by IMait UntlurtJ 



[BtvtmjftiuciA. 



A KAFFIB WEDDINO-PAKTY. 



weak and disunited, and were powerless to resist the southward encroachment of the Hereros. 
Tliey now linger only in a few mountain retreats. The disappearance of the Hill Damara has 
left the Namaqua and the Hereros face to face, and during the present century the native 
history of the region which is now known as German South-west Africa has been the story of 
the fight for mastery between these tribes. 

The Hereros are clearly a l^antu race of northern origin ; they invaded German South-west 
Africa about a century ago, and now occupy the whole country from O\ampoland to Wallish 
Bay, with the exception of the mountain recesses occupied by the Hill Damara. Their numbers 
are estimated at about 70,000. Their southward progress was stopped by the Namaqua, with 
whom the Hereros have waged a long series of wars, with varying fortunes. In the middle of 
the century the Hereros were defeated and one tribe annihilated; but after 1860, by the 
aid of some English elephant-hunters and the advice of some German missionaries, the tide 
of war turned in their favour. 

The Hereros are a well-built race, and have been described as showing Caucasian features. The 
skull is of moderate length ; the hair, though woolly, is rather long ; the nose is comparatively 
narrow, the cheek-bones are not prominent, and the li2)s comparatively thin. The characters 
of the head therefore show some foreign influence. The original mental peculiarities of the 
people are masked by the result of a century of desjjerate war. They are said to be sullen, 
cowardly, and suspicious, but to be less changeable and emotional than the Hottentots. 

The clothing of the tribe is of leather, nudity being regarded with extreme aversion. The 
clotiies of the women are a leiither petticoat and a small mantle thrown over the shoulders: 
both garments are decorated by bead, shell, and wire ornaments. The waist is encu-cled by a 
girdle of li^ather 8trii>8 ; on the legs and arms are rings of beads and wire ; while the head is 
covered with a circular cap, with a series of wing-like ornaments like those on a berserker's 
helmet. The WL-apons of the tribe are assegais, bow and arrows, and the knobkerry. The huts 
are of the beehive-slmjK'd tyiie, and are covered with skins. They are light and portable, for 
they are moved frequently. The main industry is cattle-raising, but goats also are kept; while 



The Bantu of South Africa 



303 



possessing large herds of cows and goats, they will not gi\e a stranger a drop ot milk until 
he pays for it." 

The national dress of the Bechuanas is a skin cloak, or kaross ; women wear in addition 
two or more skin aprons. They have elaborate ornaments of strung teeth, and beads, and 
armlets of grass. 

The chief weapons of the Bechuanas are the barbed assegai and oval hide shield ; but they 
also use a two-edged dagger and knobkerries, and their wars with the Bushmen have forced 
them to adopt the bow and arrow. The wooden handles of their daggers are beautifully 
carved ; for in woodwork the Bechuanas are very skilful. They make spoons and cups, engraved 
with animals and arabesque designs. Their pottery and basket-work are also superior to that 
of most of the South African Bantu. The huts are conical, with extinguisher-shaped roofs 



r^,; -&fc!a;;.«&-.yp'! 



'3S^-. 




I ■koto 6y B. W. Canty] 



[Durban. 



tJSIPEBU'S WIVES, ZHLULASD. 



placed on low walls. The roof overhangs the wall considerably, and its outer margin is 
supported by poles. In some of the huts these j)oles are connected by a lattice-work, so that 
the huts are double-walled. 

The main foods of the Bechuanas are the meat of cattle and goats, milk, and maize. 

Marriage is based on purchase. The efforts of the Cape Government to abolish this 
system have been resisted by both sexes, and especially by the women, who are flattered by 
the feeling that they are worth paying for, and fear that they would cease to be considered 
and cared for if they could be had for nothing. As is the case with most tribes who believe 
in totems, there are many restrictions on marriage, and the union of cousins is iirohibited. 

After this brief sketch of the general customs of the ]5echuanas, we need only consider 
the distribution of the principal tribes. The most southern representatives, the Batlaro and 
the ]5atlapi, live in the districts of Kuruman and Vryburg, north of Griqualand. To the north 



304 



The Living Races of Mankind 



of Vrjburg, on both banks of the Molopo 
Kiver, which divides Cape Colony from the 
Bechuanaland Protectorate, is the tribe of 
the Barolong; their chief settlement is at 
Mafeking, and they extend far to the west into 
the Kalahari Desert. In the same district, 
but extending eastward into the Transvaal, is 
the home of the Barotsi, which is still in- 
habited by one section of that tribe, though 
most of the existing Barotsi live north of 
the Zambesi. North of the Molopo Kiver 
and west of the Transvaal boundary are the 
Bangwaketsi, and the Bakwena, or crocodile 
people, in whose territory was Livingstone's 
mission-station at Kolobeng. North of these 
are the Bakatla, or monkey people ; and 
beyond them is the territory of the powerful 
tribe of Bamangwato, with their chief towns 
of Shoshong and Palapye. Around Lake 
Ngami is the clan of the Batwana, who are 
an ofiFshoot from the Bamangwato, and are 
now said to be blacker in colour. 

The Basuto are a section of the Bechuanas, 
who now occupy the area between the Orange 

I~«^^2PB5ii— ^-;=^^R . 'i^tlg^ Kiver Colony, Natal, and the eastern extremity 
A ^'l^lBfal^ ^^:- S. ^'""^ of Cape Colony. In the mountain fastness 
'*?|B^^^L "'**"" of Thaba-Bossigo they were long able to 

^^^H^jBSij^C - -^iilRK ' defeat the attacks of the Boers and British. 
. '^^ ., ■'"'*% The country was annexed to Cape Colony in 
^ 1871, but after a long war was transferred 
-:wr MSk to the Imperial Goverument in 1884, and 
-.,,,, " ;,„./„,, is now ruled by a chief named Lerothodi, 

A ZULU wncH-DocTOB. guidcd by a British Administrator. The tribe 

has given up its old political orgiinisation 
and tribal divisions, and has settled down to agricultural pursuits. The territory of Basutoland 
is about 10,300 square miles, and the population was 220,000 at the census of 1891. 

Closely allied to the Basuto are the Tonga of Tongaland, the country between Zululand 
and Portuguese East Africa. The area is about 2,010 square miles, and it is occupied by 
some 40,000 Tonga, who were subject to the Zulus until they recovered their independence 
after the Zulu overthrow in 1879. A section of the same tribe lives in Portuguese territory 
north of the Limpopo, where they were for a time subject to the Swazi of Gazalaud. The 
Tonga once ranged much farther northward than they do at present. 




The Zulus. 

Between Tongaland on the north and Natal on the south is the home of the important 
tribe of the Zulus, the most warlike of all the Bantu and the most powerful native race in 
t>outh Africa before their conquest in 1879. 

Physically the Zulus are a robust and well-built race ; they are above the medium height, 
light, active, and excellent runners. The prevailing tint is a dark chocolate brown. 

The ordinary dress of the men consists of some strii)s of fur tied round the waist, while 
the women wear a short skin jietticoat. But the gala and royal dresses are very elaborate. 




rkctobfO. W. Wilmii 



A ZULU UIKL. 

305 



39 



3o6 



The Living Races of Mankind 



The Zulu weapon is the assegai, a light thrusting-spear, of which several are taken to 
the field by each warrior. The body is protected by a long ox-hide shield, which is coloured 
according to the regiment of the owner. 



The Matabili. 

In the territory of the British South Africa Company the most important tribe is the 
Matabili, which occupies the southern jmrt of the region, now known as Rhodesia, around 
Buluwayo. 

In physical features the Matabili are of the Zulu type. The men are powerfully built, 
muscular, and about 5 feet 10 or 11 inches high. According to Selous, "the Matabili girls 
are very pleasant to the eye, having most good-tempered-looking faces, and fine, upright, 
well-developed, dark chocolate-coloured figures." In iwlitical organisation, dress and domestic 
customs, and in their handicrafts the Matabili also resemble the Zulus. Thus, according to 
Selous, the costume. of the women consists "of a small flap of goat- or antelope-skin in front 
and another behind, or of a little fringe of umhentla (a soft fibre extracted from a kind of 
grass) in front, and nothing at all behind." He adds that the Matabili huts are built on 
the Zulu ])lan, with doors only about 2 feet broad and under 2 feet in height. 

The chief festival of the Matabili (a great dance known as Inxwala, and celebrated at 
the beginning of harvest) is worth describing. Selous, who was present on an occasion when 
4,000 wiirriors took part in the festivities, writes thus : " The men were all clothed in their 
splendid war-dress of blai'k ostrich-feathers, which consists of a sort of cape of black feathers, 
sewn closely together, covering their chests and shoulders, and built up over their heads in 




/v.o(o (.y Mr, H; MUrt'jn frj). 



MATABILI WARRTORfl. 



The Bantu of South Africa 



307 




PlMld by Mr. ir. Mlerton Fi-y. 



MASHONAS BAliTKKIXG, 



the form of a Highlander's bonnet, leaving only their faces exposed. From their waists hung 
quantities of leopard and tiger-cat tails or monkey-skins, which with the indunas form 
such a thick skirt that you cannot see their legs at all. Some of the indunas, instead of the 
bonnet of feathers, wear a roll of otter-skin across their foreheads, in which is stuck a crane's 
feather, which waves gracefully in the air. This feather war-dress is most becoming, and 
makes even an undersized, ugly savage look well; and as the greater part of the Matabili are 
physically a fine, tall race of men, they look magnificent. The young girls wear round their 
hips the brightest-coloured calicoes that they can manage to get hold of, which never, 
however, reach to their knees, the rest of their persons being nude. With their merry, 
l)leasant faces, and ujiright, stately figures, they formed the prettiest, if not the most imposing, 
portion of the sj)ectaele. 

"The dancing lasted three days, during which time a great many oxen were slaughtered 
for the assembled people, and immense quantities of beer were drunk. The third day was the 
most interesting. In the large outer kraal the 4,000 beplumed warriors stood in a large 
semicircle about six deep, all of them continually humming a slow chant, and every now and 
then bringing their right feet in unison to the ground with a stamp. At intervals, amidst 
applauding shouts, some well-known brave, after being called upon by name, would rush out of 
the ranks and show how he had killed his enemies, going through a pantomime of how he 
warded off the hostile blows with his shield, and at last delivered the death-stab with his fatal 
assegai. Every downward thrust made with the assegai represented a life taken, and at every 
stab the warriors all hummed out with one accord tlie word iee. One man I watched had 
seventeen lives to account for, another fifteen, and so on. 

" At last the king came from the inner kraal, and, advancing into the circle, stood in the 
midst of his warriors, dancing quietly by himself. He was dressed in monkey-skins and black 
ostrich-feathers, and really looked a king. His favourite sister, Ningengnee, was also within 
the circle, splendidly got up for the occasion, being covered with a profusion of beads, coloured 
calicoes, brass armlets, and silver chains. As she was immensely fat, her gambols were more 
grotesque than graceful ; and she was so short-winded that she was continually obliged to 



3o8 



The Living Races of Mankind 



stand and rest with her hands on her thighs. 
Presently the king walked in the midst of his 
plumed army to the open ground outside the 
kraiil, and performed a portion of the ceremony, 
which consists in throwing an assegai and then 
running forward and picking it up again. As 
he did this all tlie warriors ran forward as well, 
striking the insides of their shields at the 
same time with the butt-ends of their assegais, 
and producing a noise literally like thunder." 



The Mashonas. 

The only important tribe in the British 
South Africa Company's territories south of 
the Zambesi which has survived the Matabili 
invasion is the Mashona. Thanks to the 
abundance of safe retreats among the granite 
hills of their country, they have escaped the 
partial extinction that has befallen their neigh- 
bours and cousins, the Banyai and Makalaka ; 
but they have been so greatly reduced, that, 
though they occupy 100,000 square miles 
of territory, they only number about 200,000 
persons. 

The Mashonas are peaceful and indus- 
trious ; they are laborious agi'iculturists, and 
raise large crops of grain, including maize and 
lice. They keep herds of small cattle, flocks 
of goats, and large numbers of fowls. Their 
houses are circular thatched huts, which are 
perched for safety in the least accessible places 
on the kopjes or granite crags : for the 
Mashonas were weaker than their enemies the 
Matabili ; and as they had no military organi- 
sation, but lived in small coranumities under 
local chiefs, and never combined for defence, 

they had no chance of successfully resi.sting the Matabili raids. 

The Mashonas are skilled smiths, and make excellent iron assegais, battle-axes, and hoes. 

They play a musical instrument like the marimba of West Africa: the Mashonaland form of 

this " piano " contains twenty iron keys on a small board, which is placed inside a calabash to 

act as a sounding-board. 

The Ma-shonas kill elephants either by hamstringing them when they are asleep with a 

br<jjid-l>laded axe, or by stabbing them between the shoulder-blades with a very heavy assegai 

from an ambush in a tree. 




t'hoto by Mr 



hnerton trii- 

TWO MASHONA HEM. 



The People of Ixhjknzo Marquez. 

Portuguese territories in East Africa south of the Zambesi are occupied by four groups 
of Negroes. The dominant people are the Gaza, who are a clan of Zulus. They take their 
name from a Sw;izi chief named Gaza, who was sent with a Zulu army to drive the Portuguese 
from Delagoa Bay. In this attempt he failed. As he dared not return to Zululand, he led his 



The Bantu of British Central Africa 



309 



army northward, captured Inhambane, and attacked Sofala. He and his men then settled in 
the Portuguese dominions, dispossessed the aboriginal Tonga, and formed the Gaza tribe. The 
second section is now known as the Tonga, in which are included all the tribes of the southern part 
of the Portuguese territory who are not Zulu in origin. These Tonga clans are all allied to 
the Basuto, whereas farther to the north between the Tonga and the Zambesi are the 
tribes of Mutandi, Atavara, etc., who are allied to the Mashonas. The fourth section is the 
tribe of the Balempa of Manicaland, who are said to owe their peculiar features, including 
aquiline nose, red eyes, and fiery eyebrows, to the influence of Semitic blood. 

3. THE BANTU OF BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA. 

The region north of the eastern half of the Zambesi is occupied by a great number of 
Rintu tribes, who have several marked features common to themselves and striking differences 
from the Negroes of Southern Africa. They may be divided into four groups — viz. the 
immigi-ants from the south, the natives of Nyasaland and Mozambique, the Bantu of German 
East Africa, and the Bantu of British East Africa. 

The Southern Immigrants — Angoni and Makololo. 

Of the immigi-ants from South Africa the most important are the Angoni, who now live 
on the western side of Lake Nyasa. They are hybrid Zulus, who settled in their present 
home early in the nineteenth century. They were never pure Zulus, but an allied Kaffir clan, 
which was subject to the gi-eat Zulu king Chaka, but retained its own chief. But at length 
the Zulu tyranny becanie intolerable, and the whole tribe fled northward ; it crossed the 
Zambesi just below the junction of the Luangwa, and marched up the valley of that river, west 
of Lake Nyasa, to the country south-east of Tanganyika. There the tribe settled, and thence 




J-/Mt,j (.y (/,i l„l.. M 



Clll:;!' UilCAIlK AM) HIS FOLLOWEES, MASHONALAND. 



3IO 



The Living Races of Mankind 



at various times it sent out bands in different directions: one of these bands settled beside 
the Victoria N3'a)iza, and its descendfints are known as the Watuta ; another struck south- 
eastward to the eastern side of the Nyasa, where, mingling with the Wangindo, it formed the 
tribe known as the Magwangwara. Later the main body of the Angoni moved southward, 
and settled in the country along the western shore of Lake Nyasa. They conquered the 
original liantu inhabitants, over whom they rule as a militjiry caste. They maintain their old 
Zulu raiding habits, and as such have been a very disturbing element in Nyasaland. 

" These Angoni were the terror and curse of all this country," says Lugard. " Swooping 
down by night in their fantastic gsvrb of war, with the unearthly 3'ells, grunts, and groans 
with which they accomjiany their attack, they would fall iipon villages and loot everything — 
sheep, goats, fowls, and crops. Sometimes they would carry off captives of war. At other 

times they seemed possessed with a lust for 
carnage only, and killed man, woman, and 
cliild without distinction, leaving not a living 
soul behind on the scene of their brutal 
attack. These awful bursts of savage slaughter, 
combined with their character for invincible 
courage, the ajjiialling sounds they utter, and 
the garb they wear in war, have struck such 
terror into the suiTounding tribes that resist- 
ance is rarely offered to an Angoni raid. 
When the dread cry is raised that the Angoni 
are coming, a blind panic seizes the helpless 
villagers, and each thinks only of flight and 
concealment, unless, as more often happens, 
the surprise is complete by night, and there 
is no time for escape." 

It was mainly the hope that they would 
act as a check to the Angoni that led to the 
establishment of the ]\fakololo in the Shir^ 
country. The IMakololo were mostly Bechuana 
and Boloi peoi)le brought by Livingstone from 
the Upper Zambesi and settled at Tete in 
1856. At first there were only twenty-five; 
but they were reinforced two years later and 
armed by Livingstone, so that they might 
protect the peaceful natives of the Shire 
district from the raids of the Yao and Angoni. 
The IMakololo soon made themselves chiefs of 
the district, and under their organisation and leadership the encroachments of other tribes and 
of the Portuguese were successfully resisted. They were at first friendly towards the British, 
but after their chief had been treacherously killed by a Emopean they became hostile to 
all white men. 




Photo ttjf UiM Paltur. 

TWO NYASALAND MEN AND TREIB WIVES. 



The Natives of Nyasaland. 

The Bantu trites of Nyasaland are now fairly well known, thanks in the main to the 
careful studies of Sir Harry Johnston. The main tribe is the ^^■angindo, which includes 
many sub-divisions. 

The general characters and mode of life of the Nyasaland Bantu agree fairly closely among 
the different tribes. The average height of the men is about 5 feet 6 inches, the women being 
about 6 inche* shorter than the men. Tlie head is typically Negro in type, and cases of the 




/'/,/,(„ /,,/ Sir Hurry Johnston, K.C.IJ. 

NATIVKS OF BAST CENTRAL AFRICA IN FULL-DRESS COSTUME. 
311 



3»2 



The Living Races of Mankind 



>^ 




Photo by M'u* Palmer. 

CONPIBMATION CANDIDATES, NYASALAMD. 



mongoloid, oblique, upturned eye, common 
among northern tribes, are here \exy rare. 
Though free from intermixture with the non- 
Negro races of Northern Africa, some of the 
tribes show signs of Arab influence by the 
considerable size of the beard. 

Clothing among the people of this group 
is very limited. Many of the tribes go 
practically naked ; the men wear only a 
brass ring round the waist, the women a 
tiny beadwork apron. But these tribes 
behave modestly, and are moral ; whereas 
the more extensively clothed Wayao practise 
obscene rites and dances, and are very 
immoral. 

Among personal ornaments, the most 
conspicuous among the Bantu of Southern 
East Equatorial Africa is the petele, a disk 
of wood or bone about an inch or more in 
diameter, which is worn in the upper lip, 
causing it to project forward like a bird's 
bill. This is not found south of the 
Zambesi, exce2:)t in a slightly developed 
form among the Banyai, who are no doubt 
offshoots of the Nyasaland Bantu, although 
they now speak ^Nlashona. 

The Nyasaland natives are among the 
ablest agriculturists in Africa. The main crops are bananas, plantains, and beans; various 
forms of grains; and also cassava or manioc, sugar-cane, melons, and pumpkins. Tobacco and 
hemp are grown for smoking ; simsin and castor oil afford the chief supply of oils. 

The belief in fetishism and witchcraft is widespread in East Africa, and is indicated by 
the funeral rites. 

Death is attributed, according to Johnston, to one of three causes : (1) the direct act of 
God by some sudden accident or a widespread epidemic or some well-known and clearly 
natural disease ; (2) death in warfare or by miu-der; (3) by witchcraft, where the malady is 
obscure or a man has been killed by some wild beast. The animal is said to be either 
possessed by the witch or to be a human being in disguise. Sir Harry Johnston quotes one 
striking instance of the native faith in such disguises. Dm-ing the war with Maukanjira, a 
famous Yao chief, a truce was arranged, so that the natives might consider the terms of peace 
offered by Major Edwards, who was in command of the British forces. The Yao held a 
council to consider the proposals, which were vigorously denounced by one of the councillors, 
who advocated war to the bitter end. The conference was being held in the bush, and this 
jingo speech was interrupted by a wild bull-buffalo charging into the party. The buffalo 
singled out the spokesman and inflicted on him mortal injuries. The Yao declared that the 
buffalo was Major Edwards himself; the terms were rejected, and war resumed with greater 
bitterness on account of this supposed breach of the truce. Even after burial the body is 
not considered safe from witchcraft, so that the giave is enclosed by a strong wooden fence, 
to protect it from the witch who has caused the death, and who may come in the form of 
a hyena to devour the body. 

One interesting feature of N3'asiiland burials is that the corpse is not allowed to touch 
the ground of the gn»ve. The body is swung like a hammock from sticks at each end of the 
grave, and is protected above by a roof of sticks. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE BANTU OF EASTERN AND WESTERN AFRICA. 



a. THE BANTU OF EASTERN AFRICA. 

1. THE PEOPLE OF MOZAMBIQUE. 

East of Nyasaland is the province of Mozambique, the northern part of the Portuguese 
possessions in East Africa. This province is occupied by two dominant peoples, the Yao and 
Makua, who are closely allied to those of Nyasaland. 

The ^\'ayao, the Ajawa of Livingstone, who originally lived in the Upper Eovuma and 
Lujenda valleys, but have now 
spread widely, are the domi- 
nant people in jSIozambique. 
They have crossed into German 
territory and Nyasaland, and 
are steadily growing in power. 
The Wayao are intelligent and 
industrious, but aggressive and 
cruel, and they sometimes 
practise cannibalism ; they are, 
however, faithful, and Living- 
stone's devoted servant Chuma 
was a member of a Yao tribe. 
The Makua are a group of 
clans, and are older settlers 
in Mozambique. They are as 
industrious as the Wayao, but 
are heavier, more sluggish, 
and less intelligent. Their 
family sense is strong — 
another point in w. .ich they 
differ from the Yao, who have 
almost a community of women. 

2. THE BANTU OF GERMAN 
EAST AFRICA. 

The Wankonde. 

North of Nyasaland and 
Mozambique is German East 
Africa, which is occupied by 
many tribes, most of whom 
are typical members of the 
East African group, wear 




WAGAKDA 8CH0LABS. 



^n 



40 



3'4 



The Living Races of Mantcind 




Photo by ilr. A. B. Either, 



NUBIAN POLICE, UGANDA. 



the pelele or lip-plug, and 
speak Eantu languages. The 
Wankonde, though now in- 
cluded in German East Africa, 
were originally studied by 
British travellers, who have 
given detailed accounts of 
them. The word nkonde 
means a banana, and the name 
was given to the people on 
account of the great extent 
of their banana plantations. 
Colonel Lugard, who 
waged a long war against 
the Arab slavers at Karonga, 
largely to protect the 
Wankonde, has given the 
following description of the 
tribe : " The country is densely 
populated. The men go 
naked, and the women also, 
save for a few inches of 
bark-cloth. The people (who from thefr word of salutation are often called ' Sokilis ') are very 
friendly ; but their familiarity is sometimes rather trying— as when a savage, out of pure 
goodwill, wanted to take my pipe out of my mouth to have his turn at a smoke, or when 
my nsitors insisted on my sharing their snuff. However, I defeated these by giving them 
white pepper as the white man's equivalent ! The villages are very large, and nestled for 
mile after mile among groves of bananas. The huts are beautifully and \ery ornamentally 
built, and are scrupulously clean ; even the banana groves are clean swept around the villages. 
The soil is very rich. Like the Waganda, these Wankonde, though possessing great herds of 
cattle, are largely agricultural, and live mainly on bananas, roots, and grain. They owned 
enormous herds of cattle, and for a few inches of the commonest calico milk by the quart or 
gallon could be bought; eggs and fowls, and even goats and cattle, were excessively cheap." 

The courage of the Wankonde is remarkable, though they are not able to face in the 
open the firearms of the slavers. But, says Lugard, " on two occasions it transpired that a 
single individual had gone by night, and, digging under the enemy's stockade, had pulled out 
one or two jjoles, under the very noses of their sentries, and, squeezing through, had abstracted 
a cow from inside and driven it off." 

The Wankonde believe in fetish, and attribute all natural deaths to witchcraft. Accord- 
ingly everylwdy, unless killed in battle, is subjected to a post-mortem examination, in order to 
discover from the arrangement of the blood-vessels in the mesenteries to what form of witchcraft 
the death was due. 

Wanyamwezi. 

The Wanyamwezi are the main tribe or gioup in German East Africa, and owing to their 
industry and commercial enterprise one of the most useful peoples in Eastern Africa. The 
name is apiiarently of Suahili origin, and is now sjiid to be applied to a group of tribes living 
in the highland country south of the ^'ictoria Nyanza. 

The NN'aiiyaniwezi as a race are tall and muscular. The colour of thefr skin is a dark 
sejtia-browi. The hair is 4 or 5 inches long, and is twisted into ringlets, or may be shaved 
off except for a fillet in front and a tuft behind ; the small beard may be retained, but the 
moustache, eyelushes. and eyebrows are pulled out by the roots. The two front teeth are 



The Bantu of German East Africa 



315 



chipped away to leave a triangular depression. The lobes of the ear are enlarged, but the 
lip-plug is not worn. The tyjiical tribal mark is a row of scars down the cheeks from the 
outer ends of the eyebrows : a third row may run down the middle of the forehead to 
the bridge of the nose. 

The common dress consists of skin or cloth tohea and a short kilted petticoat. The 
principal ornaments are necklaces of beads, shells, or disks cut from hippopotamus teeth, and 
armlets of brass. The weapons are bow with barbed arrows, spears, assegais, knobkerries, and 
small battle-axes. 

The villages consist of oblong huts, with sloping thatched roofs continued as projecting 
eaves. The walls are built of a kind of wattle and daub, supported by strong beams, which 
are often carved and painted. The main articles of furniture are a bedstead, a series of 
clay pots for corn, grass mats, and corn-mill. At each end of the village is a large hut. 
known as the iwanza, which are used as a kind of common rooms — one by the men, the other 
by the women. 

The ^^'anyamwezi keep considerable herds of cattle, sheejj, and donkeys, and they grow 
crops of grain, sweet potatoes, and cassava. Their main food is porridge. They weave cloth 
and baskets, and cut wooden bowls for milk. 

At birth there are no ceremonies of special interest or significance. Marriage is by 
purchase, and burial consists in throwing the body into the nearest waste land, to be devoured 
by the hyenas and vultures. When the Arabs first entered the Unyamwezi country, there 
were constant feuds over this rule, owing to the effort of the natives to prevent the pollution 
of the soil by the burial of the dead. 

The Wazaramo. 
The Wazaramo occupy a tract of country, about 100 miles across in each direction, near the 




Photo by Mr. A. B. fMier. 



A trOASDA MAN AND WOMAN IN NATIVE STYLE. 



3i6 



The Living Races of Mankind 



coast of the mainland 
opposite Zanzibar. 
They were described 
by Burton as " an ill- 
conditioned, noisy, 
boisterous, violent, 
and impracticable 
race," and as being for 
long " the principal 
obstacle to Arab and 
other travellers enter- 
ing into East Africa." 
He describes them as 
having a lozenge- 
shaped face, with 
oblique eyes, a flat 
nose, prominent jaws, 
and thick projecting 
lips. They train the 
hair into numerous 
small knobs, held 
together by clay and 
castor oil. Their only 
garment is a cotton 
loin-cloth, stained yellow; but the chiefs wear a long white Arab shiit and an embroidered 
cap. The weajjons of the tribe are spears, bows, poisoned arrows, doubled-edged swords or 
simSs ; muskets were introduced, but are now prohibited. The houses are oblong, and are 
comiMired by Burton to " the humbler sort of English cow-house or an Anglo-Indian bungalow." 
nie walls are made of canes puddled with clay or of bark fastened against timber and bamboo : 
the roof is thatched with grass, and has wide projecting eaves. 

The main industry of the country is agricultural. Land is cleared by fires ; it is weeded 
and hoed and seed planted before the rains. During the wet season copal-digging is the 
main occupation of the people. 




Pkolo by Mr. Brnat Gtdgt] 



[Lvdborough. 



WAKWAFI MF.N OP KAVIRONDO. 



The Wadoa. 

West of the Wazaramo is the land of the once powerful tribe of the Wadoa, a people 
interesting as the easternmost of the Equatorial cannibals and for their remarkable linguistic 
ability. Like most of the coiist natives, their physical characters are variable, owing to inter- 
mixture of foreign blood. They range in colour from black to light chocolate, and in size 
from large and muscular to small and wir^'. Their tribal mark is a pair of scars down both 
cheeks, from the temple to the jaw. Many stories are current of their former cruelty and 
brutality. Thus, according to Burton, " with each man fire interred alive a male and a female 
slave, the former holding a billhook wherewith to cut fuel for his lord in the cold death-world, 
and the latter, who is seated ui)on a little stool, supports his head in her lap." But such 
customs have been suppressed since the German occupation of the country. 



The Wakhutu, Wasagara, and Wagogo. 

Close neighbours of the Wadoa and Wazaramo are the Wakhutu and Wasagara, who in 
most respects resemble the NN'azaramo. To the west of this group live the Wasagara, a type 
of th© mountain tribes of the East African highlands, lliey are a tall, sturdy race, and vary 
in colour from nearly black to chocolate. Their method of wearing the hair is interesting, as 



The Bantu of British East Africa 



3'7 



it resembles that of the ancient Egyptians. Most of the head is covered with small stiff 
ringlets, while what Burton called a curtain of pigtails hangs down behind. The warriors 
fasten in their hair the feathers of vultures and bright-coloured birds. The lobes of the ear 
are distended by the insertion of a disk of wood or metal; and this is carried to such a 
length that the loop may touch the shoulder. The clothing consists of a cotton loin-cloth or 
a kilt of softened goat-skin: the wealthier women, like the Suahili of the coast, wear a long 
tobe, reaching up to the arm-pits, and fastened tightly down across the chest. 

Occupying the country for five marches west of the Wasagara are the Wagogo, a powerful 
race, with most of the same characters. The distension of the ear-lobes is still more marked. 
Bui'ton describes them as " not an uncomely race ; some of the younger race might even 
lay claim to prettiness. The upper part of the face is often fine, but the lips are thick 
and the mouth coarse ; similarly the body is well formed to the haunches, but the lean calf 
is placed peculiarly high up the leg. The expression of the countenance, even in the 
women, is wild and angry ; and the round eyes are often reddened and bleared by drink. 
The voice is strong, strident, and commanding." The members of this tribe are inquisitive 
and bullying, but hospitable. They are expert thieves and very lazy, getting all the work of 
their fields done by slaves. 

Their clothing is more elaborate than that of their eastern neighbours, but their 
ornaments of brass wire, beads, and ivory armlets are much the same. Their chief weapon 
is the spear, which has a long and broad head, and a long tubular neck for the insertion 
of the handle. Two-edged swords, broader near the end, and bows and barbed arrows are also 
carried. The huts, as usual in this district, are square, and divided up by partitions into 
several rooms. 

3. THE BANTU OF BRITISH EAST AFRICA. 

The Suahili. 

The eastern part of British East Africa is occupied by a series of Bantu peoples of many 
different tribes, of which we may consider four examples as types of the rest. On the coast 
is the race of the Suahili, who range on the mainland from Somaliland to German East 
Africa, and occupy the off-lying islands from Patta near Lamu to Zanzibar. The Suahili are 




A (iltOUP OF SUK. 



3'8 



The Living Races of Mankind 



not a definite tribe, but a hybrid race formed by the intermarriage of Arab settlers with the 
original coast natives and with the Negroes brought from the interior as slaves. The name 
is derived from the Arabic word sahd, a coast. 

The Arab influence in Kast Africa has been the gradual growth of perhajis 2,000 years. 
I'hopnician and Arabian merchants sailed down the East African coast in prehistoric times, 
and no doubt establislied stations at various points of call. Seven centuries ago there was a 
civil war in Muscat, the south-east corner of Arabia ; the defeated faction, the Nabahani, were 
e.Kpelled, and settled in the archipelago of Lamu. 'Hu-ee centuries afterwards the Portuguese 
arrived on the coast, and began to establish stations and annex the country. Their encroach- 
ments were resisted by the Nabahani, who waged a long conflict with the Portuguese for 
mastery along the coast. In this struggle the Arabs were continually reinforced by fresh 
arrivals from Arabia, and the new-comers settled in the country. In process of time the 
Arabs intermarried with the coast Negroes, and their offspring formed the Suahili race. The 
Negro element was much the larger, and was represented by so many different tribes that 
the Suahili do not form a homogeneous people. The one important element of union is the 
language, wiiich is the lingua franca of Equatorial Africa, is known by members of most 
of the inland tribes, and is intelligible to the Bantu peoples as far west as the Congo Basin. 
It is probably the most important of the Bantu languages, and a few words may be devoted 
to it as a type of the group. The first character that strikes a European is that the 

beginning of the word is altered in declension instead 
of the end. Thus the words ngema, jema, wema, 
vyema, etc., are all different forms of the word for 
"good." Similarly the present, past, and future 
tenses of the verb " to get " are mapata, napata, 
and tapata. A " man " is mtu ; the plural " men " 
is watu. The second feature of the langu.age is 
the " concord," according to which all the variable 
parts of speech in a sentence are modified bjf the 
adoption of a prefi.x similar to that of the noun. A 
third character is the combination of several words 
into one, so that a short sentence may be fused into 
a single word, as in the Suahili riddle Ilav^imiki- 
hausimami. 

The Suahili are Mohammedans; but they are 
very tolerant, and one of their proverbs asserts that 
a useful infidel is better than a useless believer. 

The headquarters of the Suahili are the coast 
towns, including Zanzibar, Bagamoyo, Dar-es-Salaam, 
Mombasa, I.amu, and Melindi, and on the Somali coast 
Kismayu and Mogado.xo. The better-class Suahili 
are merchants, and it is they who are mainly 
responsible for the slave-raids in Eastern Tropical 
Africa south of the Equator. 

TuE Wagiryama. 

As an e.xample of the primitive East African 
coast tribes we may take the Wagiryama, who live 
in the hilly uplands between Mombasa and the 
Sabaki. As a race they are tall and slim, but 
strong. They are agricultmists and not at all war- 
nttt^ur.BnuKOtJti] iJMten*^ like, and until recently had to leave their best lands 

ravK wAKBioB, KARAKiwo. untilled, as they could not defend them from the 




The Bantu of British East Africa 



319 




photo tty Faihtr OiOorne] 



[Oxford. 



WABENI SCHOOL-GIRLS. 



raids of the jMasai. They live in strongly stockaded villages, frequently situated in a patch of 
forest. Their huts show a trace of Arab influence, as, unlike those of the ordinary East African 
Bantu, they are often built with a gabled roof. The men wear only a small loin-cloth, made 



of the type of calico known as " Meri 



the women have a double-flounced petticoat 



fastened round the waist and round the knees. Their ornaments consist of strings of red 
and blue beads, anklets and neck-rings made of brass and iron wire and light steel chain. Their 
main industry is agriculture, as they sell their produce in the coast towns for the calico, wire, 
beads, and implements which they require. 

They are a superstitious tribe, and fetish-worship is more conspicuous among them than 
other British East African Bantu. The entrances to the fields are usually through an archway 
hung with fetishes; small fetish-huts occur in most of the villages, and some conspicuous 
trees are surrounded by a sacred belt, which the women and children are forbidden to enter. 

The country is very liable to drought, and in places the people store ui> water in the 
shells of a large snail common in the district. In the dry seasons the people sometimes 
devote the whole night to fetching water from distant pools. 

The Wapokomo. 

The high plateau at the back of the belt of country inhabited by the Wagiryama is 
occupied by the nomadic scattered families and small villages of the Wanyika and Waduruma. 
The mountains that rise above the scrub-covered deserts of the Nyika are occupied by 
the Wateita. 

The scrub-covered coast plateau of British East Africa is broken by the valleys of the 
Sabaki and the Tana rivers, along the latter of which dwell the Wapokomo, who represent a 



320 



The Living Races of Mankind 



third type of British East African Bantu. They live only on the banks of the Lower Tana; 
and as they are protected by the vast swamps of that valley, they have kept free from foreign 
influence. As a race they are tall and very powerfully built ; but they are cowardly, and dare 
not defend themselves against the raids of the coast Suahili or the dangerous Somali tribes 
to the north. 

The dress of the people is more limited than that of most of the coast natives. The men 
wear a narrow cloth tied tightly round the loins ; the women wear a petticoat of many flounces, 
covering from the waist to the knees. As a protection against the cold and wet they keep 
the body anointed with castor oil, and the men colour themselves bright red by mixing ochre 
with the oil. The principal ornaments are armlets and leg-rings of brass wire and long 
strings of white beads. The hair is abundant ; it is dressed with mutton fat and oil, and 
is twisted into curls about three inches long, which hang round the head like the ends 
of a mop. 




fhoto t>> Mr. £rruH Uldffi) 



NATIVES or LUMBWA. 



[LudOm-ouyk, 



Every Pokomo is armed with a broad-bladed spear, which is used for killing crocodiles, 
reed-rats, and lizards. It is also used as a paddle for propelling their dug-out canoes. 

The tribe is agricultural, their only domestic animals being fowls and sheep. Their 
principal foods are the plantain, cassava, beans, and maize; they also grow castor oil, simsin 
oil, pumpkins, tobacco, and sugar-cane. From the last, and still more from the wild fig which 
grows along the banks of the Tana, they prepare an intoxicating beverage ; and when this is 
in season, the fwpulation of whole villages may be found in a state of drunken stupor. 

The Pokomo religion is a fetishism of which the rites are secret. Every man carries 
about with him a charm, and every village has a fetish-shed, under which i; bmied, as a 
protection against the Somali, some such article as an empty bottle or an old meat-tin. The 
elders of tiie villages form a secret society, something like those of the West African Negroes ; 
the Pokomo society i.s known as Ngadsi, and it rules the tribe and keeps it on friendly terms 
with the dreaded spirit "the Old Man of the Woods." The people make oflFerings of food 



The Bantu of British East Africa 



321 



to this spirit, which are appropriated by 
the chiefs of the order. They uphold their 
dread of the spirit by a drum, of which the 
sound is louder than the roar of a lion ; 
this, they say, is the voice of the Old Man 
of the Woods. They have a certain faith 
in a future life, though they think it will 
not be so pleasant as the present. 

The ])osition of women in this tribe 
is unusually favourable. They have been 
described as monogamous, and marriage 
occurs much later than with the coast tribes. 
The Pokomo have a proverb that the weak- 
ness of the Suahili is due to the birth of 
children by children. The women sjiend 
most of their time in the villages, and do 
little work in the fields and on the river. 
Dui-ing seed-time and harvest they help 
the men ; but they take the lighter part 
of the tasks. When travelling on the river, 
the paddling is always done by the men. 
terms with the men. 




Photo by the Rev. E. E. Nkkismn. 

WATEITA BOY.S, KAST AFIUCA. 



The women, however, join in the dances on equal 



The Wakamba. 



The Wakamba are the leading Bantu tribe along the line of the Uganda Eailway. The 
original home of the tribe was in German I'last Africa ; but it migrated northward and settled 
in the hills of Kikumbuliyu, Iveti, and Kitui. The Wakamba are a well-built race, tall, 
muscular, but slimmer than the Pokomo. They are brave, though not aggressive ; with their 
light spears, bows, and poisoned arrows, they have held their hills against the attacks of 
Masai, Kikuyu, and Somali. They are keen traders, and not only enjoy bargaining with 
passing caravans, but send trading e.xpeditions to the coast. They take down grain, tobacco, 
ivory, gum, cattle, and shee^i, which they exchange for beads, brass, cloth, and tools. In 
trading they use many of the Suahili methods: for example, they measure the cloth^ by- the 
"hand" or by the length from elbow to finger-tip of an average man. 

The Wakamba wear little clothing : the younger men wear only a flap of skin over the 
shoulders ; older men and women have a longer, loose mantle of cotton-cloth or skin. The 
body is generally kept rubbed with oil and decorated with streaks of j^aint, usually a white 
band across the face, enclosing the eye, and stretching from ear to ear. The upjjer incisor 
teeth of the men are filed into pointed fangs. 

Bows and poisoned arrows are the main weapons, but spears and simes, or double-edged 
swords, are also used. The chief ornaments are made of brass wire and big blue beads. 
Agi-icultural work is mainly done with wooden imjilements, the ground being dug up with 
pointed stakes and the clods broken by curved sticks. The people live in rectangular huts 
with vertical walls and thatched roofs. These huts are collected into kraals, each of which 
contains practically a family group. Each kraal has its own plantations, the boundaries of 
which are marked by hedges, heaps of stone, or irrigation channels. In the plantations are 
grown beans, plantains, pumjikins, maize, dhurra, and especially millet, which, boiled into 
porridge, is the staple food of the tribe. Tobacco is grown for snuff; but smoking has been 
learnt at the coa' t, and the practice is spreading. 

The weapons and ornaments are made by a class of smiths. Grains of iron oxide are 
collected from the stream-beds, smelted in charcoal furnaces, and wrought into spear- and arrow- 

41 



3^2 



The Living Races of Mankind 



1 leads and knives. Brass is purchased from trading 
caravans, and worked into bea<ls, earrings, and 
bracelets. A small circular brass disk about an inch 
in diameter is usually worn on the middle of the 
foreheiid. 

The produce of the plantations of each kraal is 
the common property of its members : a share for 
food is served out to each household and the rest 
sold, the goods received in exchange belonging to the 
whole kraal. Private property is said to be limited 
to clothes and weapons. 

The tribe is governed by meetings of the elders, 
and though there is a chief over each district his 
power is limited. Punishments are only given after 
conviction by a jury of elders, after the accused has 
been confronted with his accuser and allowed full 
opportunities for defence. Capital punishment is in- 
flicted only for very serious crimes. 

The religion of the Wakamba is primitive. There 
is a vague belief in a great spirit, known by the 
iMasai name Ngai. In times of drought offerings of 
plantains, grain, and beer are placed under sacred trees. 
Circumcision is practised, but not as amongst the 
Miusai and Kikuyu. All the Wakamba carry a charm, 
but they do not appear to have wooden human 
images like the coast ti'ibes. The medicine-men 
appear to exercise comparatively little jwwer. 

THE PEOPLE OF UGANDA AND THEIR ALLIES. 

On the north-western shore of the Victoria Nyanza 
is the kingdom of Uganda, which is remarkable 
among the states of Equatorial Africa for its central- 
ised govenimcnt and organised political institutions. 
The main basis of the people of Uganda is Bantu ; 
but in Uganda there are scattered groups of a race 
known as the Wahuma, who are Hamites .allied to the Gallas. The jiolitical organisation of 
Uganda is no doubt due to the conquest of this region by a race of Wahuma invaders. 
Thus Speke, the first European to visit Uganda, reiwrted that " the government is in the 
hands of foicigners, who had invaded and taken possession of the country, leaving the 
agricultural alwrigines to till the giound, whilst the junior members of the usurping clans 
herded cattle." l"he conquerors no doubt came fi-om the north-east, as appears from the 
evidence of their i)hy8ical structure and language. 

Speke was so impressed by the resemblance of the Wahuma of Ugiinda to the Abyssinians 
that he maintained that both those races and the Gallas were the same. And Lugard rejiorts 
a remark by Dnalla Idris, the greatest of native caravan headmen, to the efiect that the 
Wnsoga re.seml>le the Aby-ssinians in dress and in many of their customs— as, for instance, their 
method of salutation. 

The ca-Htom origin of the Wahuma is, moreover, directly affirmed by native traditions. 
Baker describes a remarkable Unyoro custom which survived until the coronation of its last 
indeiiendent ruler, the now exiled Kabaregga. Before a new king succeeds to the throne he 
has to sleej* for two nighta east of the Nile, and then march back by the path used by the 




Wolo by Mr. Enutt Gtdge) 

AN KLOON CHIEF. 



[Lvdborough. 



3 . 




?-;:^ 




323 



324 



The Living Races of Mankind 



invaders. On reaching the river, he crosses by boat to the exact landing-place " where the 
original conqueror first set his foot upon the frontier." 

The Wahuma invaders conquered not only Uganda, but a large tract of country west of 
the Victoria Nyanza. There they established the empire of Kitwara, which has long since 
been broken up into the recently independent states of Uganda, Unyoro, and Toru ; while its 
jiolitical influence can be detected over a still wider area, as in Usoga, to the east of the Nile, 
and in the Slonbuttu (JIangbattu) country, west of the Albert Nyanza. 



The Wagakda. 

Uganda is the central and most important part of these Kitwara states. It is situated to 
the north-west of the Victoria Nyanza, and its old capital of Mengo is now the administrative 
centre for the much vaster region known as the British Protectorate of Uganda. 

The i)opulation of Uganda has been estimated at from 800,000 to 5,000,000. The former 
figure is probably the nearer the truth. Most of the people are typical I'antu Negroes, the 
Wahuma being numerically insignificant. The Wahuma characteristics are recognisable only 
in the chiefs or in some clans of cattle-h.erds living to the west of the Nyanza. 

As a type of the Wahuma caste we may quote Speke's description of JNItesa, who was 
king at the time of that traveller's visit: — 

"The king, a good-looking, well-figured, tall young man of twenty-iive, was sitting on 
a red blanket spread upon a square platform of royal grass, encased in tiger-grass reeds, 
scrupulou.sly well dressed in a new inbvrju [i.e. bark-cloth], 'ilie hair of his head was cut 
short, excepting on the top, where it was combed up into a high ridge, running from stem 
to .'Stern like a cockscomb. On his neck was a very neat ornament — a large ring, of beautifully 
worked amnW bead.s, forming elegant patterns by their various colours. On one arm was 

another bead ornament, prettily devised ; and 



.^.i^sv,:;: 





W«l« bf KicltarU Biuhla 

AS BNVORO Olllt. (l-'ULL-FACR). 



on the other a wooden charm, tied by a string 
covered with snake-skin. On every finger and 
every toe he had alternate brass and copper 
rings ; and above the ankles, half-way up to 
the calf, a stocking of very pretty beads. 
E\erything was light, ne.at, and elegant in its 
way ; not a fault could be found with the 
taste of his ' getting up.' For a handkerchief 
he held a well-folded piece of bark, and a 
l)iece of gold-embroidered silk, whicli he con- 
stantly enqiloyed to hide his large mouth 
when laughing, or to wipe it after a drink 
of plantain wine, of which he took constant 
and co])ious draughts from neat little gomd 
cups, administered by his ladies-in-waiting, 
who were at once his sisters and wives. A 
white dog, spear, shield, and woman— the 
I'ganda cognisjince— were by his side, as also 
a knot of staff" officers, with whom he kept 
up a biisk conversation on one side, and on 
the other was a band of vAchivezl, or ladv 
sorcerers. 

"The king's gait in retiring was intended 
to be very majestic, but did not succeed in 
conveying to me that impression. It was the 
traditional walk of his rac.-, founded on the 



The People of Uganda and their Allies 



325 




Photo by Richard Buchtu. 

AN UNYOKO GIKL (PROFILE). 



step of the lion ; but the outward sweep of 
the legs, intended to represent the stride of 
the noble beast, appeared to me only to 
realise a very ludicrous kind of waddle, whicli 
made me ask if anything serious was the matter 
with the royal person." 

The dress of the Waganda consists of 
long robes of cloth made by beating the bark 
of a species of fig-tree with wooden hammers. 
But imported cotton has of late years been 
superseding the native material. Over the 
bark-cloth mantle was worn a robe made 
either of cattle or of small antelope-skins sewn 
together. 'l"he whole body is covered, and 
under Mtesa's rule tlie punishment for being 
seen out of doors insufficiently clad was death. 
In the court, however, the women in imme- 
diate attendance on the king were all quite 
nude. Ornaments of beads and brass wire 
were extensively used ; but the ornaments 
have changed, owing to increased communica- 
tion with the coast. Tattooing and the filing 
or extraction of teeth are unknown. The old 
weapons, bows and arrows, have been exchanged 
for muskets and rifles. 

The Uganda houses are large beehive- 
shaped structures of thatch supported by posts. 
ITie roof is double, which keeps the temperature lower than it otherwise would be. 

The staple food is the banana, which is broken into flour and eaten as gruel or unleavened 
cakes. Sweet potatoes, maize, millet, beans, and pumpkins are also largely used, while the 
Arabs have introduced tomatoes, pajjaw, and rice. Coffee is grown, and the berries are chewed. 

The national religion is fetishism, but jNIohammedanism and Christianity have been 
introduced and been widely adopted. The Christian missionaries belong to three parties : the 
White P'athers of Algeria, a French Eonian Catholic mission; the Mill Hill Fathers, who 
are English Catholics ; and the Protestant missionaries, belonging to tlie Church of England. 
The missionaries have been \'ery successful in educational work. Before the introduction 
of Christianity and Islam and the establishment of British control human sacrifices were 
extensively offered for religious motives, while much life was squandered by the caprice 
of the king. 

Though the lives of strangers in Uganda were regarded as sacred, all the early travellers 
to the country were horrified by the waste of life. Thus Speke assures us that " nearly 
every day, incredible as it may seem, 1 have seen one, two, or tlirce of the wretched palace 
women led away to execution, tied by the hand, and dragged along by one of the body-guard, 
crying out, as she went to premature death, ' my lord ! my king ! my mother ! ' at the 
top of her voice, in the utmost despair and lamentation ; and yet there was not a soul 
who dared lift hand to save any of them, though they might be heard privately commenting 
on their beauty." 

The king was an absolute despot, and was regarded as almost divine. Hence attendance 
at court was almost a religious duty. It is, according to Speke, " the duty of all officers, 
generally speaking, to attend at court as constantly as possible ; should they fail, they forfeit 
their lands, wives, and all belongings. These will be seized and given to others more worthy 
of them, as it is presumed that either insolence or disaffection can be the only motive which 



326 



The Living Races of Mankind 



would induce any person to absent himself for any length of time from the jileasure of seeing 
his sovereign. 

" All acts of the king are counted benefits, for which he must be thanked : and so 
every deed done to his subjects is a gift received by them, though it should assume the 
shape of a flogging or fine ; for are not these, which make better men of them, as necessary 
as anything? The thanks are rendered by grovelling on the ground, floundering about, and 
whining after the manner of happy dogs, after which they rise up suddenly, take up sticks — 
8{iear8 are not allowed to be carried in court — make as if charging the king, jabbering as fast 
as tongues can rattle, and so they swear fidelity for all their lives." 



TuE Wasoga. 

Several of the tribes adjiicent to Uganda also show the influence of a Wahuma caste upon 
a subject Bantu race. Thus east of Uganda, on the other side of the Nile, live the Wasoga, 
who agree in most respects with the Waganda, but are blacker in colour, and contain a 
larger proiwrtion of Negro blood. They resemble the Waganda in stature and physique, in 
the absence of bodily mutilations, and in tlie use of bark-cloth garments and of the banana 
as the staple food. On the other hand, they offer a striking contrast to the naked people of 
Kavirondo, their neighbours to the south-east. Lugard, in describing the Wasoga, remarks on 
their superior type, adding that "their quick eyes and high foreheads bespeak a higher intellii^ence 
than the Wakavirondo." 

The Wasoga dress in long robes of bark-cloth, made by hammering the bark of fig-trees. 
'ITie costume consists of a long flowing mantle, which stretches from the shoulders or the waist 

to the ankles. But, as is so often the 
case with African tribes, morality does not 
coincide with decent dress. Polygamy is 
prevalent, and the chiefs number their wi\es 
by the hundred. 

The \illages are large and open, and 
consist of circular huts, with high, conical, 
tliatched roofs : in tlie largest huts the roof 
is supported on vertical walls, but in the 
huts of the peasants the thatch-cone rests 
ujion tlie ground. 

The main industry is agi-iculture, and 
the stajjle food is the banana, which also 
fiunislies tlie chief native drink, a banana 
beer or pombe. Hemp is grown and 
smoked in small clay pipes. 

The Wanyoro. 

On the side of Uganda oijjiosite Usoga 
is Unyoio, the country of the Wanyoro, 
wlio are also a race of Bantu Negroes 
modified by Waliuma influence. 

Baker, coming from the north, was as 
much impressed by the contrast between 
the cliaos of tlie Nilotic Negroes and the 

feudal organisation in Unyoro, as Ptaniey, 

Pk.u,b,Rid^uBurkta coming from the south, was fascinated by 

* rKiKci.a» OK U.NY0RO (FULL-FACE). the diflcrence bt^tween the petty l^antu 




The People of Uganda and their Allies 



327 



communities and the centralised govern- 
ment of Uganda. Every district in Unyoro 
was governed by a chief, resjionsible to the 
king, and controlling a number of sub- 
chiefs and a series of lower officials. In the 
event of war every governor could appear at 
the head of his contingent at short notice. 

The Wanyoro appear to have been less 
altered by the Wahuma than the Waganda, 
for they retain the widespread Negro custom 
of extracting the front teeth in the lower 
jaw ; and they j^ractise scar-tattooing, the 
tribal mark being two rows of scars across 
the forehead. They are a shorter race than 
the Waganda, of a ligliter and generally 
redder complexion. Baker's descrijition of 
Kabaregga, who was king at the time of his 
visit, shows the general characters of one of 
the ruling caste. Kabaregga was said to be 
the sixteenth king since tlie conquest : — 

"Kabaregga was about 5 feet 10 inches 
in height, and of extremely light com- 
jDlexion. His eyes were very large, but 
l^rojected in a disagreeable manner. A broad 
but low forehead and high cheek-bones, 
added to a large mouth, with rather 
prominent but exceedingly white teeth, 
complete the description of his face. His 
hands were beautifully shaped." 

In general culture the people resemble the Waganda, but are in some respects inferior. 
Their huts, for example, are not so well built, and are beehive-shaped, thatched houses, supported 
on a central 2)ole. The chief town, Masinde was described by Baker as comjiosed of several 
thousands of such huts. The national weapon is the spear, instead of the bow and arrow; and 
the dress consists of robes of bark-cloth. 

The marriage system, as in Uganda, is unlimited polygamy, and the closest blood-relatives 
may marry. Mohammedanism has been introduced and has made considerable progress, and 
will probably limit this system. The national religion is fetishism, and human sacrifices were 
recklessly offered, especially at the death of a king. The burial rites are described by Baker 
as follows : " 'J"he body of the king is mummified by being roasted over a slow fire, and is 
then laid out in state in a large hut. His successor plants his spear at the right hand of the 
corpse as a symbol of his succession and victory over rival claimants. A huge pit is dug and 
lined with bark-cloth. During the night before the burial the king's own regiment seizes a 
number of people and brings the captives to the graveside. The body of the king is placed 
upon the knees of a group of his wives, who sit at the bottom of the pit. The legs and arms of 
the captives are broken with clubs, and they are thrown into the pit on to the top of the king's 
body and wives. Earth is shovelled in and stamped into a compact mass by thousands of the 
people, while the shrieks of tlie victims are drowned by drums and shouts. The mangled mass is 
buried and trodden down beneath a tumulus of earth, and all is still. The funeral is over." 




photo by Richard Buckta. 

A PKINCESS OP UNYOBO (PBOFILK). 



The Monbuttu, or Manghattu. 

"W^est of Unyoro, in the basin of the Ubangi, the great north-eastern tributaiy of the 
Congo, dwell the Monbuttu (Junker's Mangbattu), wlio are allied by some of their ])liysi(al features 



328 



The Living Races of Manlcind 



and by their political system to the Wagimda gioup, but who by their language and by many 
of their customs are akin to the Nilotic Jvcgroes. The Moubuttu were first visited by 
Schweinfurth, who estimated their numbers at about 1,000,000 and their territory at nearly 
4,000 square miles, liut their kingdom was overrun by Arab raiders, and they are now subjects 
of the Congo ]""ree State. 

In physical character the Monbuttu are remarkable for their light brown tint, light 
greyish hair, long curved nose, and the somewhat Semitic form of the skull. Schweinfurth 
described the king as a man with " small whiskers and a tolerably thick beard ; his perfectly 
Caucasian nose offered a remarkable contrast to the thick and protruding Negio lips. In his 
eyes gleamed the wild light of animal sensuality, and around his mouth lurked an exjjression 
of avarice, violence, and love of cruelty that could with the e.xtremest difficulty relax into a 
smile." The king was autocratic, and the political organisation of the country similar to that 
of Uganda before the British annexation. " The Monbuttu," says Schweinfurth, " are subject 
to a monarchical government of an importance beyond the average of those of Central Africa ; 
and in its institutions it appears to correspond with the descriptions of Negro empires long 

since passed away." At the time of Scliwein- 
furth's visit the king held his court in a palatial 
hall 100 feet long by 50 feet wide, and with a 
vaulted roof 40 feet high ; he sat at one end on 
a throne, surrounded by his corn-tiers, officials, and 
marshals. He received taxes from his subjects, 
and had a monopoly of the ivory. 

The dress of the jMonbuttu is simple : the 
women have only a plantain leaf hanging down 
from a narrow girdle ; wliile the men are wrajiped 
in a mantle made from the bark of a fig tree. 
The hair in both sexes is worn as a cylindrical 
chignon. The women have bands of scars cut 
across their bresists and back, and are painted in 
various designs. The ornaments worn consist of 
chains of teeth and steel rings and copper neck- 
laces. The weapons are curved swords, long-headed 
spears, knives, daggers, bows and arrows. The 
tools used include the spade for agricultural work, 
axes for tree-felling, and adzes for carpentry and 
hollowing out canoes, which are sometimes 40 feet 
long by 5 feet wide. 
The ordinary dwelling-huts are two-roomed buildings 30 feet long by 20 feet wide : the roofs 
are overhanging, and are lined with plaintaiii leaves. The huts are i)laced in rows on the 
banks of the numerous streams. 

The staple food of the country is the plantain; but various grains, cassava, yams, 
ground-nuts, and tobacco are also grown. The food is mixed with oil obt^iined from the oil-palm 
and se.same. Toljacco is largely grown, and its foreign origin is clearly indicated by its name, 
eh iobboo. Meat is obtained by hunting and fish by poisoning the streams with the juice of 
the Tei)hrosia. Cannilmlism was practised extensively. Schweinfurth reports that while he was 
in the Monbuttu country a child was killed every day for the king's meal. 

Weaving and tanning are unknown ; but the peoj.le are very skilful metal-workers and 
wood-carvers; while the [wttery, like the black earthenware of Uganda, is very superior to 
that of the average African native. 

nie whole of the agricultural work is done by the women, who are treated by the men on 

terms of oriuality. I5ut jwlygamy is the rule, and the king's wives are numbered by the hundred. 

Though many of the habits and institutions of the Monbuttu are similar to those of the 




Pkalo bn Miehard Ottchln. 

A MONBUTTD KEOBRSS. 



fS."-: --.^^SiSgl 







^N 







COXOO KATIVLS. 

320 



42 



330 



The Living Races of Mankind 



Wagauda aud Wnnvoro on the eastern side of the Nile, their hinguage belongs to the group 
spoken in Kast Soudan. Ilie probable explanation of the characters of the Monbuttu is that 
they are Negroes allied to the Niani-niatn, but altered by Wahuma influence. Though they 
are therefore not liantu, they may be included as the westernmost of the Kitwara states. 



6. THE BANTU OF WESTERN AFRICA. 

The west coast of Africa from the angle of the Gulf of Guinea southward to Damaraland is 
occuj)ied by Biuitu tribes, who may be divided into two groups— the people of Angola, and the 
Bantu of the French Congo and the Cameroons. Inland is a third group — the tribes of the 
Congo Basin. 

The natives of the coast lands of the Portuguese province of Angola have been greatly 
altered by foreign influences. The Angola tribes belong to three groups. The northern part 
of the country for 120 miles south of the Congo is occupied by members of the race of the 
IJakongo. The southern coast region is inhabited by the Abunda. The south-eastern or 
inland section of Angola is occupied by a group of tribes known as the Ganguella, or 
" stammerers." 'ITiese Ganguella inhabit the basin of the Liba, a tributary of the Zambesi ; 
and one section of the race, known as the Balunda, is dominant in the Kasai, the gi-eat 

southern tributary of the Congo. 

1 i-«^. "^^ : — > . . K- ~ The Bakongo, who occupy Northern 

Angola, give their name to the Congo 
River, along which they extend far- into 
the interior. The Bakongo are divided 
into several sections ; close to the coast 
there are the Kabinda to the north of the 
Congo and the ]\Iushikongo to the south 
of it. Inland they reach Stanley Pool, 
beyond which they are replaced by the 
purer-bred Bantu of the interior. John- 
ston jioints out that there are two different 
types among the Congo peoples : one of 
which is "a fine, tall, upright man, with 
(lelicafoly small hands and well-shaped 
feet, a fine face, high, thin nose, beard, 
moustache, and a plentiful croj) of hair; 
the other an ill-shaped, loosely-made 
figure, with splay feet, high calves, a 
retreating chin, blubber lips, no hair about 
the face, and tl'.o wool on his head close 
and crisply curled. The farther you go 
ir.to the interior, the finer the tyjie be- 
comes. Such men as the Bayansi of Bolobo 
are perfect Greek statues in the de\elop- 
mer.t and poise of their forms, and two 
points about them contrast very favourably 
with most of the coast races — namely, 
their lighter colour, generally a warm 
chocolate, and their freedom from that 
ofl'ensive smell which is supposed, wrongly, 
to characterise most Africans. JIany other 
details show the compiratively high status 
of the Upper Congo races — their small 




TWO COMUO NAT1VIJ». 



The Bantu of Western Africa 



33' 



hands and feet, their well- shaped legs 
with full calves, and their abundant heads 

of hair." 

But if the coast members of the 

Congo tribes are physically inferior to 

the natives of the interior, they compen- 
sate for this by intelligence. Stanley 

describes them as exceptionally shrewd in 

trade. He purchased the site of the 

Congo Free State station at Vivi from 

some of the Kabinda, and found they 

drove a hard bargain. 

" In the management of a bargain," 

said Stanley, " I should back the Consoese 

native against Jew or Christian, Parsee or 

Banyan, in all the round world. Un- 
thinking men may perhaps say cleverness 

at barter and shrewdness in trade consort 

not with their unsophisticated condition 

and degi-aded customs. ' Unso^jhisticated ' 

is the last terra I should ever apj)ly to 

an African child or man in connection 

with the knowledge of how to trade. 

Ap])ly the term, if you jilease, to yourself 

or to a Eed Indian, but it is utterly 

ina2)plicable to an African, and this is 

my seventeenth year of ac([uaintance with 

him. I have seen a child of eight do 

more tricks of trade in an hour than the 

cle\erest European trader on the Congo 

could do in a month. There is a little 

boy at Bolobo, aged six, named Lingenji, 

who would make more profit out of £1 

worth of cloth than an English boy of 

fifteen would make out of £10 worth. 

Therefore, when I write of a Congo native, 

whether he is of the Bakongo, Bayanzi, 

or Bateke tribes, remember to associate him with an almost inconceivable amount of natural 

shrewdness, and power of indomitable and untiring chaffer." 

The tribes at the mouth of the Congo have been subject to foreign influences for so long 
a time that they are less interesting ethnographically than the more primitive races of the 
interior. Between Stanley Pool and the coast races are the Bakongo, whom Johnston has described 
as intermediate between the pure Bantu of the interior and the Kabinda : " Their skin is not 
the dead coal-black of the coast tribes, but is often a warm chocolate or ruddy brown. They 
do not practise much personal adornment, either by cicatrisation, tattooing, or painting the 
skin \yith divers pigments. They are naturally a hairy race, especially about the face — some 
of the chiefs wearing copious beards, whiskers, and moustaches — but on the body the pile is 
plucked out from tlie age of puberty, otherwise their bodies would be partiiilly covered with 
short curly hair. The two front incisor teeth are occasionally chipped; but this is not a 
regular custom, as it is farther up the river. In character the Bakongo are indolent, fickle, 
and sensual. They dislike bloodshed as a general rule, and, save for certain superstitious 
customs, are rarely cruel, showing kindness and gentleness to animals. When their passions 




A CONGO WOMAN. 



332 



The Living Races of Mankind 



are excited, however, by fear of witchcraft or a wish to revenge grave injuries, they can 
become very demons of fanatical rage; and tiie peojile, that in their calmer moments will 
sliudder at an abrasion of the skin in a friend or neighbour, will, when he is convicted of 
sorcery, leap and shout with frenzied joy around his fiery stiike while he frizzles alive." 

The 15akongo are often known as the Biifiort (properly Bafiot), which, however, is not a 
clan or even a tribal name, but merely an epithet meaning " Black," applied to them by their 
Bakongo neighbours. The name Bafiort is well known, owing to its adoption by Dennett in 
his works on the folklore and customs of these people. The Bakongo tribe is important in 
connection with >i'egro religion, as it constitutes the fourth of ^liss Kingsley's four schools of 
West African fetish. Its fetish "is mainly concerned with the worship of the mystery of the 
iwwer of the Karth." Every normal death is attributed to witchcraft; some one is charged 
by the medicine-man, and the accused is compelled to submit to the poison ordeal. Phallic 
worship is included among the rites of the tribe, and the transition from boyhood to manhood 
is marked by a prolonged and elaborate series of initiation rites. 

Passing from the Ix)wer to the .Middle Congo, we enter a region occupied by tribes of 
pure Ikntu stock. The chief tribes are the Bateke. about Stanley Pool ; the Bayansi or Byyanzi, 
alwve the junction of the Kasai ; the Bangala, between the Ubangi and the Congo; and the 
Balolo, in the great bend of the Congo. These people, says Johnston, "are pure IJantu, and 
consequently greatly resemble other unmixed races of the same stock, such as the Ovambo, 
tlie Balunda, and the people of Tanganyika and Nyasa. 'I'hey difier from more Negroid 
Bakongo in having skins of a chocolate brown, and above all, in their abundant growth of 

hair. 'Jhe beard, whiskers, and moustache are 
alwa^-s present, but are generally, in common 
with the hair of the eyebrows and the eyelashes, 
plucked out, from a prejudice against cultivating 
hair anywhere but on the top of the head." The 
body is extensi\ely decorated with cicatrisation. 
The characters of the skull vary considerably, 
suggesting that even here there has been 
a considerable intermixture of races. The nose 
is usually flat, with widely opened nostrils, 
but people with a high nose are not vmkno\\-n. 
The lijjs, again, are often thick and turned out- 
ward, like those of the conventional " nigger,"' 
but some of the people have thin lips. The 
cliin may be ])rominent and heavy, or weak 
and receding. 

In mental characters the Middle Congo 
natives are also more attractive than those of the 
Lower Congo. The medicine-man is unimpoi-tant 
or imknown : the people are not haunted by 
poison ordeal or " pestered with initiation cere- 
monies." In character, sfvys Sir Harry Johnston, 
"they are kindly, light-hearted, and full of sensi- 
bility to beauty. They are fond of colour and 
of music, and indulge in dancing that has much 
meaning and gi-acc. They are decidedly amorous 
in disposition, but there is a certain jwetry in 
their feelings which ennobles their love above 
mere jMission. Husbands are fond of their own 
wives as well as those of other people, and many 
a pretty family picture may be seen in their 




A CO.SOO MAN AM) WOMAN. 



The Bantu of Western Africa 333 

homesteads, when the father and motlier romj) with their children, or sit together in a 
munching gioup round the supper-pot." 

Clothing among the Middle Congo tribes is very simple, consisting of a little grass-cloth. 
Ornaments of feathers and fur, shells, glass, and metal heads, are worn, and the skin is 
decorated by stripes of paint or an extensive series of cicatrices. Sometimes this scar-tattooing 
is decorative and covers the body, as among the Bangala : other peoples use it only as a 
tribal distinction, such as the horizontal series of sears across the cheek-bones of the Bateke, 
or the band across the forehead of the Bayansi. The dressing of the hair is very elaborate. 
One favourite design, which is illustrated in a drawing of the head of an Mboko shown on 
page 329, is an imitation of the horns of the buffalo. 

The ordinary huts of the natives arc formed of mats woven from a reedy grass or the 
fibres of plants. That of the chief is constructed more skilfully of palm leaves, and is encircled 
by a fence of reeds. The household furniture and utensils are of the most primitive type. 




A GROUP OP CONGO MEN. 

It is, however, by their arts and industries that the Middle Congo Bantu especially 
e.xccl. Herein they are superior to any of their neighbours. Their weapons are of iinst- 
rate workmanship. Their knives and spears are of well-tempered steel: the h'andles are 
excellently carved, and inlaid with brass and metal slips. Their furniture consists of stools 
and pillows carved from single blocks of wood. Their pottery, though hand-moulded, is 
graceful in form. They are devoted to music, and play the drum or tom-tom, trumpets made 
fiom antelope horns, the marimba or primitive piano, and a five-stringed lyre. Their knives 
are varied in shape, some being either throwing- knives or retaining traces of the shape of 
that weapon. Battle-axes are not used, but the weapon survives in a much decorated and 
useless form as a symbol of authority. 

All along the rivers the natives u.se canoes, whicli are often of great size. They are used 
for war, transport, and fishing. The Congo and its tributaries abound in fish, and the natives 



334 



The Living Races of Mankind 



are very expert in catching them with nets, spears, 
traps, and Unes. The Bayansi carry on a great trade 
in smoked fish. 

The main food, however, is vegetable, especially 
the banana and plantain. Cassava, maize, and sweet 
potatoes are also extensively grown. The domestic 
animals are few, including the goat, dog, pig, fowl, 
and rarely sheep. 

South of the Balolo, who occupy the region within 
the greiit bend of the Congo about the lower course 
of the Kasai and some of the other southern affluents, 
follow the gieat nations of the Bakuba, Bakete, and 
Baluba. The Bakete are probably the oldest settlers 
in the district. They were broken up first by the 
invasion of the Bakuba from the north-east: this 
direction is indicated by the traditions among the 
Bakuba, and is confirmed by many points of re- 
semblance with the tribes of the North-eastern Congo 
Basin. The Baluba, on the contrary, came from the 
south ; they were the latest .arrivals, and are the 
dominant race in the Kasai Basin. They have been 
described in detail by Wissmann. The nation may be 
divided into two sections : the Western Baluba, known 
as the Bashilange, are weaker, more ngly, and more 
mixed than the Eastern Baluba; the relation between 
the two groups is analogous to that of the Western 
and Eastern Bakongo. The main point of interest 
about the Bashilange is their cult of hemp ; the great 
secret or religious society in this nation is known as 
the Bena-Kiainba, or caste of the " sons of hemp." 

This association ai)pears to have gi'own out of 
a general political and social movement which had 
its rise about the year 1870, when a large section 
of the Bashilange (projjcrly Tushilange) beciime 
divided into two hostile factions on the question 
of admitting foreign traders (Angolan Portuguese from the west, Zanzibar Suahili from the 
east) into their territory. The l:ing having sided with the young or progressive party, the old 
j)eopIe, here as elsewhere "Conservatives," were defeated with great slaughter and driven 
eastwards beyond tlie Lulua. Thus the barriers of seclusion wore broken down, commercial 
relations were established with the outer world, and the custom of riaviha (bhang) smoking, 
already prevalent on the Zanzibar coast, was introduced with many other innovations. It was 
thus that the Tushilange justified the description given of them by Wissmann, who called 
them "a nation of thinkers, with the intenogative 'why' constantly on their lips." 

Social arrangements among the Upper Congo tribes depend on the conditions of public 
safety. Polygamy prevails, every man having wives according to his wealth and rank. There 
jire no nuptial ceremonies, and marriage is by purchase or capture, the bridegroom often 
arranging the alliance by making his father-in-hiw k present, providing the bride with her 
innniagc outfit, and bearing the cost of a family feast. Funeral rites are simplified by the 
extensive practice of cannilmlism : this is especially prevalent on the Upper Congo, where the 
dead are nearly always tlius disjjosed of. Chiefs are as a rule formally buried, and the body is 
ttupplied with various utensils, and a quantity of cloth, beads, or other article of currency. 
These gixxls are broken or damaged either to ensure their dying and going to the spirit-world, 




A CONGO NATIVE, WITH PttlMITlVB STRINGED 
IN8TRUMEKT. 




A COXUO WABBIOR AND HIS WIFE. 
330 



33^ 



The Living Races ot Mankind 




A GROUP OF CliM 



.NA 1 !\ l..~ l)lil..-,~r.|j 



.1. A WAll-DANCl. 



or else, when deposited on the grave above-ground, to prevent them from being picked up 
as " unconsidered trifles " by jiassing wayfarers. Several slaves are often killed and buried with 
the chief, so that he may have tlie assistance of his former servants. Not infrequently the 
bodies of the dead are desiccated by roasting, and then buried in the huts which they formerly 
occupied. The interment is often delayed for a year or more, in order that all the relatives 
may be present at the "wake." 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE EQUATORIAL AND NILOTIC NEGROES. 



a. THE BANTU OF THE FKENCH CONGO. 

Western Equatorial Africa, between the basins of the Congo and the Niger, comprising the 
regions of the Ogowe, the Gabun, and the Cameroons, was probably once inhabited only by 
Bantu Negroes. In the Protectorate of the French Congo the main Bantu tribes are the 
Ashira, Okanda, Apingi, Apono, Ishogo, and the Ashango, whose numbers have now been 
reduced by the invasion of the Fans, a people of doubtful Negroid affinities. 

The tribes in this area belong to what Miss Kingsley calls the Mpongwe school of fetish, 
in which the main idea is by tlie aid of charms to secure increased material prosperity. 

The Ashira. 
The Ashira, Okanda, Apingi, and Apono are closely allied tribes or sections of one great 
nation occupying the upper basin of the Ngunie Rivei', one of the tributaries of the Ogowe. 
The Ashira live the nearest to the coast, and have been rapidly adopting the customs of the 
coast tribes. Their original grass-cloth garments have been superseded by thin cotton-cloths, 
which rapidly become dirty and ragged. 
Their main food is the plantain, which is 
gi-own in plantations of great extent : du 
Chaillu estimated that one at the village 
of Angouka contained some 30,000 trees. 
Each tree bears a bunch which ranges 
in weight up to 120 lbs. The general 
customs of the tribe are the same as 
those subsequently discovered among the 
Okanda and Apono, who live farther inland, 
and have doubtless preserved the primitive 
systems less altered. But owing to their 
closer intercourse with the coast tribes 
the western Ashira are less shy, and more 
is known of their religious beliefs. They, 
of course, believe in fetish, and their 
firm faith in immortality is shown by 
their burial customs. The cemeteries are 
just outside the villages, and the body 
is placed in a sitting posture on the 
ground. In the case of a ciiief who died 
while Paul du Chaillu was crossing the 
district, the lx)dy was wrajijied in a 
Eurojiea coat and i)laced beside an 
umbrella, both of which articles had been 
begged from du Chaillu. In addition 
there was a chest containing plates, jugs. 




A CONOO MAN IN NATIVK CANOB. 



;ot 



43 



338 



The Living Races of Mankind 



cooking utensils, the chief's favourite pijie, and some tobacco. A fire was kept burning beside 
the body for some weeks, and a jilate of food was provided daily. 

llie marriage limitations of the Ashira are interesting. All unions between blood-relatives 
are prohibited ; but a man may marry all the wives of a deceased uncle or his step-mother. 

The Ishogo. 

The Ishogo are described by du Chaillu as a tribe of fine men, superior in physique to 
the Ashira and in mental qualities to the fans, whom they resemble in bodily structure. They 
live in the French Congo, on the mountains around the upper part of the Eembo River, south 
of the Ogowe. They inhabit large villages of about 150 huts, arranged in well-planned streets. 
The huts are large, and di\ided into several rooms ; they are provided with low wooden doors, 
jKiintcd with coloured designs. The dress is limited to a small jietticoat of grass-cloth. The 
body is coloured red with a jwwder obtained from a native wood, and is ornamented by 
an elalxjrate series of scars ; the main tribal mark ap[)ears to be a few pea-shaped scars 
raised between the eyebrows and the cheeks. Formerly the practice of pulling out the two 
middle upper incisors and filing the others to points was universally adopted. The most 
remarkable jiersonal adornments are the women's chignons, formed by jilaiting the well-greased 
hair on to a cylindrical grass-work tower : the chignon is about 9 inches long, and rises from 
the head either vertically or horizontally backward ; the rest of the head is shaved The 
men have the hair worked into fliit flajjs hanging round the sides of the head, wliile the 
crown is shaved. In lx)th sexes the eyebrows and eyelashes are all removed. The chief metal 
ornaments are neck-rings and armlets of brass and iron, while the women also wear long 
strings of beads. The Ishogo are very peaceful, and usually go unarmed; the sword is their 
chief weaj)on, but they have in addition spears, bows, and arrows. They are agriculturists, 
and live mainly on plantains. Their chief industry is the weaving of palm fibres into 
grass-cloth in primitive hand-looms and the plaiting of baskets. They grow tobacco, which is 
smoked in i)ii>es, and an intoxicating drink is made from jjalm sap. 




The Bantu of the French Congo 



339 



Like all West African Negroes, 
they believe in fetishes, and have a 
fetish-hut in the centre of the village 
beside a sacred fig-tree. This tree is 
planted at the foundation of the 
village ; when it dies, the site is aban- 
doned and a new village founded else- 
where. The language of the Ishogo is 
distinct from that of their neighbours 
the Ashira, but is the same as that 
of the Apingi. 

The Apono. 

The Apono are the most inland 
members of the Ashira group. They 
are close neighbours of the Ishogo. 
They seem to have retained more of 
the primitive characters of the tribe 
than their western allies. Like most 
of the adjacent Negroes, they orna- 
ment the body with a system of scar- 
tattooing, their peculiar tribal mark 
being a lozenge-shaped group of nine 
prominences the size of peas, placed 
between the eyebrows. The villages 
of the Apono are large, well planned, 
and clean. The people are brave and 
warlike, and at the same time they 
are industrious. They dig and smelt 
nodules of iron ore, and work the 
metal into spear-heads, triangular 
arrow-points, and curved sword-blades. 

Their spears have long, lance-shaped heads, and are used for thrusting and not throwing. The 
arrow-heads are poisoned and loosely attached to the shaft, so that the latter falls off", while the 
barb remains in the body. The chief weapon of defence is a round shield made of wicker-work. 

Like the other sections of the Ashira, the Ajiono weave grass-cloth for clothing, and twist 
their hair into elaborate horn-like or tower-like projections. They are mainly agricultural, and 
have large gi-oves of plantains, lime-trees, and jialms. Their domestic animals include the 
goat, fowl, and pig. They prepare great quantities of palm wine, and while the supply lasts 
they habitually get drunk and are \ery quarrelsome, and their dancing and drinking festivals 
are described as scenes of wild uproar. 







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l'l,<>t» I'll Mr. Erac.^t U':'lye] [LudOofomjh. 

WYAKI AND HIS BROTHEK CHIEF, KIKUYU. 



The Apingi. 

The Apingi are a smaller and loss sturdy race and are ligliter in colour than the Apono. 
They jmll out two of the upper incisor teeth, and file the others and the lower incisors to 
points ; but the custom is said to be slowly dying out. They have the same habits as the 
Ashira, but are less industrious. Their metliods in surgery, according to du Chaillu, are drastic ; 
lie describes an operation on a woman who was suffering from leprosy and lumbago. Li order 
to cure the latter disease the woman's back was cut in many places with a knife, and quantities 
of lime juice and pounded cayenne pepper vigorously rubbed into the wound. It is recorded 
that the patient screamed, but not that she was cured. In another case an effort was made 



340 



The Living Races of Mankind 



to cure a chief by marking his body with chalk made from the bones of his ancestors, spitting 
on the affected i«irts of the patient's body, and touching them with a burning grass torch. 
Du Chaillu regards this medical use of fire as a kind of fire-worship. The same author has 
given a graphic account of an ordeal at which three nephews of the Okanda chief were 
compelled to drink poison on suspicion of having bewitched the chief. The accused men said 
they were not afr.iitl to drink the jwison, for they were not wizards and would not die. The 
poison was accordingly prepared, and the people of the village assembled to watch its effect. 
'•When the poor fellows were brought into the middle of the circle of excited spectators, it 
was horrid to see the ferocity expressed in the countenances of the people; it seemed as 
though their nature had entirely changed. Knives, axes, and spears were held ready to be 
used on the bodies of the victims if they should succumb under the ordeal. A breathless 
silence prevailed whilst the young men took the much-dreaded cups of liquid and boldly 
swallowed the contents ; the whispering of the wind could be heard through the leaves of the 
sun-ounding trees. But it was only of short duration. As soon as the poison was drunk, the 

crowd began to beat their 
sticks on the ground, and 
shout, ' If they are wizards, 
let the mhoundou kill 
them ; if innocent, let it 
go out ! ' repeating the 
words as long as the sus- 
pense lasted. The struggle 
was a severe one ; the eyes 
of the young men became 
bloodshot, their limbs 
trembled convulsively, and 
every muscle in their 
bodies was visibly working 
under the potent irritation. 
The more acute their 
sufferings became, the 
louder vociferated the ex- 
cited assembly. 1 was 
horror-stricken, and, al- 
tiiough I would gliidly 
have tied from the place, 
felt transfixed to the sjjot. 
1 knew that if they fell I should have no power to save them, but should be forced to see 
them torn limb from limb. At length, however, the crisis came— a sudden shiver of the body 
and involuntary discharge— and the first intended victim had escaped. The same soon after 
hai.i)ened to the second and to the third. They gradually came back to their former state, but 
api»eared very much exhausted. The trial was over, and the doctor closed the ceremony b\ 
himself drinking an enormous quantity of the jwison, with a similar result to that which we 
luul witnessed in the young men, only that he appeared quite tipsy; in his wild and incoherent 
*aymg8 he stated that the bewitchers of Mayolo [the chi(.f] did not belong to the village- 
a decision which was received with great acclamation. ^Favolo rejoiced that the wizards did not 
belong to his own people, and the whole jH-ople were wild with joy; guns were fired, and the 
evening i^issed with beating of drums, singing, and dancin"." 




Pkoto bf Rickat-d B,ichta. 



A OKOUP OF MAM-NIAM SATIVEa. 



The Asuango. 
Tlie Ashango are the dominant tribe in Ashangoland, a district in the French Congo, 
south of the Ogowe. Tliey are neighbours of the Ishogo, and have many of the same 




341 



342 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 



^?^^^s;irt;^^v 



a&*&ftkS®iv- 



customs and similar physical stnu-ture; but they apeak a different language, which is that of 
the Ashira. The Ashango are described as a less peaceful and industrious tribe than the 
lahogo. Thus they always carry their swords, and usually also their spears and jwisoned 
arrows. Tliey do not make any of their weajwus, which they buy from tribes farther inland. 
Thev make brass ornaments out of wire, but do not smelt iron. Their houses are larger than 
those of the Ishogo, but the villages are less well arranged. They are less particular over 
their hair and ornaments, but wear more clothes. They cultivate vast crops of ground-nuts, 
and nearly every hut has one or more hives of bees. They keej) flocks of poultry and herds 
of goats, but the women and girls are not allowed to eat the flesh of these animals. The 
peoi)le make jwlm wine and smoke tobacco in pipes which are 3 feet long. Their fetish rites 
have l)een studietl by du Chaillu, who has described a festival he was allowed to attend in 
the village of Niembouai : " The idol was a monstrous and indecent representation of a female 
figure in wood, which was kept at the end of a long, narrow, and low hut, 40 or 50 feet 
long and 10 feet broad, and was painted in red, white, and black colours. When I entered 
the hut, it was full of Ashango people, ranged in order on each side, with lighted torches 
stuck in the ground before them. Amongst them were conspicuous two mbuiti men, or, as 
they might be called, priests, dressed in cloth of vegetable fibre, with their skins painted 

grotesquely in various colours, one side of the 
face red, the other white, and in the middle 
of the breast a broad yellow stripe ; the circuit 
of the eyes was also daubed with paint. These 
colours are made by boiling various kinds of 
wood, and mixing the decoction with clay. 
The rest of the Ashangoes were also streaked 
and daubed with vai-ious colours, and by the 
light of their torches they looked like a troop 
of devils assembled in the lower regions to cele- 
brate some diabolical rite; around their legs 
were bound white leaves from the heart of the 
palm-tree ; some wore feathers, others had leaves 
twisted in the shape of horns behind their 
ears, and all had a bundle of palm leaves in 
their hands. Soon after I entered the rites 
began. All the men squatted down on their 
haunches, and set up a deafening kind of wild 
song. There was an orchestra of instrumental 
performers near the idol, consisting of three 
drummers with two drumsticks each, one harper, 
and a performer on the sounding-stick, which 
latter did not touch the ground, but rested on 
two other sticks, so that the noise was made 
more resonant. The two mhuiti men, in the 
meantime, were dancing in a fantastical manner 
in the middle of the temple, putting their bodies 
into all sorts of strange contortions. Every 
time the mhuiti men opened their mouths to 
speiik a dead silence ensued. As the ceremony 
continued, the crowd rose and surrounded the 
dancing men, redoubling at the same time the 
volume of their songs, and after this went on 
for some time returning to their former posi- 
tions. This was repeated several times. It 




f^ta bf Hirkanl turUla. 

A .SIAM-NIAM OIRL. 



The Negroes of the Equatorial Belt 



343 



seemed to me to be a kind of village feast. 
At length, wearied out with the noise, and 
being unable to see any meaning or any 
change in the performances, I returned to 
my hut." 

b. THE iSEGROES OF THE EQUA- 
TORIAL BELT. 

Scattered along the Equatorial zone between 
Mount Kenya on the east and the Gabun 
on the west is a grouj) of isolated Negro 
tribes, intermediate in character between the 
Bantu and the Nilotic Negroes. The typical 
and central tribe is that of the Niam-niam, 
of the north-eastern corner of the Congo 
Basin ; their allies probably include the 
Kikuyu of British East Africa and the P^ans 
of the Gabun. 

The Kikuyu. 

On the southern slopes of Mount Kenya, 
and extending south-westward to the edge 
of the great liift Valley that traverses British 
East Africa, is a belt of undulating volcanic 
country, once densely covered with forests. 
This is the home of the Kikuyu, one of the 
most powerful and successful of the agricul- 
tural tribes in British East Africa. 

ITiey are a powerfully built, muscular 
race, brave, but excitable. In general physical 
characters they resemble the Masai. Their 
colour is a dark chocolate-brown. They liave 
somewhat round heads, wide noses, thick lips, 
small pointed chins, oval eyes, and high cheek- 
bones. " The Kikuyu," says Lugard, " are a 
fine, intelligent-looking race, with high fore- 
heads and well-formed heads." The dress of 
the warriors consists of a flap of skin hung 
over the shoulders to jirotect the lungs. 
The rest of the body is smeared with ochre 
and oil. The elders wear a long leather mantle ; 
untanned leather hanging from the waist. 

The ornaments of the tribe are earrings — including rings, studs, and short wooden rods in 
the upper ear — and disks, and elaborate coils and rings of metal, by which the lower lobe of 
the ear is greatly distended. The men have strong ivory or metal armlets on the upper arm, 
which are said to strengthen its muscles. The warriors wear elaborate feather head-ornaments 
like those of the Masai. Usually most of the head is shaved, but, as with the Niam-niain, 
a patch of hair is left on the back of the skull ; the hair, if not shaved, is twisted into long 
tags, which are lengthened by plaiting in vegetable fibres, and the whole is plastered with 
red clay and oil. 

The Kikuyu weapons are leaf-shaped spears about 9 inches broad, with long wooden 




Plioto by Uidiard liuckla. 

A NIAM-XIAM WITCH-DOCTOB. 



1 



the women usually have on an apron of 




The Living Races of Mankind 

handles, heavy two-edged swords of the Arab pattern, 
bows, and barbed or poisoned arrows. The spearmen 
carry long, heavy, oval leather shields of the same type as 
those of the Masai ; they are about 5 feet long, and, like 
those of the Masai, are decorated with heraldic designs. 
Their huts are well built, and are circular, with 
high walls and a conical roof. 

The main industry of the Kikuyu is agriculture, and 
they are the most skilful and industrious husbandmen 
in British East Africa. The extent of their plantations 
is enormous. "The cultivation of Kikuyu," remarks 
Lugard, " is prodigiously extensive ; indeed, the whole 
country may be said to be under tillage." Their chief 
crops are beans, millet, dhurra, plantains, sweet 
potatoes, yams, sugar-cane, tobacco, and castor oil. The 
Kikuyu once had many cattle, but the jSIasai and 
the rinderpest have decimated the herds. They have 
many sheep and goats, and every village has hives of 
wild bees, for whom wooden hives made from hollow 
logs of timber are hung in the trees. 

The affinities of the Kikuyu are not well estab- 
lished. Their nearest neighbours in the south and 
east are Bantu, and on the north and west the jMasai. 
Their language is Bantu, but is different from that of 
their Bantu neighbours. Their nearest affinities appear 
to be with the Negro tribes of the group of the 
Azandeh, or Niam-niam, of the Upper Congo. They may therefore be regarded as an etistem 
outlier of the belt of Equatorial Negroes, cut off from their western allies by the Masai invasion 
along the line of the Kift ^'alley. It is possible that the tribe contains some Hamitic infusion, 
in which case it may be described as Negroid rather than Negro. 

The evidence for the affinity of the Kikuyu with the Equatorial Negroes rests on their 
physical appearance, their mental characteristics, their general culture, and especially on their 
religious rites. They circumcise in a remarkable manner, different from that of the East 
.African Bantu and similar to that of tlie Masai. They are intensely superstitious, and attach 
great imiwrtance to fetish rules and religious observances. The Kikuyu have greater faith 
in the sanctity of blood-brotherhood than the usual East African Bantu. Strangers are not 
allowed to enter the country imtil the path has been sprinkled with the blood of newly killed 
goats. The rite of blood-brotherhood as celebrated by the Kikuyu is as follows : — The stranger 
and a Kikuyu elder sit side by side on the ground on a log of wood ; the arm of each is 
slightly cut, and the blood smeared on to pieces of the liver of a freshly killed goat. The 
weajwns of the two men are placed together over their heads, and a knife is drawn backward 
and forward along the weapons by a man who sings a wild incantation. While this is being 
done the men exchange their pieces of liver and swallow them. After such a colchration a 
stranger is safe from attack from the particular section of the Kikuyu nation with whom the 
rite has been observed. 

The Azandeh, or Niam-num. 
The most typical tribe of the Equatorial Negroes is that known as the Niam-niam, 
Azandeh, or Zandey, which lives alx)ut the watershed between the Bahr-el-Gha/1 and the 
North-ea«t«m Congo. They were once a i»owerful and numerous i)eople, with a reputation for 
ferocity. In api>eanuice they are very unlike most of the surrounding tribes, for they have 
a round, broad hea<I and a circular face ; the eyes are almond-shaped and sloping, the nose is 



Fkoto 1/^ KicliaM Buchta. 

A MIAM-NIAM NATIVE. 



f:,»i 




t'ri'tii/ h'j L'ki'jt'ia ,f 



TYPICAL WOMEN 01' THE EQUATOUIAL KEOION. 
345 



44 



346 



The Living Races of Mankind 




Hholo I,)/ Itkefian it Cto.J 



WOMEN AND CHILDEEN OF KQUATOKIAL AFRICA. 



flat and square, the lips very thick, and the chin round. The colour of the skin is of a 
chocolate-brown hue. As a race they are remarkably adroit and agile. Schweinfurth stated 
that " nowhere in any i)art of Africa have I ever come across a people that in every attitude 
and every motion exhibited so thorough a mastery over all the circumstances of war or of 
the chase as these Niam-niam. Other nations in comparison seemed to nie to fall short in 
the i>erfect ea.se— I might almost say in the dramatic grace— that characterised tlieir every 
movement." 

Their dress usually consists of a mantle ot untanned leather or undressed skins, and strips 
of the beautiful bkick-and-white skin of the Colobus monkey are frequently hung from the 
girdle. The chiefs wear a head-dress of the skin of leopard or wild cat. The arrangement of 
the hair among the men is very elaborate ; it is plaited into tufts, ridges, rolls, or knots ; or 
into rays, connected at the end to a circular hoop. The body is stained red and further 
ornamented by various scar-patterns ; but the tribal mark is a set of squares filled with dots, 
placed on the cheeks or forehead. Their oniaments consist chiefly of strings of the teeth of 
dogs and other animals and of blue beads. 

The Niam-niam are armed with lances, two-edged swords, kni\< -. ami large painted shields \ 
but their iieculiar weajion is the throwing-axe ; it is made of wdimI or iron and curved like a 
boomerang, and is used for killing birds and game as well as in war. The huts are large and 
well built : the roofs are as a rule simply conical, but they may be doul)le-pointed ; the eaves 
project beyond the walls, which are decorated with black-and-white pattonis. About ten or a 
dozen huts occur together in a circle round an open space, in which is a i»le adorned with 
trophies of war and the chase. 



The Negroes of the Equatorial Belt 



347 



The people jjractise both agriculture and hunting, the women being engaged in field operations, 
while the men pursue the quarry. The principal agricultural product is eleusino, which is eaten 
as porridge, and from which, after malting, is prepared a very intoxicating beer. Crops of 
ciissava, sweet potatoes, and yams, and a little maize, are also raised, lobaeco is grown 
extensively and smoked in clay pipes. Cattle are very scarce, but poultry and dogs abundant. 

These food-supplies are supplemented by the practice of cannibalism. Piaggia, the first 
European to travel in the country, witnessed the eating of the body of an enemy killed in 
war ; and both Schweinfurth and Junker have collected conclusive evidence of cannibal habits. 

Iron-working and the manufacture of weapons, pottery, basket-weaving, and wood-carving 
<ire the main handicrafts. 

Marriage is not based on purchase, but the chief selects a bride when a man ajiplies for 
one. The marriage is celebrated by a festival, during which the chief, accompanied by his 
musicians, leads the woman to the house of her future husband. The chief on these occasions 
is accompanied by the tribal musicians, who play on a primitive guitar, shake bells, and sing. 
The burial rites retain a custom which is widely but sparsely scattered among Negro tribes; 
for the corpse, after being dyed red and adorned with feathers, is placed in a hole at one side 
of the grave, so that the earth is not thrown directly upon it. Men are buried facing the 
•east and women facing the west. 

The Niam-niam have a profound belief in goblins and evil spirits, and, like many other 
African tribes, think they especially haunt the forests. Auguries are consulted on all important 
occasions. 

The Fans. 

About the year 1 850 the tribes along the Gabun coast heard of the arrival in the interior 
of a tribe of cannibals known as the P'ans. These invaders at first held only a few villages ; but 




By ptrmiuUm of the 6,>,. ,.,i 



Mtnenjii ill tiuliul Ajrtai. 

LIBEEATED SLAVES FUOM CENTRAL AFRICA. 



M^ 



The Living Races of Mankind 




/7io/<i ».> tht lUr. E. i:. S.'koKin. 

A CENTRAL AFRICAN CHIEF AND HIS WIVFA 



(luring the following twenty years 
they swept westward, destroying 
many of the coast tribes, until 
they became the leading jieop'e 
on the (iabun coast. Paul du 
Cliaillu brought back some of 
their skulls, which ^ir Richard 
Owen described as showing gi-eater 
cranial cai)acity than the neigh- 
bouring tribes. T.enz described 
the Fans again in 1878, and in 
recent times much light has been 
tlu-own on them by the daring 
journey and accurate ethnological 
>tudies of .Miss Kingsley. 

The Fans in all probability 
are allied to the Niam-iiiain. 
Schweinfiirth has pointed out 
the many points of resemblance 
between the tribes in j)hysical 
appearance, dress, tribal organisa- 
tion, and customs. 
'• They are," says Miss Kingsley, " bright, active, energetic sort of .Xfricans, who by 
their jmgnacious and predatory conduct do much to make one cease to regret and deplore 
the sloth and lethargy of the rest of the West Coast tribes." 

They are on the whole of fine ])hysi(jue, and include inagniticent .specimens of the human 
race. " Their colour," continues Miss Kingsley, " is light bronze ; many of the men have beards, 
and albinoes are i-are among them. The average height in the mount^iin districts is from 
.5 feet 6 inches to 5 feet 8 inches, the difference in stature between men and women not 
lieing great. Tiieir countenances are very bright and e.xpressive, and if once you have been 
among them you can never mistake a Fan. Hut it is in their mental characteristics that 
their difference from the lethargic, dying-out coast tribes is most marked. 'Ihe Fan is fuli 
of fire, teiniier, intelligence, and go ; very teachable, rather difficult to manage, quick to take 
offence, and utterly indifferent to human life. I ought to say that other i)eople, who should 
know him better than I, say he is a treacherous, thievish, murderous cannilial."' 

The huts of the Fans are small and lightly constructed, for the jK^ople change their 
residences so fieiiuently that they uiay be regarded as almost nomadic. .Miss Kingsley has 
described the best hut in one of the villages in which she stayed. The hut was fairly low ; 
for, as she says, "| was as high lus its roof-ridge, and had to stoop low to get through the 
iloor-hole. Inside the hut was 14 or lo feet square, unlit by any window. The door-hole 
could be clo.sed by pushing a broad i)iece of bark across it under two horizontally fi.xed bits 
of stick. The fl(M)r was sand, like the outside, but dirtier. On it in one [dace was a tire, 
whose smoke foimd its way out tiirough the roof. In one comer of the room was a rough 
bench of wood, which, from the few filthy clothes on it, I saw was the bed. There was no 
other furniture in tlie hut save some Iwxcs, which I presume held my host's earthly jw-ssessions. 
From the Inmboo roof hung a long stick with hfwks on it, the hooks made by cutting off 
bnuiclung twigs, 'iliis was evidently the hanging wardrobe, and on it hung some few 
fetish chitrins." 

Tlie huts are usually placed in two opiwisite rows, the ends of the street thus formed 
being closed by a guard-house ; but in villages with a river front-ige there is a single row of 
huts along the iKink. 

Tiie main industries of the Fans are jtottery, net- and basket-weaving, and iron-working. 




VUota t,y Lckt^'tai\ d" Co.] 



A MOX KU WOMAN. 
:J4'J 



350 



The Living Races of Mankind 



They especially excel in the last. They have clay furnaces and charcoal fuel, blown by a pair 
of double bellows. The forge is a round cavity scooped in the ground ; the anvil is a large 
piece of iron ; and the hammers are solid iron cones, like pestles. 

The J'an method of hunting— which Miss Kingsley has graphically described — is 
unsiwrtsmanlike. A herd of elephants is driven into an enclosure of felled tree^, or such an 
enclosure is made round a herd when it is at rest. The walls of the enclosure are smeared 
with an evil-smelling mixture, the odour of which the elepliants find so repellent that they 
make no effort to burst through the enclosure. The elephants are then supplied with poisoned 
plantains, or the jjooIs in the enclosure are also poisoned. The poison is not fatal, but it 
makes the elephants weak and drowsy. When it has had suflBcient time to do its work, fires 
are lighted round the fence, and the hunters steal into the enclosure and climb into trees, 
from which they shoot the elephants as they run past them. 

The main trade articles of the Fans are rubber, which they collect in the forests, and 
ivory. They have an interesting coinage of iron imitation axe-heuds, the circulation of which 

is limited within the tribe. 

Marriage is a matter of purchase ; but there 
are many limitations, as blood-relatives are for- 
bidden to marry. 

Why they have no funeral rites is explained 
by the prevalence of cannibalism, which is 
certainly practised by the tribe. Miss Kingsley 
remarks that, "although a prevalent habit, it 
is no danger, I think, to white people, except 
as regards the bother it gives in preventing 
one's black companions from getting eaten. The 
Fan is not a cannibal from sacrificial motives. 
He does it in his common-sense way. Man's 
flesh, he says, is good to eat, very good, and he 
wishes you would try it. Oh dear no, he never 
eats it himself, but the next-door town does. 
He is always very much abused for eating his 
relations, but he really does not do this. He 
will eat his next-door neighbour's relations and 
sell his own deceased to his next-door neighbour 
in return ; but he does not buy slaves and fatten 
them up for his table, as some of the Middle 
Congo tribes do. He has no slaves, no prisoners 
of war, no cemeteries, so you must draw your own conclusions." 

c. THE NILOTIC NEGROES. 

In the bsusin of the Upper Nile, between Fashoda on the north and the Uganda Protectorate 
and the Congo Free State on the south, dwell a series of Negro tribes who have been included 
as the Nilotic group. They were originally regarded, from the supposed characters of their 
language, as allied to the Fulah of the West Soudan and to some Nubian tribes. These races 
were, therefore, once a.ssociated as the Nubar-Fulah group. But Professor Keane has proved 
that the physical characters of the jieople as well as their speech show that this association 
was artificial, and the old group has been dismembered. 

The only close allies of these Upper Nile Negroes outside the Nile Basin live in British 
East Africa. They are the Masai, Njempsians, and their allies, and the peoi)le of Kavirondo, on 
the north-east side of the Victoria Nyanza. 

The Nilotic tribes may be considered in four groups : (1) the |)eoples of the Bahr-el- 
Ohazl, includin;,' the Uinka, Dyur, and Bongo; (a) those of the main Nile Valley and its 




Pl-olo hf Kichanl Buchla. 

A. OINKA GIBL (FULL-FACK). 



The Nilotic Negroes 



351 



eastern tributaries, including the Bari, Sliilluk, Latuk, and Turkana ; (3) the Kavirondo tribes ; 
and (4) the Masai and their allies. 



The DiNKA. 

The Dinka are the most nortliern of the Nilotic Negroes, living in the basin of the 
Bahr-el-Ghazl, the great south-western tributary of the Nile. They occupy the country around 
the famous port of Meshra-er-Eek, and range east and west of that place for about 400 miles. 
They were once a powerful, numerous people ; but, like most of the tribes of that region, 
their numbers have been terribly reduced by war and famine since the overthrow of Egyptian, 
rule in 1884. 

The Dinka are a muscular, well-built peojjle ; their colour is a very dark brown, 
although tl\ey often appear quite black, as they cover themselves with powdered charcoal 
mixed with oil. The head is of the ordinary 
Negro type, long and narrow, contracting to the 
top and back ; the jaws are powerful and promi- 
nent, and the lips thick and projecting. They 
have not much hair, and the head is generally 
shaved, a single tuft being left, to which some 
feathers are often attached. Some of the men, 
however, comb out their hair and train it into 
stifif tufts, wliich stand out from the liead like 
spokes. The peojjle have a reputation for cruelty 
and bloodthirstiness ; but Schweinfurth remarked 
many instances of tenderness and compassion, 
and of family affection and devotion. 

Tlie women are clad in a couple of aprons 
of untanned skin, which cover from the hips to 
the ankles, but the men go completely nude. 
Both sexes break oflF the incisor teeth in the 
lower jaw, while the men only are scar-tattooed. 
The tribal mark is a series of raised lines radiating 
from the top of the nose over the forehead and 
temples. The women wear iron rings in ears 
and li])s, and heavy iron rings round their legs 
and arms. Schweinfurth saw women who were 
each adorned with half a hundredweight of these 
ornaments. The men wear massive ivory rings 

round the biceps of the upper arm, bracelets of hippopotamus hide, and tails of various- 
animals. The men also wear head-dresses of ostrich feathers and caps made of white beads. 

Tlie favourite weapons of the Dinka are clubs and a bow-shaped instrument for parrying 
the blows of their opponents' clubs. They have also S2jears, but no bows and arrows. 

The Dinka live in large circular and conical huts about 40 feet in diameter ; the roofs are- 
made of straw and thatch, supported by a central tree trunk, and low walls of chopped straw and 
clay. The huts are not grouped in villages, but in small clusters beside, the sheds and tethering- 
grounds for their cattle, of which they have large herds. The cattle are humped, have small 
horns, and are mostly white; the other domestic animals are sheep, goats, and dogs — and one 
might almost add snakes, which are protected and allowed to live in the roofs of the houses. 
The presence of the snakes is possibly tiie expliination of the absence of poultry. 

The principal vegetables cultivated are dhurra, yams, ground-nuts, tobacco, and siuisin, 
which is grown for oil. The food is prepared witli great care, and the Dinka are famous- 
U8 cooks. 




Photo hy Richard liuchta. 

A DINKA GIEL (PROFILE). 



352 



The Living Races olf Mankind 



Tub Dych. 

South-west of the Dinka country lies the territory of the 
Dyur, who are clearly a branch of the Shilluk, and retain many 
of the characters as well as the language of that people. Dyur 
is a Dinka term, meaning " wild men " ; for the Dinka regard 
the Dyur with contempt, as they possess no cattle. The Dyur 
are a peaceful and industrious trib^, and are skilled workers in iron. 
Physically they are tall and slim, and the jaws are less prominent 
than in most Negroes. Their dress is limited to a short flap of 
skin, which hangs down the back, and is suspended from a string 
round the waist. Their hair is cut short. The principal ornaments 
are rings of brass and iron, worn in the nose, ears, and lips, or on 
the limbs ; some of the last are large and elaborately omatnented : 
the men wear a massive ivory ring round the upper part of the 
arm. 

Their weapons are long lance-headed spears. The iron is 
obtained by smelting in a small conical clay furnace, in which 
the ore is melted by a charcoal fire. The fire is maintained by 
natural draught, as bellows are not used. This work, as well as 
the fishing and hunting, in both of which they are ex[)erts, is done 
by the men ; while the women do all the agricultural and domestic 
work, and make the pottery and wicker-work vessels. 

The Dyur are an affectionate race, and nurse their babies in 
long basket-work cradles. The dead are buried in mounds or 
tunuili. Si)itting, as with the Masai, is the principal salutation, 
expressing friendship. 

The Bongo. 

South-west of the Dyur is the home of the great Bongo 

nation, who formerly occupied a tract of country, 175 miles long 

by 50 miles broad, between lat. 6° and 8° N. They are a purely 

agricultural jjeople, divided into a large number of independent 

village communities and clans, so that they were unable to offer 

much opposition to the old Arab slave-raiders against whom the 

Dinka were long able to hold out. 

The Bongo, as a rule, are of a reddish colour ; their average height is 5 feet 7 inches. 

Their heads are short and round, their hair short, curly, and bliick, and kept short or in small 

tufts separated by shaved spaces. One striking feature in the Bongo women is the fatness of 

the buttocks, similar to that once regarded as characteristic of the Hottentots and Bushmen. 

The clothing of the tribe is very simple. The men wear a narrow girdle, from which there 
usually hangs a strij) of cotton-cloth or a flap of softened leather. The women content 
themselves with a leafy twig or bunch of grass hanging from the girdle. At dances and 
festivals the men wear a feather head-dress. Both se.xes wear elaborate strings of beads, teeth, 
claws, copijer rings, i>r fragments of roots. The women expand the lower ear and the lip by 
the insertion of wiHKlen disks, the size of which is gradually increased until the lip is five or 
six times its normal width. 

The wea[>on8 of the tribe are barbed and jagged lances, bows 4 feet long, and arrows 
with 3-foot wooden shafts and tij* jwisoned by the juice of the giant Euphorbia. 

The huts are built with great care and skill ; they are conical, and uj) to 20 feet in 
diameter; they are made of plaited faggots, bamboos, grass, and clay. The entrance is very 
low, and is clo-sed by a swingnloor. ITie floor is of beaten clay, and the i)eople sleep on skins. 




/*koio bn Riclutrd UmhUi. 

A SHILLUK UIKL. 



The Nilotic Negroes 



35: 



On the extreme top of the hut is a straw platform, which can be used as a look-out post over 
the stockade by which the clusters of huts are surrounded. 

The Bongo are agriculturists, and grow sorghum or dhurra, maize, and tobacco ; they 
also eat the fleshy leaves of various shrubs, roots, and many varieties of fungi, which grow wild 
in the rainy season. They hunt by beating and driving into snares and trenches ; but the 
supply of game is limited, and the elephants have been exterminated. In the winter they 
capture fish in nets and fish-pots. As a substitute for salt they collect an alkali from the 
ashes of Grewia wood. 

Their domestic animals are poultry, goats, and dogs. 

The most skilful accomplishment of the Bongo is their iron-working. They smelt iron 
in charcoal furnaces blown by bellows. The iron is worked by a stone hammer on a stone 
anvil, and is held during the process by a pair of green wood tongs. They prepare spear- 
and arrow-heads, iron rings, belts and other ornaments, knives and razors, pincers for extracting 
the eyelashes, and flat iron disks which had an extensive circulation as money. The Bongo 
are also adepts at wood-carving. 

Polygamy is allowed, but the number of wives is limited to three. IMarriage is by 
purchase, and any wife who jiroves barren may be divorced, and part of her purchase-money 
may be reclaimed by the husband. 

The burial rites are interesting. The corpse is placed in a sack in a sitting posture in 
a grave of about 4 feet deep. Women are buried facing the south, and men looking toward 
the north. The site is marked by a heap of stones surrounded by posts, many of which are 
carved into human figures, while others have horn-like points. A similar system holds in 
.Madagascar. On the stone pile is the drinking-vessel of the deceased. This fact and the 
intense fear of spirits and witches suggest a belief in immortality, which Schweinfmth, however, 
denies. He further explains the wooden human images as memorial figures and not as fetishes; 
but the accuracy of this suggestion is also doubtful. 



The Latuka. 

On the eastern side of the Nile dwell several 
Nilotic tribes, ranging south-eastward from the 
Shilluk of the Lower Sobat and Fashoda to the 
tribes of Karamoyo and Kamasia, on the western 
wall of the East African Rift ^'alley. 

One of the best known of these tribes is that 
of the Latuka, who inhabit the upj^er part of the 
basin of the Sobat. They have been well described 
by Sir Samuel Baker, who says that "the Latuka 
are the finest savages I have ever seen." Their 
average height, according to Baker's measurements, 
is 6 feet all but half an inch ; and their muscular 
development is powerful. Baker considered them 
different in appearance in the form of the head 
from any other race of the Nile Valley, and it is 
possible that they contain some intermixture of 
Hamitic blood. For, according to Baker, " they have 
high forelieads, large eyes, rather high cheek- 
bones, mouths not very large, well shaped, and the 
lips rather full. They all have a remarkably pleasing 
cast of countenance, and are a great contrast to the 
other tribes in civility of manner. Altogether their 
appearance denotes a Galla origin." 




rholo hy liicluird liuchla. 

A SUILLUK MAM. 



45 



354 



The Living Races of Mankind 



Their chief town, Tarran- 
golle, contained about 3,000 
houses, which are either bell- 
shaped or consist of a high 
conical roof on a low, vertical, 
circular wall. Each house is 
surrounded by a stockade, and 
a larger stockade surrounds the 
whole town. The passages 
between the different com- 
pounds are just wide enough 
for the cows to pass in single 
file ; so that, in case the outer 
wall of the town is rushed, the 
enemy could only drive off the 
cattle slowly and along paths 
which could easily be defended 
and closed. The Latuka have 
large herds of cattle, which are 
driven into the towns every 
night, where they are protected 
from flies by the smoke of fires. 

The dress of the men con- 
sists only of a helmet, which is 
made by interweaving some 
unravelled bark with their hair until it forms a thick felt li inch thick. The front of this 
hair helmet is strengthened by a band of copper, and another strip forms the crest. The 
surface is then decorated with beads and the edge completed by a row of cowry-shells. 

The women, on the contrary, wear the hair short. Their ornaments are strings of beads, a 
fur tail, large earrings, and a long cylindrical crystal ornament, worn hanging from the lower 
lij). The four fi-ont teeth of the lower jaw are extracted. Scar-tattooing is practised, the 
tribal mark being a series of radial gashes over the forehead, temples, and cheeks. The men 
do not tattoo. 

The tribal weapons are the spear, an iron-headed mace, a spiked bracelet with projecting 
knife-blades 4 inches long, and a sword. They carry hide shields 4| feet long by 2 feet wide. 
Polygamy and purchase are the rules of marriage. The funeral rites are more characteristic. 
The body is buried outside the man's hut, but inside his compound. Funeral dances are held 
for some weeks, after which the body is e.xhumed, and the bones cleaned, packed in an 
earthenware jar, and then placed in a cemetery near the town. 




ri.<>!<> ''If Kirlutya tiui:Ua. 



FAJELU HEN AND WOMAN. 



The Masai. 

In the districts around the I.atuka dwell other Nilotic tribes: to the west there are the 
Ilari, in the main Nile Valley; to the east there are the Turkana, between the Ljituka and 
I-ake Kudolf ; to the south-east are the Karamoyo and Kamasia. These tribes are all people of 
large stature, and according to Wellby the Turkana frequently exceed 7 feet in height. 

These i»eo])le, however, are less important than the famous tribe of the Masai, who have 
forced their way southward from the home of the Nilotic Negroes along the Rift Valley to 
the slojjcs of Kilima Njaro in German tjist Africa. They now extend from that mountain for 
about 300 miles northward. Tlie Masai have been studied in detail by many observers, among 
the earliest of whom were Fischer, Tliomson, and Johnston. Thomson gave a graphic sketch of 
the habits of the Masai, while to Johnston we owe a precise account of their physical structure 
and language. 



mfw^^smmmm- 



•mn<(^^':^:'im. 



I 



i 




Photo hij Ltkfinan d: t'o.j 



[Cairn. 



A BABI GIRL. 
3.55 



356 



The Living Races of Mankind 



'HI 



"The physical appearance of the unregenerate robber Masai," says Sir Harry Johnston, 
•'is splendid. It is a treat to the anthropological student to gaze on such magnificent examples 
of the fighting man. It is an example of one side of our multiform nature pushed to an 
exclusive and supreme development. The Masai warrior is the result of the development of 
man with a beautiful animal. To call him God-like, as we do the Greek ideals, would be 
silly and inappropriate — as much so as seeing divinity in a well-bred race-horse or an Alderney 
cow. To comjMire him with the statues of Apollo is unfair to the one and the other. If von 
could find Apollo represented with huge-lobed ears, fang-like teeth, 
high cheek-bones, and a woolly crop, not to mention other peculiar 
and ungraceful developments, then you might aptly compare his 
ideal representation with the living Masai. The full-grown jVIasai 
of pure blood is generally 6 feet in height by the age of seventeen, 
though at that time he is often a spindly and cumbersome and 
ungraceful hobbledehoy. Three years, however, of an exclusive 
diet of milk, blood, and half-raw beef-steaks, combined with a rigorous 
training in warlike and athletic exercises, have develoiied him into 
a sinewy, muscular man, of admirable proportions, broad of chest, 
with a smallish head, a graceful neck, and limbs whose muscles 
seem hard as iron. There is no fat on his body. I cannot say 
that his hands and feet are always well shaped. Their faces are 
somewhat Mongoloid in look at first sight. The rather narrow, 
slanting eyes, the prominent cheek-bones, and the pointed chin 
suggest that impression. On the other hand, the nose is often 
beautifully shaped, with high bridge and delicately chiselled nostrils, 
which obey sensitively the passing feelings of their owner, quiver- 
ing and dilating with pride and rage, or widening and relaxing 
with good-humour. Their heads are often singularly round and 
broad for Africans. The hair is certainly longer and less frizzly 
than among the true Negroes, though at the same time this may 
be only due to the careful and continual combing out it undergoes, 
and its .straightening with a thick paste of clay and fat. It is after 
all a Negro's wool, and is not longer nor more abund.ant, certainly, 
than the regular Papuan crops of hair which the Bantu people of 
the Upper Congo have been found to possess. " 

The ears are large, and the lobes are distended by ivory or 
wooden disks, loops of iron chain, or brass wire coiled like 
Ciitherine-wheels. The lips are thin, and there is a triangular space 
hied between the upper incisors. The colour is a dull chocolate- 
brown ; but babies when first bom are yellow. 

The dress of the women and elders consists of long capes of 
untanned, softened leather ; but the warriors go naked except for 
ornaments. Like the Kikuyu, the warriors may wear a flap of skin 
over one shoulder and across the chest and ujjper jmuI of the back, 
probably to i)rot€ct the lungs. They generally wear skin sandals, 
except when in a turf-clad district. When going to war, the 

warriors wear a head-dress of ostrich feathers arranged like an aureole. They often have flaps 
of the black-and-white fur of the long-haired Colobus monkey round the shoulders, and 
narrow strips of it round the waist and knees. They always have a leather belt, in which are 
placed their sword and knobkerry. 

ITie commonest metal ornaments of the Masai are loops of iron chain round the neck, 
long spirals of wire along the lower arm, or great Catherine-wheel-like coils standing out 
from the neck. The earrings are short loops of chain or small Catherine-wheel coils of brass 



Hliolo by lii^liarU Buclita. 
A BAKI WOMAN (SIDE VIEW). 



The Nilotic Negroes 



357 



f 



wire. Bead necklaces are sometimes worn, but beads are more often used for omameiitmo' 
the edges of their leather clothes. Anklets of iron wire, often with bells attached, are worn 
when dancing. 

The hair is generally twisted with short pigtails over the back of the neck, and shorter 
tail- like processes over the rest of the head, with two larger tails hanging over the forehead. 

The main weapon of the Masai is a huge, heavy thrusting-spear ; the head is long and 
lance-shaped, the wooden handle is short and about 18 inches in length, and the head is 

balanced by a long 4-foot spike at the lower end. The warriors 
are also armed with short swords and a knobkerry made from 
rhinoceros horn. They defend themselves with an oval shield 
about 4 feet long, made of buffalo or rhinoceros hide, which is 
painted with some heraldic pattern. 

The houses are simple huts, formed by wattled stakes, plastered 
with mud, and covered by skins. They are grouped into circular 
or roughly rectangular kraals, in which the cattle are herded at 
night. The kraals are often large, and several may be groujjed 
together, especially during the dry season, when the JNIasai assemble 
beside a lake or round a water-hole. 

Milk and meat are the main food of the IMasai. The warriors 

are never allowed to touch vegetable food, and they acquire the 

^^^^ necessary salts by drinking the warm blood of living cattle. An 

I ^^^BB^HH^^ o-"' i* stunned by a blow on the head ; a vein is o})ened, and the 

young warrior drinks the blood as it spurts from the wound. In 
the treatment of milk the jNIasai are very particular. To boil 
milk in the jNIasai country is a deadly offence. And the warriors 
are never allowed to mix their diet of meat and milk. They live 
on meat at one period and on milk at anotlier. Before they can 
change from one to another they must fast for a short time and 
take a strong purgative to clear the system of any trace of the 
other food, so that the milk may not be defiled. The food of 
the elders and women is less restricted, and they are allowed to 
take vegetable food when they can get it from their agricultural 
neigiibours. 

Their domestic animals are cattle, both of the Asiatic humped 
variety and the South African race without the hump. They 
have large herds of donkeys, which drag their goods during their 
periodical migrations. They have also sheep and goats. 

Marriage is a matter of purchase, and, as among the Zulus, is 
forbidden to the warriors. The elders generally have a couple of 
wives. The unmarried women, known as dittos, live with the warriors 
in kraals, where free love is the rule. 

The Masai recognise the existence of various spirits, of whom 
the chief is known as Ngai. 

I5urial is generally under a tree in a sitting position, with the 
chin resting on the knees. The body is covered with stones ; but 
the cairn is weak, and the hyenas soon scent out the corpse and pull it from its tomb. A 
certain belief in a future life is indicated by burial of a calabash of milk beside the corpse, 
and by the fact that the name of the departed is never mentioned, lest the spirit should 
regard it as a call and come back. 

The political constitution is patriarchal. The men are divided into two classes— the elders, 
or el-moru, and the warriors, or d-moran. The latter are trained for war-raids ; they have a 
known series of war-paths, and they roam to enormous distances in order to capture the cattle 




I'hoto by Itichard Buchta. 
A IIAUI WOMAN (FUONT VIEW). 



358 



The Living Races of Mankind 



of Bantu tribes. In the villages they implicitly obey the elders, who govern the community. 
Over the elders there are two chiefs— the I>aibon, the great medicine-man of the tribe, and the 
lieijan, or political chief. In their absence the knuils are managed by a kind of committee 
of elders, of whom the superior are the lygonani, or speaking- men. 



The Njempsians. 

On the islands of I^ake Baringo and around its shores dwell a tribe of people who are 
usually regarded as Masai altered by the loss of their cattle, just as the Bushmen of the Cape 
were once thought to be Hottentots whose cattle had been taken by the Dutch. Similar 
tribes of agricultural people allied to the jVIasai occur in other parts of Masailand, as on the 
8loi)es of Kilima Njaro. Such peoijle are called ^^'akwafi. Those of Kilima Njaro are said by 
Johnston to differ from the Masai only in mode of life, except when the tribe has been 
affected by the adoption of Bantu women as concubines. These Kilima Njaro Wakwafi are 
therefore probably agricultural Ma.'^ai ; but in regard to the natives of Njemps it is more 
probable that they are the remnants of an older tribe, which has been broken up by the 

Masai invasion. 

The Njempsians were described by Thomson as "singularly 
honest and reliable," and as characterised by "their honesty, 
their unassuming ways, and their charming unsophisticated 
manners." The Njempsians are taller and slimmer than the Masai, 
but have the same general features, high cheek-bones and fore- 
heads, and often oblicjue eyes. They dress in long leather cloaks, 
and wear brass armlets, bracelets, and leg-rings; they have 
elaborate earrings similar to those of the IMasai and Kikuyu, and 
are armed with spears with short, broad blades. Their language, 
though allied to that of the Masai, differs materially. They 
have some similar religious beliefs : for instance, they will not 
eat zebra or allow any part of the animal inside their villages 
while the seed of their crops is in the ground. The writer 
was once camped outside Njemps during a period of famine, 
when his party had to be fed on zebra meat ; the people 
accordingly refused to allow any of the men to enter tlie village 
until they had fasted for several hours. But the Njempsians 
are less fastidious in food than the Masai, for they eat fish and 
even rats. 

The Njempsians dwell in huts grouped together in villages, 
defended by a powerful stockade, and entered by a narrow gateway 
that can be easily closed by a heavy beam. Their staple food 
is dhurro. 

TuE Neguoes of Kavirondo. 

In Kavirondo, on the eastern shore of the Victoria Nyanza, 
is a grouj) of tribes who are often grouped together as the 
^^'akavirondo, but who have been shown by Mr. C. W. Hobley to 
include a considenible number of different races, including Biuitu 
and Nilotic Negroes. Hobley enumerates sixty tribes or clans in 
this group, and says there are more. The people in the western 
part of the country, along the shores of the lake, mainly belong 
rktu, bf Bickard Bvkia to the Nilotic group, and are most nearly related to the Shuli. 

A MADi MAM. The people of the Nilotic group are generally naked : the 




The Nilotic Negroes 



359 



men wear nothing but a few ornaments, of 
which the most conspicuous is a sjiUt canine 
tooth of a hippopotamus tied across the 
forehead ; the women wear two small fringes 
of fibre hanging from the waist. As is so 
often the case with African tribes, morality 
accompanies nudity. "The people," says 
Hobley, " are very moral in their domestic 
relations," and they are remarkably honest. 
The women's ornaments are necklets, armlets, 
and ivnklets of iron wire and beads, brass wire 
being restricted to the chiefs. 

The weapons are a thrusting-spear, a 
small throwing-spear, a large round or oval 
shield of untanned hide, and a two-edged 
sword, wider near the end ; bows and arrows 
are comparatively rare. 

The main industries of the peojile are 
cattle-breeding and agriculture. Millet and 
eleusine are the two chief cereals. The tribes 
grow beans and castor-oil seeds, and in some 
places bananas. Tobacco and hemp are grown 
for smoking. Iron-working is practised by 
some tribes, who make iron hoes, which, in 
addition to their intrinsic use, serve as a 
currency. A cow is usually worth twenty 
hoes. Pottery, basket-weaving, and the prepa- 
ration of mats from papyrus stalks are the 
other chief handicrafts. 

After a child is bom the medicine-man 
is called in with his drum to ensure its 
good luck, probably by frightening away evil 
spirits. Four or six days after birth — the 
former in the case of a girl, and the latter 
for a boy — the baby is carried from the 

village by its mother and left on the road outside. The child is then picked up and restored 
to its mother by another woman, who thereafter acts as its god-mother. This custom is 
probably a survival from a period when infant exposure was practised ; the rite is adopted 
earlier in the case of girls, as they were probably the earliest to be abandoned. The birth 
of twins is welcomed and celebrated by great dances. One of the Bantu tribes, the Wakisesa, 
circumcise, but otherwise this rite is not practised. Some of the front teeth are extracted as 
soon as a child can speak. 

ISIarriage is by purchase, and half the price of the bride is returned by the father-in-law, 
should she die young. Polygamy is general, and each wife has a separate hut and plantation. 

Burial customs vary greatly : the Bantu tribe of Ketosh simjily throw tlio body into the 
bush ; whereas the people round the station at Mumia's bury the dead in a sitting jwsition 
below the floor of the hut, with the head above-ground and covered by an earthenware pot. 
The grave is watched day and night for a month. After some years the grave is opened, the 
bones are ceremoniously washed, and then reburied on the borders of Ketosh, whence the clan 
is supposed to have come. 

Among the people of Kabras, according to Hobley, peace is ratified by the sacrifice of a 
dog, which is tied to a post ; each end of the animal is held by one of the two parties to 




Photo by Richard Buchta. 

MADI WOMEN. 



xbo 



The Living Races of Manl^ind 



the agreement, and a chief cuts the living 
dog in two, assuring the assembly that 
any one guilty of breaking the peace will 
suffer the same fate. 

The Lango Nation, 

One of the chief nations of the late 
kingdom of Unyoro are the Lango {Lnngfjo, 
LoTKjo) people, who, although often grouped 
with the Nilotic Negroes, are really of 
Galla stock and speech. They form, in 
fact, an important link in the chain of 
Hamitic peoples who extend from Galla- 
land through Unyoro and Uganda south- 
wards to Lake Tanganyika. Their territory, 
which occupies both banks of the Somerset 
or Victoria Nile between Foweira and 
.Magungo, extends eastwards beyond Unyoro 
proper to the valley of the Choi, one of 
the chief upper branches of the Sobat. 
They still preserve their Galla mother- 
tongue amid the surrounding Bantu and 
Negro populations, and are distinguished 
by their independent spirit, living in small 
family groups, and recognising no tribal 
chiefs, except those chosen to defend the 
common interests in time of war. 

The Lango people are specially noted 
for the care bestowed on their elaborate 
and highly fantastic head-dress. The 
prevailing fashion may be described as 
a kind of helmet, in which each lock of 
hair is separately interwoven with diverse 
coloured wools, the whole terminating in 
an imposing superstructure of plumes, 
tufts of feathers, wreaths of shells or 
glass beads, or curved projections which resemble trumpets, but are intended to represent 
buffalo horns. Whole years are spent on these sumptuous head-dresses, which even when 
finished have to be constantly touched up and kept in rejjair by the native barbers. On the 
other hand, the Ijingo women, who are amongst the finest and most symmetrical of the 
Equatorial lake region, wear little clothing or embellishments beyond waist-bands, necklaces, 
armlets, and anklet.s. 




Pkoto b) Ritkard Buckta. 

A LAHOO CBIEP, SHOWI.NO PGCULIAR HKAD-DRE8S. 



CIIAPTEB, XVI. 

THE SOUDANESE AND GUINEA NEGROES, AND THE ABYSSINIAN 

AND ETHIOPIG GROUPS. 



a. THE SOUDANESE NEGROES. 

The Soudanese Negroes occupy a belt of Africa between Senegambia and the western watershed 
of the Nile ; the area includes most of the Niyrer Basin and the Atlantic coast-lands from 
the Senegal River to Calabar. The boundaries, however, are not sharply defined. To the 
south tlie Rio del Rev divides the Soudanese Negi-oes from the Bantu ; but the former group 
is represented by colonies in the backwoods of the Bantu region. To the north-east the 
Soudanese Negroes gradually merge with the Hamitic races, and to the north they become 
inextricably mixed with the Berber tribes of Senegal. Even on the southern slopes of the 
Atlas Mountains in ^Morocco there is a wide-spread people known as the Haratin or Black 
Berbers, which shows that the Negro influence has extended even north of the Sahara. 



The Mandingo, Timm, and Kuu. 

The Sarakole are interesting as the most northern members of the groat tribe of 
-Mandingo, a race of Eastern origin, now spread over the region between the Senegal and 
Liberia. The Mandingo are clearly 
Negroes ; they have a Negroid face, 
flat broad nose, widely open nostrils, 
high cheek-bones, and projecting jaws. 
Tliey are active, intelligent, and in- 
dustrious ; and, like the Haussa of the 
Niger Basin, they have managed to 
acquire commercial supremacy over 
the otiier tribes. Again, like the 
Haussa, they were once also politi- 
cally j)redominant, but have lost their 
jjowor owing to Fulah inroads ; locally, 
however, they still retain their former 
position — as, for instance, among the 
Serers of Senegal, where tlie chief 
families are all .Mandingan. 

As an instance of Mandingan 
intelligence may be cited the fact 
that the Vei language, which belongs 
to this group, has a written alphabet 
comprising over 200 characters ; it has 
been claimed that this script was in- 
vented in the presc^nt century, but the 
recent inquiries of Delafosse show that 
it is at least several centuries older. 




THE MANOINOAN "BALENJEH," OB NATIVE PIANO. 
301 46 



362 



The Living Races of Mankind 



One of the best-known 
tribes of tlie Miindinjfo are the 
.Mendi, who live in the pro- 
tectorate of Sierra I.eone. 
The inhabitants of the town 
and actual colony of Sienu 
I^eone are, however, mainly 
Timni or Tirnneh ; but the 
population is unusually mixed, 
as the colony was founded in 
1787 as a home for freed 
slaves. The original settlers 
bel()7ig to nianyditl"frt'nt tribes, 
and the variations in feature 
among the i)resent Sierra 
Leonese .are extreme. The 
mixture of races has even 
affected the neighbouring 
Timni, who, according to 
Clark, vary in colour " from 
jet black to light yellow, the 
intermediate shades being 
princii)ally a coffee or in- 
different black colour." 

The secret societies, or 
pmTO, which are widely scat- 
tered and most tyjiically de- 
veloped in West Africa, though 
they also occur in Kast Africa, 
are especially powerful among 
tlie Timni, and much of the 
reliable information regarding 
the aims and methods of these 
. societies has been obtained by 

KATivK cAKBiEBs, uppEB MENDi. g;,,,^^ of Sierm Leonc is 

the State of Liberia, still in- 
dependent, although partly dismembered by France. This state was founded as an asylum for 
the freed American slaves, but its success has not been so satisfactory as could ha\e been 
wished. Kobinson, who visited it in 1894, declares that "the history of Liberia would indeed 
be a most entei-Uiining farce, were it not also a most significant tragedy." He remarks that 
"the Liberians excel jK»rliaps all the other inhabitants of the globe in their amazing self- 
conceit," and tells us that their rulers had recently assured the French that they had decided 
to remain neutral in the next European war. The main function of Liberia has been indeed 
to supply good stories of Negro methods of administration, as when during the cholera scai-e 
in Egypt they placed a ship in quanmtine because it was going to an infected port. 

The mo.st imiKirtant element in the native Liberian population is the Kru or Grebo, 
who live along the Gmin Coa.st, north-west of Cape I>as Palmas. The name Kru is an 
abridgment of Krii-boy, which is a corrupt ion, not of "crew-hoy," but of the proper native name 
of (jrebo. Tin- Kru are among the most vigorous of Negro races, and they act as boatmen 
and cargo-lifters all ahmg the west coast, and are commercially invaluable. Tiiomson gave 
them a bad name, but some later tmvellers and west-coast residents are loud in their praise. 




The Guinea Negroes 



36: 



6. THE GUINEA NEGROES. 

From Senegal to Liberia the Negro races have been so greatly influenced by contact with 
Europeans, especially English, French, and Portuguese on the one hand, and by INIohammedan 
and Fulah invaders on the other, that they are ethnographically less instructive than the 
Negroes of the Guinea Coast lands lietween Liberia on the west and the Kio del Key on the 
east, which, as shown by Sir H. IL Johnston, is the boundary between the Western and 
the Bantu Negroes. 

These Negroes of Guinea are the typical Negroes with thick lips, woolly hair, broad flat 

noses, wide open nostrils, rece- 
ding foreheads, projecting jaws, 

and prominent powerful teeth. 

The attempt has indeed been 

made to restrict the name Negro 

to the natives of this part of 

Africa. 

The natives of the Guinea 

Coast may be divided into three 

groups — the Tshi, the Ewe, and 

the Yoruba-speaking people, who 

have been described in tliree 

separate monographs by Sir A. 

15. Ellis. 

THE TSHI TRIBES. 
The Fanti and Asiianti. 

The Tshi, or, as jMiss Kings- 
ley would propose to spell the 
name, the Cheuwe-si^eaking 
l)eople, form the westernmost 
group, living mainly in the Cape 
Coast Colony and the Ashanti 
Protectorate. The two most 
important tribes are the Fanti, 
wlio dwell on the coast, and the 
Ashanti, who occupy the hinter- 
land. The Fanti are chocolate- 
coloured, muscular })eople of 
medium height ; they have round 
heads, with a long face, and a 
nose less flat than that of most 
Negro races. Dress is simple, consisting of a briglitly coloured loin-cloth, which among married 
women is increased to a w^rap that covers from the breast to the ankles. The women have 
elaborate arrangements of the hair, wliich is worked into a knob-shaped chignon, a pair of horn- 
sliajied projections, or a single spike like thixt of a unicorn. 

The Ashanti, though in most respects closely resembling the Fanti, are less strongly built ; 
but being more warlike and courageous, they are politically more powerful. Whereas the 
Fanti live in small villages, among the Ashanti there are some large towns, of which the chief 
is Kumasi, or Coomassie. The Fanti are a tribe of village communities, whereas the Ashanti 
formed a state with a centralised government, and were ruled by a king. 

The religion of both Fanti and Ashanti is fetishism. Circumcision is practised, but not 





riiolv bi/ Mt, Aidridgt. 

AS UrPEU MENDI PBINCESS. 



Photo by Mr. Aidridge. 

AN UPPEH MENDI CHIEF. 



364 



The Living Races of Mankind 



universally; and cannibalism exists only as a 
icligious rite, as when the heart of a brave 
(■neiny is eaten in order that his courage 
may be inherited. Traces of moon-worship 
are recorded by Ellis ; while totemism, which 
is widely distributed in Africa, is strongly 
developed. The Tshi people are divided into 
fiunilies, named after some animal or j)lant ; 
there are the l^eojiard Family, Bush-cat 
I'amily, Dog P'amily, Parrot Family, I'lantain 
Family, etc. The members of these families 
are prohibited from eating their totem, or 
.animal after which they are named, though, 
owing to the importance of the plantain as 
food, the coast natives do not recognise the 
rule as applying in that case. 

There are many interesting customs 
regarding birth, marriage, and death, but 
want of space iirevents us enumerating them. 

THE EWE TRIBES. 

West of Ashanti and the Fanti is a 
region occupied by a gi-oup of tribes who 
speak Ewe (pronounced I']fe or Elnve). 
Most of the Ewe tribes occupy the German 
Protectorate of Togoland and the French 
territory of Dahomey; but some, such as 
tlie Awuna, Agbosomi, and the Krikor, 
dwell under British protection round the 
mouth of the Volta River. 

The Ewe-speaking tribes are more in- 
telligent and advanced than the Tshi; for 
in addition to local deities and spirits, like 
those of the Tshi, there are some gods who are worshipped throughout the Ewe district. 




AN UrPEB UE.NDI CHIEF IN WAR-COSTUME. 



The Dahomeyans. 

nie chief people of the Ewe group are the Dahomeyans. Burton, who visited Abomey, 
the cai)ital of Dahomey, in 18G4, describes the king. Gelele, as a tall Negro, G feet in height, 
•' lithe, agile, thin-flanked, and broad-shouldered, with muscular limbs, well-turned wrists, and 
neat ankles, but a distinctly cucumber-shaped shin. His hair, generally close shaven, is of the 
pepiiercom variety; the eyebrows are scant, the beard is thin, and the moustachios thinner. 
!Ie liiis not his father's receding forehead, nor the vanishing chin which distinguishes the 
multitude ; his strong jaw renders the face 'jowly ' rather than oval, consequently the expression 
is normally hard, though open and not ill-humoured, whilst the smile wliich comes out of it 
is pleasijint. His nails are allowed to attain mandarin length. His sub-tumid lips disclose 
white, strong, and sound teeth, the inner surfaces being somewhat blackened by, tobacco. The 
nose is distinctly retrouss^, quasi-Negi'o, anti-aquiline, looking in fact as if all the lilies had 
l)een turned tlie wrong way; but it is not much flattened, nor does it wholly want bridge." 
He was tattooed with the Dahomeyan tiibal mark — three jwirallel cuts beside the eyebrows. 
His dress was simple, consisting of short purjjle silk drawers reaching only half-way down 
the thigh, and a loose white cotton-cloth edged with green silk. He wore gold embroidered 




365 



i66 



The Living Races of Mankind 



Jloorish sandals, and a short 
cylindrical straw cap, with a 
band of purple ribbon round it. 
His ornaments were a human 
tooth and a blue bead on a thread 
round his neck, an iron ring 
round the right arm, and five 
iron bracelets above and below 
the elbow. . 

The most striking feature in 
the military system of Dahomey 
was the corps of Amazons (for 
photograph see page 3C9), which 
was raised in 1729 owing to the 
gallant behaviour of a number 
of women who had been armed 
in order to incre.ase the apparent 
size of a Dahomeyan army. At 
first the Amazons were criminals, 
but Gezo and Gelele improved 
the status of the force by en- 
rolling in it women who pleased 
them. The women among the 
Dahomeyans, thanks to their 
having done the work of the 
tribe for generations, are as 
muscular and strong or even 
stronger than the men. Ellis 
estimated their number in 1890 
at about 3,000. 

The Amazons were divided 
into five corps : the blunderbuss- 
women ; the elephant-huntresses; 
the razor-women, armed with a 
hinged sword about 18 inches 
long that shut into its scabbard like a razor; the infantry or line's women; <and the archeresses, 
armed with a bow, a quiver of small poisoned arrows, and a small knife. The last company 
was said by Ellis to be already e.xtinct in his time. 

Burton did not take the Amazons very seriously. The infantry, the main body of the 
force, he describes as follows: "They are armed with Tower muskets, and are well supplied 
with bad ammunition — bamboo fibre, for instance, l)eing the only wadding. They have but 
little biiU jiractice. They mana'uvre with the precision of a flock of sheep, and they are too 
light to stand a charge of the jioorest troojjs in Europe. I'ersonally they are cleanly made, 
without much muscle ; they are hard dancers, indefatigable singers, and, though afl'ecting a 
military swagger, their faces are anything but ferocious — they are rather mild and unassuming 
in ai)i)eamnce. They fought with fury with Gezo before Abeokuta because there was a jealousy 
between them and their brother soldiers, and because they had been led for many years by 
that king to small but sure victory. They fled, however, with the rest, when a little 
jjerseverance would have retrieved the fortunes of the day." 

Like the Fanti and Ashanti, the Dahomeyans have been notorious for the practice of human 
sacrifices. Especially was this so during the la.st century. Ca[)tain Snelgi-iive in 1727 saw 400 
prisoners executed in honour of the conquest of the Toffo country ; the prisoners had their 




tno itnt iju 1 



NATIVES OP THE NIOEB DELTA. 



The Guinea Negroes 



367 



liands tied behind their backs, and they were led on to a stage, where a priest laid his hand. 

on their heads, uttered some words of consecration, after which the victims were decapitated by 

a single sweep of a heavy broadsword. In the same year Whydah was conquered, and 4,000 

natives were sacrificed as a thank-offering. Human sacrifices were also offered in Dahomey 

at the Grand Custom, held 

after the death of a king, 

and were intended to sujjply 

him with an adequate spirit 

retiniie, and at the Annual 

Custom, intended to send the 

dead kings some fresh slaves. 

The last Grand Custom was 

on the death of Gezo in 

1858, when the sacrifices 

lasted from July to October, 

and 500 people were slain. 

]\Iost of the victims were the 

king's personal attendants, 

his chief eunuch, his wives, 

and a supjily of soldiers, 

Amazons, and slaves. The 

skulls were collected and 

piled into pyramids, or used 

to decorate the walls of the 

palace. The corpse of the 

dead king was buried in a 

mausoleum, of which the clay 

was kneaded with rum and 

human blood. His relics are 

treated with the highest 

reverence. 

In the 2)resent century 
the number of the victims 
has been diminished, and the 
Annual Custom took different 
forms in alternate years. One 
year there was an Attoh cere- 
mony, in which the victims 
were stunned by being hurled 
from a high platform ; they 
were then executed, and their 
bodies thrown to the mob, 
who mutilated and smashed 
them with clubs. On the 
next year there was a So-sin 
ceremony, in which horses 
were slain as well as men. 

The Ewe religion is not 
only practised in Guinea, but 
has been carried across the 

Atlantic by slaves, and some rnoto Imt by tht lau Mm Mary KingtUy. 

of its rites survive in Hayti. a native of the oil rivebs, nigeu coast pbotectokatb. 




368 



The Living Races of Mankind 



Its West Indian title of Vaudoo is of Ewe origin, the 
name meaning a sui)erhuman spirit. The Fanti worship 
of the python, and the superstitious awe of the silk-cotton 
tree as the favourite abode of spirits, and other features 
of Ewe religion, are now firmly established in some of 
the West Indian' islands. 

THE YORUBA. 

The third of the great groups of Guinea Negroes 
are the people of Yoruba speech, whose territorv 
extends fi-ora the Niger Delta to Dahomey. The race, 
according to its own traditions, has descended from 
fifteen jjeople who migrated from some eastern country 
and settled at Ife. Tiie Yoruba are more civilised and 
advanced than the Tshi or Ewe tribes, and their culture 
shows abundant traces of H.aussa or Fulah influence. 
Until the beginning of this century there was a powerful 
Yorulia kingdom, which was overthrown by a L'ulah 
invasion in 1820. 

The Egba. 

One of the leading tribes is that of the Egba or 

ICgbado, of whose physical features Burton has given a 

detailed description. According to Burton, the type is 

Negroid — that is to say, Negro altered by Hamitic inter- 

mixtm-e— rather than true-bred Negro. The skin is 

usually copper-coloured, but sometimes black, while some 

of the chiefs are almost light-coloured. The lips are not 

thick ; but the gums are blue, and the jaws are very 

projecting. The nose is bi-oad, with expanded nostrils; 

but sometimes it is hooked. The cheek-bones are high. 

Blue eyes, so often seen among the Tuaregs, are unknown. 

The hair is short, scant, and, as Bmlon describes it. 

grows over the head like peppercorns. The women 

dress it into a series of thin longitudinal ridges. 

The dress of the Egba consists of loose cotton drawers fastened above the knees, while 

the body is wrapped in a mantle thrown over one shoulder. The poorer people may wear 

only a loin-cloth. Caps of various shaiies and materials, including large hats of palm leaflets, 

lu-e gcner.illy worn. 

Among the Plgba the most noticeable ornament is a plug of coral in the left nostril. Scar- 
and colour-tat t<x)ing are both in use. Burton describes some of the children as marked "from 
head to foot with little gridirons of cuts, dyed dark blue by means of native antimony." 
Scars are raised for the triljal mark, which among the Egba is a gridiron-shaped set of three 
cuts or a multiple of three on each cheek. The free women have one, two, or three narrow 
lines froui the wrist up the bjick of each arm and down the back. The Yoruba murk is a set 
of peri>endicular lines running downward from the temple. The Efon have a large blue j^Mitch 
l)etween the check-lxmes and the oar. 

The chief town in tiie Yoruba country is Abeokuta, which once included 100,000 inhabitants. 
[t is still a large city of narrow, irregular streets, intersecting at every possible angle : some 
of the thoroughfares are brojul and shady, and they are used for markets. The houses are of 
9tani|*ed muil, with high-pitched roofs of thatch. At each angle there is a high, sharp gable 




K. (MUHttiei'l 
A OAllOilEYAN BABY. 



[Sci'lin. 



The Abyssinian and Ethiopic Groups 



369 



to throw off the heavy rain. The plan of the houses is a hollow square, containing a series of 
court-yards for the sheep and goats. Eound each court-yard is a verandah, where the fires are 
placed and cooking is done. There are from ten to twenty rooms in a house ; each room is 
from 10 to 15 feet long and about 7 or 8 feet broad. There are no windows, which would let in 
the sun's glare and heat as well as the light. The number of inhabitants in these compound 
houses is often large, amounting, according to Burton, to sometimes as many as 500. The 
furniture is simple, consisting of wide cots and settees, rough earthenware pottery, grass bags, 
and usually a gun. 

In culture the Yoruba are intermediate between the Coast Negroes and the more skilled 
natives of Haussaland. Their religion and domestic rites agree in the main with those of 
their Tshi and Ewe allies. They have the same multiplicity of gods, and have special gods 
for their trade castes ; thus the blacksmiths and armourers are under the protection of Ogun. 
Shango is their lightning god, and, as among the Ewe, a fire supposed to have been caused 
by lightning must not be put out. Burton tells us that at Abeokuta a fire due to carelessness 
was attributed to Shango ; accordingly an old man in the building would have been allowed 
to be burnt to death, had not a European, defying sacrilege, rushed to the rescue. 

c. THE ABYSSINIAN AND ETHIOPIC GEOUPS. 

The Negro tribes occur only to the south of a line from the mouth of the Senegal Kiver in 
lat. 16° N. on the Atlantic coast to the mouth of the Juba on the Equator in Eastern Africa. 




Photo by Mean. Ntgretti it Zamhra] 



DAHOMEYAN AMAZONS. 



370 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 



The Negro tribes along this dividing-line are altered 
by the intermixture of northern Caucasian races, and 
are therefore spoken of as Negroids instead of as 
Negroes. Striking instances of these mixed Negroes 
occur in Senegambia, where they are formed by 
the intermingling of Negro and Berber peoples, and 
also in East Africsi, where the Waganda are a Bantu 
tribe altered by a band of Wahuma conquerors. 

The Gallas. 

The Gallas, or, as they proudly call themselves, 

the Oromo — i.e. " men," or " brave men "—once 

dominated East Africa from Abyssinia to Mombasa; 

but they are now broken up into a series of 

separate tribes of little political imjiortance. These 

tribes occur in a belt nearly continuous round 

^^^^ij^— .^_ South Abyssinia, and extend across the plateau east 

^H^Hitj^^ T of Lake Kudolf into the valley of the Tana. 

jH^Hn^Hp I The Gallas, warlike pastoral nomads, form the 

WJJJWo*^™ I . most numerous branch of the Eastern or Ethiojjic 

^^S^Sj^ I Hamites. 

^B ^^^^ That the Gallas as a race are Caucasians and 

H ^■^\ "o*^ Negroes is clear from their physical features. 

ff ^H^ \ The forehead is similar to that of many Europeans ; 

f^ W!^l the nose is thin and sometimes aquiline, while the 

nostrils are straight; the chin is small and slightly 
pointed ; the lips, though usually thick, are thinner 
than in Negroes ; the hair is long and frizzly ; the 
expression of the face is proud and intellectual; in 
fact, but for the very dark colour a Galla would pass 
unnoticed in a European crowd. 

The Galla women are famous for their beauty, 
and they fetched the highest prices in the slave- 
marts of Cairo, Khartum, and Zanzibar. The men 
are also handsome, but, owing to the style in which 
they dress their hair, appear wild and ferocious. Thus Harris, who studied the Gallas of Shoa, 
described them as " tall and athletic, wrapi)ed in a toga, their features fiery and savage, and 
rendered still more ferocious by the thick bushy hair arranged in lotus-leaved compartments, or 
streaming over the shoulders in long raven plaits." Krapf, who knew the Southern Gallas before 
their overthrow, describes them as people of "a manly appearance, large and ^wwerfully built, 
but with savage features, made still more savage-looking and fierce by their long hair, worn 
like a mane over the shoulders. They are principally of a dark brown colour." 

The clothes of the Gallas are a long leather robe, which in the women is fastened round 
the waist by a girdle decorated with coloured beads. The weapons of the tribe are spear, 
two-edged sword, and round hide shield. The houses of the Southern Gallas are conical huts 
of thatch; but in the north the hiits are surrounded by a low stone wall, and in the towns 
they are mainly of stone. 

The inhabitants have large herds of cattle and horses, and flocks of sheep and goats. 
They are also agriculturists, and grow maize, rye, and wheat ; and instead of the hoe of 
their Buntu neighbours they use a wooden, iron-shod plough dravm by oxen. The staple foods 
are meat and bread, and the beverages are beer and mead. 




riivlo ty K. Ounllur) 



IMerlin. 



A DABOUETAK WABBIOR. 



The Abyssinian and Ethiopic Groups 



371 



Coffee of excellent quality is grown in the district. Tiie best-known industry of Harax 
is its weaving of tobes, cotton garments, and sashes. These, according to Burton, " as far 
surpass in beauty and durability the rapid produce of European manufactories as the perfect 
hand of man excels the finest machinery." 

The G alias are mainly Pagans, though the Wollo and some of the other northern clans have 
been converted to Islam. The iirimitive religion was a fetish- or spirit-worship, including 
veneration for serpents. The Gallas have a firm faith in omens, whicli are derived from the 
examination of the entrails of slaughtered cattle and sheep. The auguries are drawn from 
the arrangement of the intersecting lines in the layers of fat and membrane. Traces of 
Mohammedan and Jewish traditions are found amongst the Gallas, partly no doubt derived 
from their Abyssinian and INIohammedan neighbours. But amongst the Gallas of the Tana 
Valley, who are further removed from these influences, there are traditions of the creation of 
the world, and of a first man named Zadami (i.e. Adam), which may be part of their primitive 
folklore. 



The Danakil. 



The lowland country along 
the south-western border of the 
Red Sea, stretching inland from 
the shore to the foot of the 
Abyssinian highlands, is the 
home of the Danakil, or Afar. 
They are a Hamitic people, 
allied to the Gallas, to the 
Agau of Abyssinia, and to the 
Somali, forming with them 
and the Beja the Ethiopic 
branch of the Hamitic race. 
They are a tall, slim, handsome 
race, with esjaecially beautiful 
women. They are brave and 
warlike, and have practically 
always maintained their in- 
dependence, which was 
threatened by an Egyjitian 
invasion in 1875; but the 
invading army under Mun- 
zinger Pasha was annihilated. 

The Danakil dress is a 
loin-cloth and a tobe, or 
toga. They frequently leave 
off the latter, for which they 
have the excuse of living 
in almost the hottest area 
on the globe. 

Their country is barren, 
and contains many salt lakes, 
which provide the main 
Danakil revenue ; for the salt 
is worked into small cakes 
and exported to Abyssinia, 
where it passes as currency. 




Pholo by K. OiinOitr) 



IStrlin. 



A DAHOMETAN MAN 



372 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 



The assumed Arabian origin of the Danakil is true only of some of the chiefs, who have 
been connected with Arabia, and were at one time subject to the Sheikh of Mecca. But 
these fiacts lend no snpix)rt to the mistaken view that the Danakil and kindred Gallas are of 
Arab (Semitic) descent. All are of Hamitic stock and speech. 



The Somali. 

The peninsula to the east of the Galla country is inhabited by the Somali, who occupy 
the whole of the " Eastern Horn of Africa," the great projection south of the Gulf of Aden, 
and range southwards as far as the Tana River. The Somali are allied to the Gallas, and are 
clearly a Hamitic race ; but to a limited extent the description of the Somali as a half-caste 
race of Gallas and South Arabians is correct, although the Hamitic is unquestionably the 
larger constituent element. 

For an African race the Somali are decidedly handsome. The head is long and the 
forehead lofty and noble ; the eyes are large and expressive ; the jaws, though prominent, are 
not heavy ; the lips, though thick, are thinner than among Negroes. The cheek-bones are high, 
and the nose straight^ with a well-developed bridge, and the nostrils are small. The men are 

tall and extremely slim, the limbs 
being especially thin and bony. The 
women are broader, shorter, and more 
muscular, and they do most of the 
manual work of the tribe. The colour 
of the skin is very dark, and is some- 
times coal black. The hair is long, 
hard, and wiry, and grows in stiff 
ringlets, which are dressed with butter 
made from camel's milk, and often 
trained into an enormous wig, ex- 
tended out on each side of the head. 
The first travellers who came in 
contact with the Somali gave them 
a very bad character, owing to their 
supposed treachery, fickleness, and 
cruelty. This reputation has been 
supiwrted by the following oft- quoted 
passage from Burton, whose experi- 
ences of the Somali were unfortu- 
nate : " They have all the levity and 
instability of the Negro character ; 
light-minded as the Abyssinians — 
described by Gobat as constant in 
nothing but inconstancy — soft, merry, 
and affectionate souls, they pass with- 
out any apparent transition into a 
state of fury, when they are cajjable 
of terrible atrocities. At Aden they 
appear happier than in their native 
country. There I have often seen a 
man clapping his hands and dancing, 
childlike, alone to relieve the exuber- 

Itf ptrmutuin q/ Uu Pn^euor tf Jnlhrapoloff, Aalurat Uutorf MuttuM, Paril. aUCe of llis spirits! HaVC they be- 

A TOBUBA WOMAN. coiue, as the Mongols and other 




The Abyssinian and Ethiopic Groups 



373 



pastoral peoples, a melancholy race, 
who will sit for hours uiJon a bank 
gazing at the moon, or crooning some 
old ditty under the trees ? "' 

But the injustice of the early 
reports of Somali fanaticism and 
hostility to strangers is now gener- 
ally admitted ; and though they have 
on occasions committed acts of dia- 
bolical cruelty and are very excitable, 
later travellers have been imjiressed 
by their merits. The Somali are 
certainly intelligent, skilful artisans, 
devoted to men whom they trust, 
and tolerant of discipline. 

The weapons of the Somali are 
a large spear with a leaf- shape blade, 
a small throwing-javelin, a two-edged 
dagger about 18 inches long, a club, 
and a round hide shield about 18 
inches in diameter. The sf)ear is the 
main weapon : it has a wooden handle 
4 or 5 feet long, which ends below 
in a point, a ferrule, or a short iron 
spike ; the head is from 2 to 4 inches 
wide, about 8 inches long, with a 
shaft about a foot long; the blade 
is often blackened by being made 
red hot and then rubbed with a 
piece of cow's horn. The northern 
Somali sometimes fight on horseback, 
and their horsemanship is excellent. 

Most of the Somali are Moham- 
medans, and adhere with fanatical 
devotion to a somewhat corrupt form 

of that religion. They wear the Moslem rosary of ninety-nine beads, and carry charms. One 
of their devotions takes the form of a dervish dance round a fire, which they continue till 
they throw themselves into the flames in frenzy or fall into them in a mesmeric trance. They 
will not eat meat unless the animal has been killed by a Mohammedan, or dedicated to Allah 
by a prayer said over it in its dying moments ; and they have been known to starve to death 
rather than touch Christians' food. 

Their religion is, however, mixed with fetishism; for tliey swear by stones, they have 
holy places and sacred trees, and trust justice to ordeals, making susjjected criminals pluck 
cowry-shells out of a pot of boiling water, walk over hot ashes, or drag a heavy red-hot iron 
weight from a fire. The verdict is given the day after the ordeal, according to the appearance of 
the burnt scar. 

Polygamy is usual, and the men marry between the ages of fifteen and twenty. A man 
usually marries a woman from another clan, as he thus gains i^rotection from blood-feuds with 
his wife's people. The women do all the menial work of the tribe, and some of them 
usually accompany caravans on the march to make the grass huts, cook the food, and load 
the camels. The men act as camel-drivers, hunters, and warriors. 

Burial rites are simple, especially since, being Mohammedans of the Shafeite sect, they 




Sy permUsion of the Pro/ui&r of Anthropology, Natural History Museum, Paris. 
A YOEUBA MAN. 



374 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 



say no prayers over the dead. 
Corpses are often buried in a 
sitting position under stone cairns. 
There are two main divisions : 
the Hasiya, comprising the 
Mijertins, Habr Gahr-Haji, Habr 
Awal, Gadabursi, Isa, Habr Juni, 
and others ; and the Haivija, of 
which the chief members are the 
Habr Jaleh, Habr Gader, Rad- 
badan, and Rer-DolloL One of 
the best known are the Isa, whom 
Burton describes as " childish 
and docile, cunning and deficient 
in judgment, kind and fickle, 
good-humoured and irascible, 
warm-hearted and infamous for 
cruelty and treachery. ' 'li-aitorous 
as an Isa ' is a proverb at Zayla, 
where these Bedouins are said to 
offer a bowl of milk with the left 
hand and stab with the right." 

The Gadabursi are allies and 

neighbours of the Isa Somali, 

living between Zayla and Harar, 

to the south-east of the Isa 

country. They were said by 

Burton to be as turbulent as the 

Isa, but less bloodthirsty, and of 

a more handsome tyj^e. The Habr Gahr-Haji, who live to the south of Berbcra, claiiu direct 

descent from Sheikh Ishak. They have a blood-feud with the Habr Awal, but unite with them 

against their common enemy the Isa. 

The Abyssinians. 

The kingdom of Ethiopia (Abyssinia) is traditionally named after Ethiops, one of the mythical 
twelve children of Cush, a grandson of Ham and gioat-grandson of Noah, who is supposed to 
have migrated after the Flood from Arabia to Abyssinia. He settled at what is now the sacred 
city of Axum, where his son Ethiops was born. This tradition probably has a cerbiin basis of 
truth ; for the nucleus of the Abyssinian jjcople are Semites who crossed from Southern Arabia 
and settled in the highland plateau of Abyssinia. There they acquired such influence that they 
welded the various tribes of that region into a ])o\*erful confederation. The mi.xture of races in 
the Abyssinian i^ople is illustrated by their name, which comes from Habesh, an Arabic word 
meaning " mi.xed." No name could be more ap{)ropriate ; for the Abyssinians are partly Semitic, 
jMirtly Hamitic, and partly Negro. The dominant race has usually been Semitic. Since the 
death of King John in 1888 the headship has been held by a Hamito-Semitic peoi)le. On 
the western sloijes of Abyssinia are some Negro tribes, such as the Shangallas ; in the i)lains 
to the north of Abyssinia are the Beni-Amer, a mixture of the Abyssinian Tigrians and the 
Nubian B<-ja; in the maritime plain aroimd Massowa dwell the Shoho, who are Hamites and 
8i»eak a Danakil dialect ; in Central Abyssinia dwell the Falashas, who are said to be Jewish in 
race, as they certainly are in religion ; finally, in the forests to the south are a dwarf tribe, the 
Doko, who may be Negrilloes. Tiie Arabs rightly named the Abyssinians the "mixed." 

The kingdom of Abyssinia was founded at a very early date. According to the national 




Photo b]f Uturt. HtgrtUi de ^SoHtbra] 

SOMALI OHILDBEM. 



[LondoH. 








376 



376 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 



tradition, the Queen of Sheba who visited 
Solomon was the Abyssinian Queen Maqueda. 
As a result of that visit the Queen gave birth 
by Solomon to a son, who was named Menelik 
David. He was sent to Jerusalem to be edu- 
cated, and thence returned with a party of 
Jewish priests, under Azariah, son of the high 
priest Zadok, with tutors and servants, whose 
descendants still live in the country as the 
tribe of the Falasha. This enterprising 
Menelik David brought back other treasures ; 
for finding the gates of his father's temple 
open on the day of his dejiarture, he walked 
off with the Ark of Zion and the Tables of 
the Law ! In accordance with this tradition 
the "Negus Negusti " or "King of Kings" 
of Abyssinia has for his second title "The 
Lion of the Tribe of Judah," and is regarded 
as a descendant of Solomon. It does not 
matter whether the ruler be a Semite or 
a Hamite ; the king acquires his ancestors 
when he acquires the throne. 

The great antiquity of the Abyssinian 
kingdom is proved by still existing inscrip- 
tions ; for some of the monuments at Axum 
are inscribed in Greek and Hirayaritic. The 
rude wealth of the early Abyssinian Court is 
known from classical writers. An embassy 
to the country was sent by the Eoman 
Emperor Justinian in the sixth century. Ac- 
cording to Gibbon, "the Negus, arrayed in barbaric pomp of gold chains, collars, and bracelets, 
and surrounded by his nobles and musicians, gave audience to the ambassador of Justinian seated 
in the oi^en field upon a lofty chariot drawn by four elephants superbly caparisoned." 

The original basis of the Abyssinian population was probably the Agau, a Hamitic race 
driven southward from Nubia before the days of the Semitic invasion. These Agau survive in 
iiome scattered communities, of which the largest lives to the south of Lake Tsana. The Falashas, 
or " Abyssinian Jews," according to some authorities, are an Agau race ; but this origin is 
claimed with greater probability for the Bogo of Northern Abyssinia, who worship serpents, 
sacrifice to rivers, and amongst whom no man is allowed to look at or speak to his mother-in-law. 
Politically, the most important people in Abyssinia are the Amhara, who live mostly in 
the central region around Ijike Tsana. In modem times they have generally been the 
predominant nation, and their language, Amharic, is widely spoken by other tribes, such as 
the Agau. At present, however, since King John was killed in battle with the Mahdists. 
the Slioans, a southern race, have held the reins of power. 

Historically, the chief rivals of the Amhara have been the Tigrians, whose cajjital is Adowa. 
The Tigrians speak a dialect of Ghez, a primitive Semitic language introduced from South 
Arabia in prehistoric times. The language is maintained in its archaic form by the Abyssinian 
Church, and it is spoken in what is said to be a fairly pure form by the Hababs, who live on 
the Ked Sea shore north of Alassowa. 

Tlie typical Abyssinians are the jieople of Amhara. They are a tall race, with a long 
narrow head, an oval face, a high forehead, a thin and often aquiline nose, bright oval eyes, 
a {Minted chin, a well-formed mouth, with thick and sometimes pouting lips, long frizzly or 




Photo by Ham. Ses/rttti * Zambra] 

A SOMALI MAN. 



[London. 



The Abyssinian and Ethiopic Groups 



377 




Ptu>to by Mwn. .\"jr'.tu it- Zamhraj 



{londoti. 



K SOMALI MAN AND BIS WIFE, 



silky hair, and small hands, feet, and limbs. The colour varies from light yellow to dark 
brown. The race is typically Semitic; but the occasional occurrence of a flattened nose, Negro 
lips, and a jet-black skin shows that the Amharans are not free from Negro intermixture. 

The Amharans are intelligent, and have bright, animated faces ; the main fault of the 
people is that they are quarrelsome and inordinately vain. Some tam3 lions are kept loose in 
the court of the Negus as a symbol of the power of the king. 

The national costume of the men in Abyssinia is a long piece of cotton-cloth folded round 
the body like a toga; under this is a loin-cloth or a ptiir of loose drawers ending a little 

48 



37ii 



The Living Races of Mankind 



above the knee. The coast tribes wear a long shirt with the drawers. The women have a 
wide-sleeved chemise, tied round the waist by a narrow girdle, and a long tobe or sheet of 
cotton-cloth wnipjied round the body. 

The ornaments of the women are large studs of wood or metal in the ears, massive silver 
bracelets and anklets with silver bells, necklaces of blue- and gold-coloured beads, and a string 
of charms. They generally carry a twirling fan. The women paint extensively ; they remove 
the hair from the eyebrows and mark there a line of dark blue ; the cheeks are coloured to 
the eyes with a rouge made of oclue and fat. 

The women usually wear the hair in rows of small curls ; and the men devote much 
attention to their hair-dressing, frequently varying the arrangement. According to Harris, 
"many hours are daily exi>ended in arranging the mop into various and quaint devices. At 
one time it is worn hanging in long clut;tering ringlets over the cheeks and neck, at another 
frizzed into round matted protuberances ; to-day fancifully tucked and trimmed into small rows 
of minute curls like a counsellor's peruke, and to-morrow boldly divided into four large 
lotus-leaved compartments." The hair is, however, sometimes worn quite short. 

The old weapons are a curved, sickle-shaped sword, spear, and shield ; but firearms have 
been introduced, and are now the national weapon, at least in the army. Slings and stones 
are used in war ; throwing- clubs are used for hunting small game, while lions are killed witlj^, 
the spear. ]>eoi)ards are trained for hunting antelope. 

The architecture varies greatly. The simjilest huts are circular frameworks of twigs 

plastered with mud. In the Alpine regions of Simen they 
are of thick thatch surrounded by a thorn fence. In Sanafe 
the houses are long and rectangular. The better class of houses 
and those of most of the towns are built of stone cemented 
by mortar; such houses are circular, built in two storeys, and 
are all of stone, thatched with straw. Some of the older 
buildings are finer than any now built by the native Abyssinians. 
Thus in Gondar, the chief town in the province of Amhara, 
are the remains of a seventeenth-century fortress wliich has 
been called " the Windsor Castle of Ethioiiia." This, however, 
was built by an European architect of red sandstone, with 
battlements of black basalt, and contains a high central keep 
and a number of round towers connected by long galleries. 
^ _--. . ,__! _^ The most remarkable dwellings in Abyssinia are the mono- 

^^3f JBrV HNH lit hie temples, which are hewn out of single blocks of rock. 

^^W.,' IV I At Lalibala there are several churches cut in blocks of basalt ; 

and at Sokota, the chief town in the province of Wag, is 
a similar church in granite. Monolithic colunms occur in 
various parts of the country, as in Wag, and at Axum, where 
there is one 83 feet in height. 

Agriculture and the industries are neglected and primitive, 
thougli better conducted than in most of the Tvegro tribes. 
As with the Arabs and the Gallas, the fields are prepared for 
sowing by a wooden plough, armed with an iron knife or lance- 
head, and drawn by oxen. The main products grown are 
cereals, including barley. The grain is eaten as {wrridge, 
or in flour cakes or unleavened bread. Haw meat is the 
favourite food, and it is preferred when eaten warm from the 
slaughtered beast and flavoured with its gall. As is known 
from the accojints of Bruce, confirmed by later tra\ellers, steaks 
are cut from the flanks of live cattle, and the wounds are 
healed. Keer brewed from barley and mead from wild honey 




K<"" ■•■ . X- , J... 

AM ABTSSINIAir OIBL. 




Bj/ ptmiusioa of the rro/tuor of Anthropoioyy, Natural IliMory MtiKfum, I'aris. 

A KATIVK OF ABY88INIA. 

37'J 



38o 



The Living Races of Mankind 




B^ penniuion q/ Uu Pr(y'euor <^ Amhropvun/i/, AufurcU History Mujicum, Fant- 

A GEOnP OF ABYSSINIAN8. 

are the chief intoxicating beverages. The Abyssinians are forced to abstain totally from the 
use as drinks of either milk or coffee, which grows wild. The use of tobacco is also forbidden, 
and some rulers have discouraged smoking by cutting oflf the lips of people found indulging 
in that habit. 

The most characteristic industries are filigree metal-working, leather-work and embroidery, 
and the plaiting of straw mats, baskets, and bowls, which, as with the Gallas, are woven 
sufficiently close to hold milk. Poetry is compiled by a class of minstrels who sing the 
praises of the nobles. Pictures, usually highly coloured, decorate the churches. The style 
of painting is Byzantine, and one remarkable feature is that good people are never represented 
in profile, which is reserved for demons, enemies, and Jews. 

The ceremonies in connection with births lu-e mainly remarkable for the union of 
Mohammedan and Jewish rites; for Abyssinian babies, when eight days old, are subjected to 
both baptism and circumcision. 

Marriage is a civil contract, though a religious ceremony is often added : a great feast is 
indispensable. The father gives the bride a dowry, which remains her property, and unless 
previously spent is retained by her if she be divorced or seiKirated. Morals among tiie people 
are lax, and adultery is not uncommon ; if discovered, the woman gets a whipping. Polygamy 
and concubinage on an extensive scale exist among the wealthy classes. 

Burials are attended by a great feast, provided, as in some West African tribes, by presents 
of food to the bi-reaved relatives. All the contributors exi)ect invitations. Among the Shoho, 
who are inveterate- beggars, the hand of the corpse is left outstretched above the grave. 

The State religion of Abyssinia since the fourth century has been Christianity. The Church 



The Abyssinian and Ethiopic Groups 



381 



is a branch of the Coptic Church of Egypt, and its head is the Patriarch of Alexandria. He 
appoints the Abuna, or Prelate of Abyssinia, who must be a Copt. But his influence is 
controlled by the Echegheh, a native dignitary at the head of the religious orders. Both live in 
Gondar, which is the ecclesiastical centre. The priests are allowed only one wife each, and 
are not allowed to remarry. The creed of the Church is monophysite — that is, it holds to 
the single and not the dual nature of Christ. It also believes in the three births of Christ — 
viz. His proceeding from the Father, His birth by the Virgin ^Nlary, and His reception of the 
Holy Ghost : that the last was a birth was settled by a sanguinary civil war. Fasting is one of 
the practices of the Church ; and the priests are supposed to fast for nine months of the year. 

The political organisation of the country is theoreHcally a despotism, limited by the weakness 
of the central authority and the slowness of communications. There is a paid standing army 
of about 70,000 men, with an unpaid militia of about 140,000 more. Nearly all the men have 
rifles of some sort, and the army has eighty mountain guns. 

The criminal code dates from the time of Constantine, but it appears to be arbitrarily 
and sometimes cruelly enforced. In the time of King Theodore criminals at Magdala were 
crucified, flayed, or hurled over a cliff. But the rule of the present king, Menelik of Shoa, 
appears to be very superior to that of his predecessors in the administration of justice. 

As an example of the Abyssinian Negro races we may take the Shangallas, who live in 
the jilains to the north-west of the Abyssinian plateau. They are a fierce, warlike race, and 
are described by Plowden as people with light, slim legs, but powerfully built from the waist 
upward. Their food is meat and wild honey, and they eat the carrion of animals slain by 
Abyssinian ivory-hunters. They live in large caves in the rainy season, and at other times 
bivouac in the scrub. Their religion is fetishism, and they are guided by omens drawn from 
the flights of birds. 




Photo htj .Vr. J. \f'. Roland. 



HAU8SA. 



382 



The Living Races of Mankind 



The Falashas. 




By permiuion of Htrr Vmlauf, Bamburg. 
A. HAUSSA WOMAN. 



One of the most remarkable races in Abyssinia 
are the Falashas, who live ai'ound Lake Tsana in 
the central provinces. Their name, which comes 
from the Ethiopian word Falas, means "exiles." 
They claim to be the direct descendants of the Jews 
sent to Abyssinia as the retinue of Menelik, son 
of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, reinforced by 
those who fled from Palestine after the overthrow 
of Judah by Nebuchadnezzar. The P^alashas were 
once a powerful tribe occupying Simen, the high 
mountain region of Abyssinia, and the adjacent 
j)lain8 of Dembea. They were a turbulent race, 
and a source of iterjietual trouble to the Tigrian.s 
and Amharans. They were therefore driven from 
the plains ; but under a succession of Gideons and 
Judiths they held their own in the mountains. In 
the tenth century, under a beautiful and ambitious 
leader. Princess Esther, they nearly subverted Chris- 
tianity throughout Abyssinia, and compelled the 
Legitimist prince to fly to Shoa. At length in the 
seventeenth century they were finally defeated, driven from the mountains, and compelled to settle 
as a subject race in the provinces of Denibeii, Gojam, and Woggera. They were estimated 
in 18G2 to number about 250,000, but according to later reports there ai-e only from 10,000 
to 20,000 of them. Stem, who visited the tribe as a missionary, says that '• in physiognomy 
most of the Falashas bear striking traces of their Semitic origin. Among the first group we 
saw at Gondai' there were some whose Jewish features no one could have mistaken who had 
ever seen the descendants of Abraham either in London or Berlin. Their comiilexion is 
a shade paler than that of the Abyssinians, and their eyes, although black and sparkling, are 
not so disproportionately large as those which characteristically mark the other occupants 
of the land." 

The Falashas are very exclusive : intermarriage with members of another tribe or creed 
is rigidly prohibited, and any intercourse with a Gentile entails elaborate penance and 
purification. They maintain the Jewish customs as prescribed in Leviticus. They observe the 
Passover with the sacrifice of the Paschal lamb and the use of unleavened bread. They 
celebrate the feasts of Pentecost, of Trumpets, and of Tabernacles by taking ottV-rings to their 
synagogues, where they hold commemorative services. Their synagogues, or mesquids, are placed 
in the middle of the villages and surmounted by a red earthen pot ; the building is divided 
into three courts, entrance to which is regulated by the Levitical Law. The entrance faces the 
east, and on the opiwsite side is a small enclosure containing the altar of sacrifice. The 
priests undergo a long course of ascetic training. According to Stern, the Falashas aie in 
many ways sujjerior to their neighbours. He describes them as "exem[ilary in their morals, 
cleanly in their habits, and devout in their belief, and also industrious in the daily pursuits 
and avocations of life. Husbandry and a few simple trades — such as smiths, potters, and 
weavers — constitute the sole occupations in which they engage : commerce they unanimously 
repudiate as incomjMitible with their Mosaic creed." 

In connection with the claims of the Falasha people to be regarded as of Jewish descent, 
it may be stated that none of their piiests have at present any kuowleilge of the Hebrew 
language. Their Bible is the Gheez or Old Ethiopic version, which was made probably in the 
fourth cenrury, and is common to all the Abyssinian Christians. 

Ajjart from their [leculiar religious rites and traditions, the Falashas differ little from the 



384 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 




Pholobr Mr. J. IF. H'Aa,vl. 



A GBOUP OF HAUS8A. 



surrounding Agao, Khamta, and other Hamitic peoples, who still speak rude dialects of the 
old Hamitic tongue, and form the substratum of the heterogeneous Abyssinian populations. 
Of these the most primitive are the ]Vito (Vaito), fishers and hunters of the hippoi)otanms, 
who dwell round the shores of I^ake Tsana, and present physical characters quite distinct from 
those of both the Hamites and Semites, by whom they are despised as outcasts. Their chief 
distinguishing features are a retreating liead, with the outer corners of the eyes and eyebrows 
sloping uj)war(ls, an aquiline nose curved like a hawk's beak over the upi)er lip, enormously 
long chin, jwinted ears, short woolly hair — altogether an aggregate of discordant characters 
such as scarcely occur in any other known race. Yet the Wito women are described as really 
beautiful, even according to European ideas. They are a harmless people, who keep aloof from 
their neighbours, and live in little conical huts made of reeds taken from the lake. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

THE HAMITIG AND SEMITIC RACES OF NORTH AFRICA. 



a. THE PEOPLES OF THE SAHARA AND SOUDAN. 

The vast desert of Northern Africa, bounded by the Atlantic, the Mediterranean states, the 
Nile Valley, and the Soudan, is the most sparsely populated region in Africa. JMost of it is a 
barren, waterless waste, where cultivation is impossible. But in places there are oases around 
springs and wells, which render some regions habitable and trade routes j^racticable across the 
deserts. The habitable areas are divided between two groups of tribes — the Tibbus in the 
east, and the Tuaregs in the west. 

The TiiiBus. 

Ethnographically the Tibbu is the less important group. Its headquarters are among 
the rocky fa.stnesses of the Tibesti Alountains, east of the caravan road from Fezzan southward 




Photo Oy leroux] 



A CBOUr OK TUABEGS, SOUTH ALGKBIA. 

380 



[Alffitt-g, 

49 



586 



The Living Races of Mankind 



to Lake Chad ; but its members roam 
over the eastern desert, and have settle- 
ments in Fozzan on the north and in 
Ijorku and Kanem to the south. 

According to Denham's account, the 
Tibbus of Gando are " never above the 
middle size, slim, well made, with shar]), 
intelligent, copper-coloured faces, large 
prominent eyes, flat noses, large mouths, 
and teeth regular but stained a deep red 
from the immoderate use of tobacco. 
The forehead is high." The combination 
of a flat nose with long crisp hair, a fairly 
full beard, and high forehead suggests 
that the race is mixed. Most of it is 
probably Ilamitic. But the language 
belongs to a grouj) spoken by the Negro 
l)eoi)les of the Soudan, and the tribe has 
niiiny customs in common with tlie Nilotic 
Negroes ; thus it uses the same pattern of 
scar-tattooing, a series of lines across the 
temples, as do the Shilluk, and, like the 
Masai, it holds iron-workers in supreme 
contempt. The Tibbus enforce the prohi- 
bition of comnmnication between a man 
and his mother-in-law, which is widely 
spread among Negro tribes. On the 
other hand, they practise female circum- 
cision, like the Somali and the Negroes 

of the Slave Coast, which appears to be rather a Hamitic rite. 

The men cover their faces with the Arab veil, but the women go half or more than half 

naked. The main ornaments of the Tibbus consist of a series of charms. Their weapons are 

8i)e<irs and a knife shaped like a bill-hook. They ride camels, and the camel harness sliows 

Arab influence. 

The Tibbus dwell mainly in rock -shelters, caves, or rough huts made by resting roofs of 

twigs and palm thatch on Iwulders. Their staple food is dates, flour of dhurra, the stringy 

innutritions fruit of the duin-iuilm, and goats' milk. Hut the food-supi^ly is generally 

insufficient. 




I'hoto 6y Itroux] 



[Algiers. 



A TUAEEO WOMAN. 



The Tuaregs. 

The western tribes, which form the group of the Tuareg, belong to the Berber race, like 
the Kabyles of Algeria, of which they are tiie purest roprosentjitives. They are intellectually 
and numerically greatly sui)erior to the Tibbus. The Tuaregs range westward from the Bilnia 
salt-iMins on the Fezzan-Chad caravan road, between Twat on the north and the Niger on the 
south, to the border of the Arab belt that runs south along the Atlantic coast from I^Iorocco 
to Senegal. The tribe is divided into three main groui)s : the Asgars, the most import^mt 
section, in the east ; the Haggiirs, in the west ; and the Kelowais of Air, who have been altered 
by Negro intermixture, in the south-east. 

The Tuaregs suflVr from a bad reputation, owing to the massacre of the Flatters Exi>edition 
and of iw)me French missionaries who wore thought to have completely won their confidence. 
Some travellers, however, have found them friendly and honourable. Lieutenant Hourst, tlieir 
latest champion, remarks that "faults, many faults, of course they have. They are proud. 




Photo by Uimtx'i 



[Algiers, 



A TUAUKW MAM. 
387 



:88 



The Living Races of Mankind 



they are fierce, they rob, and 
they beg. One of their 
IKH-uliarities makes it very 
(lilHcult to deal with them — 
I hey are very ready to take 
offt'nce. Tlicy are, moreover, 
in constant dread of being 
subject to servitude, and fear 
inxiision above all things, 
bide by side with all this, 
however, many noble virtues 
must also be placed to the 
I'leiiit of the Tuaregs. Their 
courage is proverbial. The 
defence of a guest is with 
them, as with the Anibs, a 
positive religion; whilst their 
bleadfastness of character is 
well known, and their powers 
of endui-ance are absolutely 
indispensable to their very 
existence. Lastly — and here 
I know what I say is conti-ary 
to the generally received 
opinion — the Tuareg is faithful 
to his promises and hates 
jietty theft. 'Never promise 
more than half what you can 
perform ' says a Tuareg proverb, 
and even in the opinion of 
tiieir enemies this is no idle 
boast." 

Physically the Tuaregs 
are typical Berbers, and re- 
semble the peoples of Southern 
I'.urope. The men are tall 
and slim, and their complexion 
is fair until tanned by ex- 
]i()sure to the sun and sand 
glare, liluc eyes are not un- 
connnon. Tlie women agree 
in most respects with the 
men, except in figm'e, which 
ii« alten-d by artificial diet. According to llourst, the women "are pleasing, sometimes even 
very pretty. Delicate features, big eyes full of e.vpression, and very long black hair, jiarted in 
the middle and i)luit«'d together at the back of the head, give them a charming appearance; 
but they have absolutely no figures— they are just one mass of fat ; their arms are like the 
jellif* exiK)M-<l for sale in jwrk-butchcrs' shops, and the less said about the rest of their bodies 
the better." 

Hie Tuareg dn-ss consists of a tunic of black cotton reaching nearly to the ankles, a 
p»ir of Iwggy ti-ousi-rs, hide wndnls, and a black \eil which covers the face. As with the 
Tib1)u», the veil is not worn by the women, except tliat they may put one on as a mark of 




MIM.li 1\1'|,. llKlilKIt ANh NK.lin I1A( l:, ^iAIIAUA. 




Photo by Ukt'jian <t Co.] 



A FELLAir AVI I.MAN. 
389 



IVairo. 



390 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 




1...:^ ... :,:. rum rtui] 



(/'u?-u. 



respect to strangers : the men, 
on the other hand, never take 
it off, even at nieals or during 
sleep. The hair is shaved, 
but the men leave a ridge or 
cockscomb to keep the veil 
raised off the head. 

The main ornaments of the 
Tuaregs are small leather bags 
containing charms, which hang 
round the neck. They also wear 
necklaces of copper beads. A 
stone ring, usually of serpentine, 
fastened on the left arm above 
the wrist, is an ornament which 
is also useful in hand-to-hand 
lighting. The maui weapon of 
the Tuaregs is the dagger, hung 
on the left wrist by a leather 
loop : in war they carry a 
double-edged sword, an iron 
lance, used either for thrusting 
or throwing, and a round 
leather shield. Some of the 
W(>stcrn Tuaregs use bows and 
arrows. 

The horses are small hut 
strong; their saddles are made 
of wood covered with leather; the stirrups are very small, and only the big toe rests in them. 
Tlje camel is a more important domestic animal than the horse. 

The dwellings of the Tuaregs are mostly of skins resting on a light wooden framework ; 
but stiaw huts are also used. Tliey have a few towns, especially in the south. Thus most 
of the jieoide of Say are Tuaregs. But Say, though a large town, is very inferior to those of 
the Haussii. The houses are mere straw huts with pointed roofs. There is but one mud 
house, which is occupied by the chief. The stockade round Say is said to be also made of 
Ktraw. Some other Tuareg towns are better built : thus Ghat, which is five miles in circumference, 
consists of houses made of mud and date-palm timber. 

The military system of the Tuaregs is feudal. Each head of a district has to maintain a 
force of armed retainers ready for service whenever called for. 

A Tuareg marries only one wife. The preferences of the women are consulted in 
marriage, and a woman may refuse any suitor for whom she does not care. After marriage 
her [xmition is one of freedom, which is never abused, and of influence, which is always on 
the side of refinement. The women are more cultured than the men ; and among one group, 
tlie Asgars, most of the women can read and write. The men are generally attached to their 
wives, and a good deal of the native poetry is devoted to the praise of women. Women, 
moreover, hold property in their own right ; and as they are not bound to contribute 
to the household ex|K'nses, they are usually richer than their husbands. Daughters inherit 
an eqiml share with the sons in the ordinary property of their parents, while whatever has 
been captured in wiu- falls to the lot of the eldest daughter's eldest son. 

Tlie domestic virtues of the Tuaregs are also illustrated by their treatment of their 
ttlaves, a Negro caste known as the Bellates. According to Lieutenant Hourst, the slaves 
are so attached to their masters that the French have not succeeded in detaching a single 



TWO KUBIAN GIRLS. 



The Peoples of the Sahara and Soudan 



391 



Bellate from his allegiance : when taken prisoners, they escape back to their bondage at the 
first opportunity. 

The Tuareg religion is Islam modified by fetishism. The Tuaregs are very superstitious, 
believe in demons and spirits, and never speak of the dead except as those who have disappeared. 
They regard the cross as a sacred s3'mbol. 

The Fulah. 

The physical characters of the Fulah race show that they are not Negroes, and they have 
even been regarded as ^Malays, and some striking coincidences with Malayan culture exist in the 
West Soudan. But the Fulah are probably a Hamitic race of Berber affinities, and possibly 
are allied to the Tuaregs. 

They present an interesting combination of physical features. The colour, as implied 




PlMto by Richard Buchta. 



TWO KUUIAN UA^CI.NU-LiUlLS. 



by the name Fulah, is reddish, varying from reddish brown to a light chestnut. The face is 
oval, the nose is straight and often aquiline, the lips are thin and delicate, and the hair is 
straight or grows in loose ringlets. 

In mental characters they differ no less markedly from the Negroes. Barth calls them the 
most intelligent of African races. All were formerly pastoral, but many have now settled down 
to agricultural and industrial pursuits, in which they succeed by their shrewdness, pertinacity, 
and diplomacy. As soldiers they are brave and disci])lined, altliougli Lieutenant llonrst tells 
us that the Fulah of ?"afa on the Niger, like the rest of tlie sedentary peoples whom he met, 
live in abject fear of the Tuaregs. But their courage and discipline are demonstrated by 
the fact that, tliough they are a minority of the ]K)pulation in Sokoto, they are politically 
supreme. Their army is large, disciplined, and well eepiipped. 

The Fulah language is described by Keane as " of distinctly Negro type." It uses 



392 



The Living Races of Mankind 



suffixes in declension and adopts two genders, which are the " human " and the " not human," 
instead of the usual divisions of male and female. 

The two chief Fulah states are Sokoto and Gando, to each of which there are various 
subject states, which have an even smaller percentage of Fulah jjeople. Thus Bide and Nupe 
on opjiosite sides of the Niger above the confluence of the Benue, and Borgu on the west 
bank farther north, are subject to Gando. And the provinces of Kano, Katsena, and Zaria to 
the east and south-east of Sokoto, and Yakoba and Adainawa still farther to the south-east, 
were formerly tributary to Sokoto. Most of tiiese groups are now comprised in British Nigeria, 
the rest in the PVench Soudan or the German Kamerun. 

The Haussa. 

The Haussa are essentially a nation of traders ; they live in large populous towns, where 
they carry on their numerous industries and handicrafts. The products are distributed over 
most of Northern Africa. The Haussa language has become the medium of intercourse between 
the different races of the West and Central Soudan. It is spoken throughout the greater part of 
the Niger Basin; and in most of the principal commercial centres of Tunis, Algeria, Senegambia, 
and the British west coast protectorates there are traders who know the language. 

The Haussa language has been studied by many workers, including Dr. Eat and Dr. 
Schon, who comjjiled the first gnuninars and dictionaries, and Canon Eobinson, who has 
investigated Haussa literature. In the language about a third of the words are Semitic, 
including all but one of the pronouns and most of the terms in commonest use ; but owing 
to its structure the language is believed by Eobinson to belong to the Hamitic group, whereas 
Profe.xsor Keane considers it to be Negro altered by Hamitic influence. 

The relations of the three great languages of the West Soudan are admimvbly exjiressed 

by Cust in the remark that Arabic, Fulah, 
and Haussa are respectively the languages 
of religion, conquest, and commerce. 

Though industrious and enterjn-ising, 
the Haussa are said to be cowardly. This 
statement may be regarded as inconsistent 
with tlie reputation for valour of om- West 
African Haussa police ; but the men in 
tliat force are not Haussa, but only Haussa- 
s[)eaking Negroes. When some real Haussa 
were once by mistake engaged for service 
in the Congo Free State, their natural 
timidity was only too well illustrated. 

Owing to their lack of courage, the 
Haussa were easily conquered by the Fulah, 
who now rule over them. The two races 
are easily distinguished. The Haussa are 
darker in colour, shorter in stature, have 
luoader noses, and more woolly hair than 
I lie l''ulaii. But in culture botli peoples are 
on the same grade, which for Africa is 
very advanced. 

The peoj)le dress in cotton, e8i>ecially 
in the blue-dyed cotton of Kano. The 
chief garments are a long loose shirt 
reaching to the knees and a pair of baggy 
trousers. The men wear a straw caji, a 
turlian, or a fe/. The heiid is genendly 




A NnRIAN nAKCINO-WnMAit. 



The Peoples of the Central Soudan 



393 



shaved, except a tuft at the 
back ; but the beard is long 
and worn full. Leather 
sandals of ^loorish tyjie are 
made at Kano and Katsena. 
Ornaments of embroidei-ed 
leather, rings and trinkets of 
gold and silver of tasteful 
design, and decorated jiottery 
show the artistic sense of the 
people. The chief weapons 
are a long straiglit sword, 
which tajiei-s steadily to the 
point, and a long lance, with 
a handle 8 or 10 feet long; 
battle-axes, throwing-knivos, 
knuckle-dusters armed with 
knife-blades, bows and arrows, 
are also used. The Fulah 
wear suits of quilted armour. 

The houses are usually 
circular, and built of mud 
walls with a conical thatclied 
roof; each house is placed 
in a court-yard or compound. 
The wealthier merchants and 
chiefs dwell in two-storeyed 
houses, comprising several 
rooms, with a flat roof and 
wide verandahs. The palace 
at Kano, which is several 
acres in extent, was designed 
on this plan ; it consists of 
ii series of buildings made 

of hardened mud, surrounding a large court-yard. The houses are collected into large towns, 
which are the most remarkable feature of Haussaland. Each town is surrounded by a wall, 
sometimes from 20 to 40 feet in height, pierced by gates and defended by towers. 

For the purposes of trade there is a shell currency, the recognised medium of exchange being 
cowries, of which 2,000 are ecpiivalent in value to about eighteenpence. The religion of 
the Fulah and of most of the Haussa is Islam ; but it is not followed with fanaticism : in 
Kano. for example, there is but a single mosque, which is small and neglected. In some 
places, tinfortunately, the religion has not saved the people from intemperance. 




Photo by Seurdi . 



[FarU. 



AN ULED-NAlL (ALGERIAN TYPE). 



6. THE PEOPLES OF THE CENTKAL SOUDAN. 



West of the " empire " of Sokoto are the four states of the Central and Eastern Soudan, 
Bomu, Pagliirmi, Wadai, and Darlur, wliich extend eastward from the Niger to the edge of 
the Nile Pasin in Kordofan, but have retained a mere shadow of their political independence. 

The peoples of the four states are of very mixed origin. The main basis of the population 
is Negro, mixed with Arabs, PciIkts, TihbuK, and various half-breeds. The Arab influence is 
^eatest in Wariai and in the plains of Darf'ur, whereas the Negro element is strongest in 

oil 



394 



The Living Races of Mankind 




iParit. 



Wiulai, Haghirini, and Bornu. The most tyiiical 
of the Soudanese are the people of Bornu, a 
Negro nation with a strong Tibbu strain. 

Bornu is ethnograi)liically the most im- 
portant and interesting of the four states. The 
ruling j)eople are the Kanuri, who are clearly 
Negi-oe,s somewhat modified by interminglings, 
especially with the Dazas or Southern Tibbus. 
They were conquered by the Fulah, but re- 
covered their independence in a holy war 
stimulated by the preaching of a native 
.Alahdi. 

They have been described as timid and 
peaceful, "with large unmeaning faces, fat Negro 
noses, and mouths of gieat dimensions, with good 
(eeth and high foreheads." The men generally 
shave their heads, but the women wear their hair 
formad into three rolls, one on the top of the 
head, and with two smaller rolls hanging down 
over the ears. The tribal tattoo-mark is a series 
of twenty scars running from the comers of the 
mouth to the angle of the lower jaw and cheek- 
bone. The national weapons are the sjjcar, shield, 
and dagger. 

The country houses in Bornu are circular in 
shape, and made of straw, woven grass mats, or 
clay walls thatched with straw^. But most of the 
peoi)le live in towns, where the houses are larger 
and better built. The houses of the better class consist of several walled courts, round which 
are the ajwirt ments for the slaves ; the wives of the owner live in an inner court, where 
there is a thatched hut for each of them. From this court a staircase leads "to the 
ajiartroents of the owner, which consist of two buildings like towers or turrets, with a 
terrace of communication lietween them. Tiie walls are made of reddish clay as smooth as 
stucco, and the roofs most tastefully arched on the inside with branches and thatched on 
the outside with grass." 

Hie towns are surrounded by walls 20 feet thick and from 30 to 40 feet high. The walls 
are ])ierced by four entrances, closed at night by massive wooden gates. 

The j)eople have few industries except agriculture. They grow grain crops, especially 
millet and diiurra, which, Iwiled into porridge, is the staple food. Beans also are largely 
grown. Fish is aiiundant in Ijike Chad and the rivers which flow into it. 

Baghirmi, to the south-east of Lake Chad, is the Soudanese state with the most Negro 
blood in tiie i^ople ; the |)opuktion consists of Bomuese, P'ulah, and Arabs, greatly altered by 
the large class of Negro slaves. 

In Wadai the Anib tyj* is strongest, and it is mixed with Negroes, Fulah, and some 
Tibbu.i. Hie jieople of Wadai are more fanatical and warlike than those of the other states 
of this gnnip. lu addition to the usual weajwus, the lance or spear, knife, and dagger-shaped 
sword, the natives use tiie gun and revolver, and are protected by cpiilted armour like that 
of the Fulah. 

In the hills of Dorfur live the Fur Negroes, who have adoj)ted Islam, but retain their 
old fetishes and Negro sujKTstit ions ; but unlike the Nilotic Negroes, to whom they are allied, 
they neither tattoo iKir n-niove the front teeth from the lower jaw. They are a brave race, 
as the KgyptiutiM li'anit by experience. 



AM ULED-NAlL WOMAM, BISKRA. 




fU.., .„ 



[Atffifrn. 



A!f uled-saIl woman. 



396 



The Living Races of Manl<.ind 



c. THE PEOPLES OF 
EGYPT AND NUBIA. 

Egypt, as might be ex- 
pected from its geo- 
gi-aphical position, is 
inhabited by a mixture 
of races. The basis of 
the population consists 
of Copts and Fellahin, 
who are the lineal de- 
scendants of the ancient 
Egyptians. 

T«E Copts. 

The Copts now live 
mostly in Upper Egypt, 
especially near Assiut 
and around Lake ijirket- 
el-l^urun in the de- 
pression of Fayum. In 
this district many 
villages are occupied 
solely by Copts, who 
live as agriculturists ; 
whereas in Lower Egypt 
they are artisans, 
traders, and scribes. As 
the Copts are Christians, 
they have been brought 
into less intimate asso- 
ciation with the Arab 
Bcclion of the popula- 
tion, and thus have re- 
mained less altered than 
the Fellahin by inter- 
mixture of Semitic 
blood. But though in 
religion and race the 
Copts have remained 
jiure, in customs and sjiirit they have been greatly altered. Thus Klunzinger tells us that 
" the modem Cojtt has become from head to foot, in manners, language, and spirit, a Moslem, 
however unwilling he may be to recognise the fact. His dress is like that of the rest of the 
l)eople, except tliat ho i)refers darker materials." He wears a black tiu-ban ; in church he keeps 
on his head-covering and removes his shoes; in praying he faces Jerusalem, "and nmmbles 
out itsalms by the yard in a regular jiatemoster gallop " ; he fasts jjcriodically, and will not eat 
pig, camel, or goose. 

The Coptic Church itself has not escaped alteration by contact with Islam. It arose as 
an offshoot from the Greek in the fifth century after the Council of Chalcedon. Its head 
is Patriarch of Alexandrisi, who is also the chief of the Abyssinian Church. The usages of 
the Church have preserved many relics of primitive Christianity. The priests dress like the 




fkote ty XeunUin Friru] 



iFaris. 



AM ULED-NAlI. WOMAS, BIBKUA. 



The Peoples of Egypt and Nubia 



397 



laymen, and are dependent for support on the free-will offerings of the people, which are 
generally given in kind. Marriage is forbidden to the priests after ordination, but they 
are allowed to many before that event; and marriage bars their promotion to only the 
highest posts in the Church. 

The Fellaiiin. 

The Fellahin have been more altered by Arab and Berber influences than the Copts, 
but in physique and cast of countenance the old Egyptian tyj^e is recognisable. They are of 
middle height, on an average about 5 feet B inches high ; they have a broad forehead, straight 
nose, which lacks the Semitic flattening at the tip, large black eyes, and thick lips. The 
Fellahin form the bulk of the Egyptian population, especially in the rwcaX districts of the 
Delta and Lower Egypt. The country Fellah wears a brown woollen shirt, with large loose 
sleeves, and usually has also a shawl over his shoulders. On his head is a tight-fitting white 
cap or a red fez, covered by the turban. The townsmen, on the other hand, dress in cotton 
instead of wool ; they wear a loose cotton shirt reaching to the knees or the feet, and often 
tied round the waist by a girdle ; beneath the shirt is a loin-cloth or a pair of short drawers. 
The men of the upper classes have adopted Arab, Tiu-kish, or European costumes. Their 
women live in seclusion and never appear in public places except closely veiled. Klunzinger 
has given a full account of their dress and ornaments. He tells us that they blacken their 
eyelids with antimony and decorate their bodies by tattooing and paint. Their hair is bound 
into slender tresses, some of which cover the sides of the head, and the rest hang freely 
down the back. Their ornaments are elaborate and costly, being mostly made of gold. The 
hair is fastened and adorned by golden pins and combs, and fringed with rows of ducats, tiny 







i;i.r.[>.NAl(l,.s ANij 'iwi; m:(.hii i;iiils. 



[/',i,-;... 



398 



The Living Races of Mankind 



bells, and gold flakes ; the tresses are tied at the 
ends by cords of silk adorned with spangles and 
gold coins. The main article of dress is a loose 
white robe, which extends from the shoulders 
to the feet ; it iias no sleeves, but there are wide 
side-openings from the arm to the knees. The 
u'lder-garinents consist of a gauze chemise and 
loose drawers fastened below round the knees or 
ankles. 

Tilt- life of the i>eo})le is regular and uniform. 
V •" '^l- ' " — ■ — '1'1'f^'y 'ill I'i^e before the sun, say their prayers, 

^JLL ^^ ^^ -^ ^^ take a cup of coffee, and then hurry off to the 

^^^^^^m§H-,j ~ ^^% tJte bazaar or the field. Business is mostly done in 

^^^^Bt'mmv .^k ' ww tP^I the morning. At midday there is dinner, followed 

^^^^VsHr ^M ^29L 3 ^' "^ ^'^"^ siesta; work is then resumed till 

^^^^KM W ' ,. v vj) (^l^r ^Pk sunset, after which comes the principal meal of 

H^H^ ■ ■ ij^^^^^f ^ ^"^^Tff '''^^ ^''^'' '^"'"^ main foods are flat cakes of un- 

leavened bread made of flour paste baked over 
a fire, beans and lentils boiled with ghee or 
liutter, fried fish, mutton, beef, or fowls. The 
women have their household work, which consists 
principally of cooking, wasliing, and sewing. 
'I'liey make morning calls on other women, when 
(hey smoke, drink coffee, tell stories, listen to 
songs, or watch dancing. They can only walk 
abroad veiled or under a canopy, but the large 
court-yards of the houses afford them plenty of 
()[)en air. The lives of women in the harem are 
tlius passed neither in harsh slavery nor indolent 
luxury, for they have their amusements as well 
as their duties. 

Polygamy is of course allowed to the Fellahin. 
Divorce is easy, and is frequently due to a fit of 
anger, and is often followed by remarriage. But 
when the absolute form of divorce has been 
used direct remarriage is illegal. This can only 
be effected by the law of mostahiU. The woman 
must marry another man, who can instantly 
divorce her, and then the first husband can 
remarry her. 
5^^^- Marriage in the first instance is arranged 

Jg^ by the parents at an early age. Girls marry 

at from twelve to fourteen, and boys when 
about three yi-ars older. The bride and bride- 
groom do not see each other until a late 
stage in the marriage proceedings ; but they can then, if they choose, stop the ceremony. 
Marriage is not by purcha^e, but a relic of this system is i)reserved in the payment made 
by the bridegroom's father to the father of the bride, which sum is, however, spent on 
her trousseau. 

Aft«T birth a child is kept in seclusion for seven days, during which time no man, not 
even its father, is allowed to look at it, for fear of injury. On the seventh day the baby is 
placed in a sieve and carried in procession through the whole house, accomimnied by lighted 




I'koto on iri/(-u*t*ij 



IMgitn. 



A KABYLE UAK. 




PItolo by Lfff7-and\ 



[Algitrt. 



A KABYLK WOMAN. 
399 



400 



The Living Races of Mankind 



tapers, while the midwife scatters 
grain and salt as food for tlie wicked 
spirits. The child is shaken in the 
sieve to make it fearless, and it is 
held up to the sun to sharpen its 
eyes. If it be a girl, the house will 
be filled with women invited by the 
mother ; but if it be a boy, the father 
also will have asked guests, and the 
child is carried in its sieve to the 
men's room, where the father sees 
it for the first time. There it 
is christened by the cadi sucking a 
piece of sugar-candy and allowing the 
fluid to trickle from his mouth into 
that of the child, after which he pro- 
nounces its name. 

In addition to these two native 
races, and to the Berbers, who live in 
the Siwah Oasis, there are in Egypt 
many foreigners, Arabs, Turks, 
Armenians, and Jews. The main 
(■(iininerce of the country and the 
inincipal administrative appointments 
are held by these j)eople. But, with 
the exception of the Arabs, these 
races have remained as foreign ele- 
ments. The Arabs, however, have 
fusetl with the Fellahin to a con- 
siderable extent, both by the adoption 

of Egyptian women into their harems and owing to the influence of Arabised tribes on the 

Egyiitian borders. 




Photo by Uroux] 



[AtffUrt. 



TWO KABYLB WOMEN, AI/OGBIA. 



The Nubians. 

The country of Nubia, between Abyssinia and Egyjjt, is occupied by a number of Negro, 
.Semitic, and Hamitic tribes, altered by intermixture. The Semitic group occurs mainly in the 
Nile Valley, while the Hamites range over the plains between the Nile and the Red Sea. As 
a tyi>e of the former we may take the tribe of the Hamran Arabs of the Atbara, who are famous 
as great hunters. 

The Hamnms physically resemble the other " Arabs " of this region, except that they have 
an extra length of long curled hair, worn jKirted down the centre. As a race they are neither 
iwwerful nor tall, but light and active ; their average height is 5 feet 8 inches. Their 
uiethods of hunting have been graphically described by Sir Samuel Baker, of whose account 
the following is a summary. 

Tlu'ir main weapon is a stmight two-edged sword about 3 or 3^ feet long. When 
used in hunting, it has a lashing of cord for about 9 inches round the upper end, so that it 
can be held by both hands. The llainrans hunt t^lephants either on foot or on horseback. In 
the former case the hunters generally try to stalk the animal during its midday sleep, and 
with one blow of the sword cut off the trunk, whereby the elephant bleeds to death in about 
an hour. Should it be im])ossible to catch the ele[)hant asleep, they creep up behind and 
sever the buck sinew of the hind leg about a foot above the heel. This injury disables the 
elephant, and a cut can be given at the other hind leg with greater safety. The animal is 



The Peoples of Egypt and Nubia 



401 



then left to bleed to death. Hunting on horseback is the more common method. Four men 
usually hunt together. They follow a herd of elephants, and attract the attention of the animal 
with the largest tusks. It is irritated into a series of charges, by which it is gradually detached 
from the herd. One hunter then rides close up to the head of the elephant, which, enraged 
at such impudence, makes a desperate charge. The hunter allows the elephant to keep almost 
within reach of his horse's tail. While the whole attention of the elephant is thus absorbed 
two other hunters gallop close up to it ; one of them springs to the ground, and with one blow of 
his heavy sword, held in both hands, severs the sinew of one of the hind legs. The elephant 
is disabled by the first pressure of its foot upon the ground, for the enormous weight of its 
body dislocates the joint, and the limb is useless. The hunter who has led the chase then 
irritates the animal into attempting another charge, during which it is comparatively easy for 
the other hunters to cut the sinew of the other hind leg. The animal then cannot move, and 
slowly bleeds to death. 

The rhinoceros is killed in much the same way, though the chase is even more difficult 




yhoLu by Ligrand] 



AltAB CHILUKEN AT PLAi'. 



and dangerous ; lor the rhinoceros is swifter than the elephant, and can run well on three 
legs; so it is not disabled by a single blow. 



The Beja and the Ababdeu. 

The Semitic race is also represented by the Hassanieh and the Jalin of Khartum. Tlie 
Arab tribes, however, are clearly intruders, and the main element in the Nubian population 
belongs to the race of the Beja. 

As an example of the Ecja we may take the Ababdeh, who dwell in the hilly 
district about the frontiers of Upper Egypt and Nubia, between the Bed Sea and the Nile. 
They are Hamites, and differ physically from the Arabs of Sinai and Northern Kgyjit, 
but tliey show many Semitic traces. Klunzinger describes the Ababdeh as varying in colour 
from deep brown to black: "The face is a fine oval, not so long as among the Arabs; tlie 
eyes large and fiery; the mouth and lip.s neither large nor small; the nose straight, and rather 

51 



402 



The Living Races of Manl^ind 



short, broad and blunt, than long. The neck is long and thin ; the ears siniiU and roundish ; 
the hair naturally straight or curled, but not woolly— it is artificially twisted into cork-screw 
ringlets and worn long and uncovered." Their dress in general resembles that of the Egyjrfian 
peasant, consisting of a long coat or shirt and a loin-cloth. The women wear a long white 
cotton robe, fastened under the armpits and reaching to the feet, while one fold of it covers 
the head like a veil. They wear necklaces of glass beads, brass earrings and nose-rings, and 
buckles on feet and hands. 

Their houses are tents of skins placed over poles. They live on milk and dhurra. They 
keep herds of camels, goats, and sheep, in tending which most of their time is S2)ent. Some 
have settled on the shore and live largely on fish, and others have settled in the Nile 
Valley, where they have become agriculturists. The number of the tribe is estimated at 
about 30,000. They are Mohammedans and speak Afabic. 

Among other members of the Beja group are the Hadendowa, who live around Suakin, 

and the Bishari, who live along the Abys- 
sinian frontier. 



The Nuba and Dongolawi. 




A KABVLB WOUAN. 



In the Nile Valley the Beja are replaced 
by members of the Nuba race, who probably 
are a mixture of Hamite and Negro ; the 
main Nile tribe of the Nuba is known as 
the "Barabra," which includes the Dongolawi 
of Dongola, the peoj^le of the great Korosko 
Desert, and the inhabitants of the Nile Valley 
from Wadi Haifa to Assuan. 

In structure they have more of the Negro 
than either the Ilamrans or the Beja : the 
average Dongolawi, for instance, have very 
wavy hair, a thin beard, and widely open 
nostrils. But in many of them the liamitic 
type prevails, so that the nose is straight 
and thin, the hair long, and the lips are 
thinner than in the Negro. But the Negro 
characters become increasingly stronger as 
the Nile is ascended. 

These Nile Valley Barabra are a race 
of peasants, who grow crops of rice and 
dhurra in the narrow belt of cultivable land 
between the river and the desert. They 
water their fields by the shaduf, which 
consists of a long lever iiaving arms very 
unequal in length ; at the end of the longer 
arm is a bucket, which can be lowered and 
(lipjied into the river, and then swung up 
over the bank. The Nile peasants are a 
peaceful, gentle people; but they are more 
intelligent and active than the Egyptian 
Fellahin. That they are capable of great 
achievements is shown by the fact that the 
Mahdi who in 1884-85 replaced Egyptian 
misrule in the Soudan by a worse tyranny 



The Peoples of Algeria and Morocco 



403 



was a member of the Dongolawi 
clan. 

d. THE PEOPLES OF ALGERIA 
AND MOROCCO. 

The peoples of jMorocco and Algeria 
may be conveniently considered 
together ; for though the countries 
are politically distinct, they are 
physically similar and their popula- 
tions are ethnographically identical. 
The majority of the Moroccans and 
Algerians are Berbers; the rest are 
Arabs, Moors, Jews, and Negroes. 

The Berbers. 

The Berber is a Hamitic race 
which has been partly " Arabised." 
But as all are i\fohammedans and 
many speak Arabic, they have often 
been regarded as Arabs, a mistake 
which has led to political disasters. 
Some of the Berbers are even re- 
garded as Shorfa, or descendants of 
Mohammed, although they are 
Hamites and not Semites. The 
Berbers and Arabs are both Caucasian, 
and physically offer many points of 
resemblance ; but the differences are 
important. The Berbers have a 
shorter, less oval face, a broader nose, 
which is rarely aquiline, a larger 
mouth and jaws, a stronger build 
of body, and a fairer complexion, 
with sometimes blue eyes and 
light-coloured hair. They are more 
industrious, more inquisitive, and 
less restrained than the Arabs, and their turn of mind is more practical than contemplative. 

The Berber tribes are numerous; tliey are said to number over 1,000 different clans in 
Algeria alone. These clans are divided into three groups. The first is that of the Kabyles, or 
Akbails, of the north, including the piratical Riffs. The second group includes the Sus around 
Mogador and the Shulluhs of the Atlas. The third group comprises the Haratin, or Black 
Berbers, of the southern slopes of the Atlas Chain. 

As a rule the Berbers are peaceful and very industrious; but there are exceptions. The 
Riffs of the north-western coast of Morocco are turljulont and aggressive, and were once 
notorious as pirates. It is said that the greatest insult that can be given to a Riff is to say, 
"Your father died in his bed." 

The costume of tlie lierbers is sim])l('r than that of the Arabs. The men wear a cloth 
tunic reaching down to the knoe.s, whii(! the women have a longer tunic fastened by a girdle 
round the wai.st, and a coloured cloth over the shoulders. The Arab veil is not worn. The 
women are not secluded, and freely take part in open-air festivals and dances. The men 




Photo by Leroux} 



[Algiert. 



KABYLE OHILDBEN. 



404 



The Living Races of Manl^ind 



have their hair cut short, but the 
beard is allowed to grow to fair 
length ; they wear a fez, and the 
women use a looser, fuller cap. 
Tlie main ornaments are elaborate 
necklaces, large silver bracelets, 
and sometimes nose-rings. The 
tribal weapons are a straight 
sword, guns of any pattern, and 
smooth-bore cannon, made by 
(hilling out a cast block of metal. 
The Berber houses are gener- 
ally two-storeyed buildings of 
stone ; they are often crowded 
together in the villages, which 
are surrounded by a stone wall 
or bank. In the country districts 
the people mostly dwell in tents 
or beehive-shaped straw huts. 
These huts simply rest on the 
ground, and are moved about 
from place to place. T^vo or three 
men get inside each hut, lift it up, 
and then walk oil" with it to the 
new site selected for the village. 
Colville describes a Berber village 
on the move as looking like an army 
of gigantic snails on the march. 
The Berbers are industrious agriculturists. They grow wheat and barley, which they 

cut with the sickle, while the ground is prepared with a wooden, iron-shod plough ; they also 

grow maize, onions, beans and lentils, coflFce, and various fruits, especially walnuts and olives. 

They i)ractise most of the primitive industries; they smelt iron-ore, bum clay into tiles, spin 

flax and cotton, and weave cotton and woollen fabrics, including carpets; they make pottery 

and soap. 

Politically they are grouped into sofa, or associations, and into great confederations, or 

kabails. The government of each community is by a council, or jemaa, presided over by 

nn amina, or mayor, an office which is often hereditary. 

Though Mohammedans, the Berbers are not very rigid in their religious observances. 

Circumcision, for instance, is often neglected. They drink wine made from their own vines, 

but abstain from imported liquors ; and they are usually monogamous. 




Photo fry Liiiffian <t Co.] 



iCairo. 



8TBEET MINSTRELS, CAIBO. 



The Nokth African Arabs. 

'ITie supplementary elements in the population of Morocco and Algeria m.ay be grouped 
into classes, excluding the Europer.ns and some remains of L'oman colonies. The most 
im]x)rtant intruders are the Arabs, who conquered Algeria and Morocco in the seventh and 
oleventii centuries. They are still politically predominant in Morocco, and were so in Algeria 
until the French occujMition. The Arabs live mainly in Western Algeria and Morocco. The 
latter country nmks next to Arabia as the most sacred land of the Arabs, and its sultan is 
head of tlie Western Mohammedans. 

The Arabs are widely scattered in Algeria, but are most numerous in the west. They 
form numerous clans, most of which are prefixed by the word " Aulad " or " Uled," such as 



I 



The Peoples of Algeria and Morocco 



405 



" Uled-Nail," Arabised Berbers living to the west of Biskra. Some Berber clans have, however, 
also adopted the term, so that it is not altogether distinctive of the Arabs. 

The Arabs of Northern Africa retain the physical appearance, customs, and mode of life 
of their ancestors, and do not call for special remark, except to notice the points of contrast 
between them and the jNIoors and Berbers. Thus the women differ from the Berbers by their 
use of the adjar, or veil. The lower-class women wear a loose wide-sleeved linen mantle, tied 
round the waist by a cord like that of a monk. Out of doors they wear a long robe coming 
from the head to the feet ; the face is then hidden either by a fold of this garment or a 
special veil, and usually only one eye is 
left exposed. They wear a profusion of 
ornaments, large earrings, bead and coral 
necklaces, and metal anklets. They 
dye their hands and nails yellow with 
henna, and blacken the eyebrows with 
fowdercd antimony. jl t 

The Moors. 

Allied to the Arabs are the Moors, 
or town-dwelling Arabs. They are 
fairer in complexion than the country 
Anibs, which may be partly explained 
by the fact that many are descendants 
of the jNIoriscos expelled from Spain, 
who had absorbed Spanish blood. 

The Moors are a cultured and 
intellectual race, with far less reserve 
than is affected by the Arabs. Leared 
describes the lower-class Moors as 
people of extraordinary vivacity and of 
inexhaustible spirits, with a keen sense 
of humour and inimitable powers of 
mimicry. 

The national dress is white. INIeii 
wear an embroidered shirt fastened down 
the breast by many buttons and loops, 
a pair of loose drawers, and a large- 
sleeved coat. Out of doors a red fez 
on the head, a pair of yellow slippers, 
and a long wrap of cotton or silk in 
warm weather and a thick woollen 
cloak in winter are also worn. The 
costume of the women is often elabo- 
rate, and is described by Gaskel as 
follows : " A coloured jacket, embroi- 
dered with gold or silver, is worn over 
a white muslin chemisette. A pair of 
wide cashmere trousers, of blue, yellow, 
or green colour, beautifully worked, 
meet the vest at the waist, where a 
handsome silken sash or girdle is folded 
round them. Sometimes a scarf or as algkuian moobish <iibl. 




i'hoto by Lerouxi 



{AtffUn. 



4o6 



The Living Races of Mankind 




other drapery, fastened in front, is 
made to fall gracefully over the lower 
part of the person behind, forming 
a train on the floor, leaving, however, 
one leg, adorned with a massive silver 
anklet, imcovered, whilst the points of 
the feet are tipped with tiny Morocco 
slippers. Half a dozen bracelets on 
each arm are the fewest they wear, 
whilst the rich deck themselves with 
pearls, diamonds, and precious stones. 
Such as cannot afford an expensive 
parure cover, if they do not adorn, 
their persons with all procurable pieces 
of old or even modem coins, gold or 
silver, which fall in long necklaces as 
low as the waist. Amongst Turkish 
money we have seen the effigies of 
Queen Victoria and his Holiness the 
Pope. The jingle made at every 
movement by these bits of metal is 
music to the ear of a Moorish lady. 
Dyes and jierfumes, which are the 
deliglit of all women of the East, are 
in especial favour with the ladies of 
Algeria. Moorish women in jjarticu- 
lar, not content with trying to deepen 
the colour of the darkest of black 
eyebrows, are dissatisfied when they do not extend and meet in an uninterrupted line across 
the forehead — a mistake of nature they conect by the aid of art." 

Moorish architectm-e is the finest in Africa, and a typical house has been thus described 
by Colville : " As the house ill which I found myself is a fair specimen of a Moorish 
habitation, I give a somewhat detailed description. The most important feature is the 
court-yard, which is entered from the street by a narrow passage. It is generally paved with 
pretty tiles and partly roofed in ; the upper rooms overhang it to the extent of about 6 feet, 
8upi)orted by pillars. Tliere is always a stream of running water in some part of the court, 
often a pretty fountain. Out of the court three or four long narrow rooms open by high 
Moorish archways. These are closed by large carved wooden gates, having a smaller or postern 
door in one of them. The floors of tlie rooms are tiled, and are frequently surrounded by a 
tiled dado; the walls are whitewa.shed, the ceilings often beautifully ornamented with arabesques 
in gold and bright colours. The upper floors are reached by one or more narrow dark 
staircases, usually much out of repair. Tiioy are nearly all at different levels, and are very 
puzzling to find one's way about. One of the rooms in my house could only be' re.ached from 
the up[)er floor. The room which I occupied at the far end of the court was overlooked by 
a gallery, of which, although I wandered all over the house, I could find no entrance. The 
room to the right of the main .staircase was some 12 feet above the level of the court, yet 
there was no doorway to indicate that any room was beneath it. On the second floor was a 
dmirway oi)ening on to the ulakr, or house-top. Here the women sit and talk, safe from male 
intrusion, for the stakr is tabooed to the lords of creation." 

The princii>al Moorish foods are cakes of barley flour and buttermilk, and a kind of 
p<irridgp miule of flour r(>ll<>d into small granules like Italian paste; this is generally flavoured 
witii mncid butter, which is made in a goat-skin bag, tied at the mouth and rolled and 



A MOORISH LADY. 




i'itoto hy Lerom:] 



AN ABAB tiXS. 
407 



iAlu.t 



4o8 



The Living Races of Mankind 




I' koto by L<i/riin'i^ 



^Al'/iira. 



AN AKAB CAMP. 



kneaded about on the floor until the milk is churned. A kind of sausage, made of minced 
meat plastered round a wooden stick and toasted over a charcoal fire, is also an important 
national food. These sausages are prepared and sold in special cookshops, which abound in 
all the Moorish towns. Bread is mostly used by the women, who are fattened before 
marriage by being crammed like poultry with finger-shaped pellets of soft bread. This course 
of treatment lasts for some twenty days. Tea is the national beverage ; spirits and wine 
are made from grapes, figs, and dates. Tobacco is smoked. 

Leared, for some years a doctor in JMorocco, thus describes a Moorish dinner-party : " The 
company sit in a circle, cross-legged, on the floor. Sometimes, indeed, an apology for a table 
a few inches in height is placed in the centre. Upon this or on the floor a huge case 
made of straw eevm together and decorated with coloured leather- work is placed. A conical 
cover of the same material fits over the case, and when the former is removed a wooden 
bowl or tub filled with kuekusu [a kind of porridge] is displayed. Before eating every one 
says grace for himself by exclaiming ' Bismallah ! ' — ' In the name of Allah ! ' Each person 
then thrusts the fingers of his right hand into the smoking mess, and, taking up a considonible 
quantity, forms it into a sort of ball or lump, and then by a clever jerk tosses it into iiis 
mouth, which the serving liand is never allowed to touch. The left, liand is never used in 
eating. From this it will \}e seen that the etiquette of the Moorish dinner-table is quite as 
exacting as the corresponding etiquette among ourselves. After each meal water and napkins 
are brought for the hands." 

The Moors are all Mohammedans, but their creed is not free from Negro superstitions. 
Thus the word " five " is never mentioned at the IMorocco Court, the number being expressed as 
" four plus one." The lex tidionis, the law of a tooth for a tooth, is still part of the Moorish 
jurisprudence. An English merchant at Mogador, wiio was accused of having knocked out 
two teeth from a beggar, was comi)elled to allow two of his own teeth to be extracted j 
but as the charge was false, he was compensated by the Government. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



EUROPE^ 



RUSSIA, G AUG ASIA, FINLAND, LAPLAND, NORWAY, 
SWEDEN, AND I GEL AND. 



EUSSIA. 



Of all the peojiles constituting the Slavonic branch of the so-called Caucasian type, the 
Russians are the most consi:)icuous and the most powerful. They inhabit an empire more 
than twice as large as Europe (exceeding 9,000,000 square miles in extent), with a population 
estimated in 1897 at 129,211,113, of whom about 100,000,000 are in Russia itself. In 
appearance Russians of the present day do not suffer by comparison with any other people 
in Europe. Formerly they were of somewhat heavier build and full average stature, with a 
swarthy skin, small deep-set eyes, dark hair, heavy beard, and moustache, lioth figure and 
face, however, have been greatly changed and improved by intermixture with fair Scandinavian 
and other races. The Russians are now frequently referred to by ethnologists as supplying 
some of the best examples of the highest Caucasian tyiie. 

The peasants are remarkable for their power of enduring both extreme cold and extreme 
heat. When a coachman takes his master or mistress to a theatre, he never thinks of going 
home and returning at the appointed hour. 
He does not even walk about, stamping his 
feet and swaying his arms to keep liimself 
warm, as English cabmen do ; hour after hour 
he sits placidly on his box. Though the cold 
be of an intensity never a])proached here, 
even in our severest winters, he can sleep as 
tranquilly as the idle lazzaroni in Naples at 
midday. 

Once a week the Russian indulges 
in a vapour bath, an occujjation usually 
reserved for Saturday afternoon. In some 
parts of the country the peasants take their 
vapour bath in the large household oven 
in which the family bread is baked. The 
temperature is raised to the extreme limit 
of human endurance, such as few English 
people could bear. 

Sir D. Mackenzie Wallace, describing 
among his exj)eriences in Russia a vapour 
bath, says : " I only made the experiment 
once ; and when I informed my attendant 
tiiat my life was in danger from congestion 
of the brain, he laughed outright, and told 
me that the operation had only begun. 
.Most astounding of all," he continues, 
" the peasants in winter often rush out 

40!) 52 




Flwlu ty J. Dai~ 



A BDSSIjiN MENDICAMT. 



4to 



The Living Races of Mankind 




of the bath and roll themselves in 



snow 



Pkoto bff J. Daxtaro] 

A ROSSIAN COACHMAK. 



[Moicoio. 



Much of the sentiment and disposition 
commonly regarded as part of the national 
character is due to outside influences, and 
does not appear to be inherent. His cunning, 
indolence, intemperance, instability, and 
reckless prodigality are the outcome of a 
too rapid change from a simplicity which 
was quite patriarchal to a higher stage of 
civilisation, which is often of a very artificial 
character. Broadly speaking, the Russian of 
the interior, where the truest types of the 
race are to be found, is simple-minded, of 
a quick disposition, by nature more prone 
to good than to evil, with unlimited faith in 
God, almost as strong a belief in fatalism 
or chance, and a remarkable trust in the 
wisdom, power, and rectitude of the Czar. 
In spite of the Nihilists and their sensational 
doings, the revolutionists are but a very 
small minority of the people. The Russian 
is strongly attached to old customs and 
established institutions. He is naturally 
conservative, and to that cause his loyalty 
to the Czar is largely due. 

Living in towns develops the seamy 
side of the Russian character ; it weakens respect for the sovereign, and breeds discontent. 
'I'hese feelings are foreign to the bulk of the people, who are the more typical Russians. They 
see in the Czar the "father" of his people as well as their master. They submit willingly, 
even gratefully, to a desjwtism which would move others to rebellion. They like to be ruled 
firmly, and the Czar who excites their genuine admiration must be as absolutely autocratic as 
Nicholas I. when he decided how the railway from Moscow to St. Petersburg should be 
constructed. During the jireliminary survey for this undertaking the Emperor heard that the 
officers entrusted with the task had received inducements to make it wind about so Eis to 
enhance the value of several estates and reduce that of others. It seemed almost hopeless to 
decide on the most practicable route. The Autocrat of all the Russias determined to cut the 
Gordian knot in true Imperial style. When the minister laid the maps before him, and 
explained that certain long detours were necessary owing to natural difficulties in the way, 
the Czar took up a ruler, and, placing it on the map, drew a straight line from one terminus 
to the other, 400 miles apart ; then in a tone which precluded discussion he said, " You 
will construct the line so ! " The line was so constructed, and remains a magnificent 
monument of his jx)wer. 

The Russian is a sociable being ; but he is also improvident, and accepts with comparative 
indifference the smiles or frowns of fortune. Ix)ng-continued work on one task he dislikes. 
His great desire is to finish the work on which he is engaged as quickly as jjossible, that he 
may the sooner enjoy himself in dancing, sleeping, doing nothing, or perhai)S even in getting 
drunk. Thrift and economy have no place in his moral system. The gravest defect in the 
Russian character is dishonesty. Highway robbery and murder are indeed rarer in Russia 
than in some countries claiming to be more highly civilised; yet greed for other's property, 
so often glaringly revealed in official classes, pervades nearly all grades of society. Turning to 
the bright side of the Russian character, one finds that the peasants of the north commonly 



Russia 



411 



display an enterprising, independent, and self-reliant spirit, which proves that they are by no 
means the submissive automata they have been frequently held to be. 

Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace, K.C.I.E., relates that he was once waiting at a post- 
station for the horses to be changed, when a boy appeared, dressed in a sheep-skin wrap, 
with a fur cap and gigantic double-soled boots. All these articles had been made on a 
scale adapted rather to future requirements than to present needs. He must have stood in 
his boots about 3 feet 8 inches, and could not have been more than twelve years of age ; but 
his appearance showed that he had already learned to look on life as a serious business. The 
boy wore an important air, and his little brows were as anxiously knit as if the cares of an 
empire weighed upon his young shoulders. He filled the responsible office of driver of the 
post-car, but found it necessary to leave the putting in of the horses to larger and older 
specimens of humanity. He watched closely, however, to see that everything was done 
properly. When all was ready, he climbed up to his seat, and at a signal from the station- 
keeper shook the reins, artistiailly flourished the whip, and dashed off at a pace rarely attained 




A GliOUr OK ItUSSlAN WOMKN. 



4ia 



The Living Races of Mankind 



Eby post-horses. He had the faculty of emitting a peculiar sound 
■ j ^ -^ — - — something between a whir and a whistle — that appeared to 

have a magical effect on his team. The road was rough, and 
at every jolt the young driver was shot upwards into the air ; 
but he always fell agiiin into his proper position, never for a 
moment losing either his self-possession or his balance, and at the 
end of the journey it was found that they had been carried over 
the rugged way at the rate of fourteen miles within each hour. 

A remarkable instance of the energy and enterprise claimed 
for the Russian working classes of the north was supplied to an 
English traveller in the country just after he had expressed a 
doubt as to their industry. He was in the province of Kostroma. 
One part of it has a special reputation for turning out carpenters 
and stove-builders. Another jiart, he was surprised to learn, 
sends yearly to Siberia — not as convicts, but as free Labourers — 
a large contingent, consisting almost entirely of tailors and 
workers in felt. A bright-eyed youth of sixteen or seventeen, 
who was among the apprentices accompanying one of these 
bands, informed him that he had already made the journey twice 
and intended to go every winter. " Because you always bring 
home a pile of money, I suppose?" inquired the traveller. 
" Nitchevo ! " gaily replied the young fellow, with an air of 
self-confidence and pride. {^^ Nitchevo," it may be remarked, 
is equivalent to the phrase " Right you are, sir," which would 
have been used by a British working lad to express emphatic 
assent.) "Last year," the youth continued, "I brought home 
three roubles ! " " There ! Can you now say our people are 
not industrious?" exclaimed tlie Russian to whom the P'nglish- 
nian had expressed that opinion a few minutes before. " A 
Russian peasant goes idl the way to Siberia and back for three 
roubles and his food ! Could you get any Englishman, young 
and strong, to work at that rate ? " " Perhaps not," the 
traveller replied evasively. He could not help thinking, how- 
ever, that if an English youth were required to go in the depth of winter from Land's 
End to John o' Groats and back again, performing the double journey in carts and on fodt, 
he would expect, as fair }>ay for his time and labour, something more than three roubles, <Jr, 
in our money, seven and sixpence. 

A i)eople numbering as many millions as the Russians must of course differ widely in 
characteristics. In Russia, as in most other countries, wealth has a demoralising tendency. 
The even temper, kind heart, and loyal disfjosition, which seem to be his natural characteristics, 
are apt to disapi)ear as the mmijik rises in the world. The Russians are tolerant of strangers 
in their midst, but not imitative. A Russian village in the middle of German villages does 
not appear inferior in the eyes of a Russian. To him it is as natural that Germans should 
live in larger houses as that the birds should live in nests. It never occurs to him that 
he should build on the German model. The other is German ; he is Russian — and that 
is enough. 

Tiie Russians first appear in the light of history about the middle of the ninth century. 
The excc]>tional energy and vitality of the race will be seen by comimring their present 
position with tlicir state at tliat period. Then they were comprised in a few small tribes on 
the Imnks of tlie Elbe, the Danube, and the low country lying south of the Baltic. They 
were frequently assailed by more powerful neighbouring tribes. In order to escape extermina- 
tion, they offered the leadership of their clans to three brothers, members of a warlike 




t^ttoto 6y J. ikuiaroj [Afoicow. 

A SKROEAKT IN THE BUSSIAM ARMT, 




A KUSSIAN SCHOOL. 



413 



4'4 



The Living Races of Manl^ind 




Photo by C. J. Aa;un. 



TAHTABS. 



Scandinavian family in friendly relations with the Slavs. Rurik and his brothers willingly 
accepted the posts oflFered. Under their command the Russians beat bjick the tribes which 
invaded their lands to drive off the flocks and herds at that time forming their sole wealth. 
Gradually they acquired power and overcame the neighbouring peoples. They absorbed within 
their own society the tribes they defeated, annexed their lands, and constantly carried on the 
slow but certain process of extension till their empire reached its present size. 

Others affirm that the Russians were jiractically slaves until the emancipation of the serfs. 
The Russians themselves declare that serfdom was in no sense slavery ; that the nation did 
not in the jiast, and could not possibly in the future, submit to slavery ; in sliort, that 
slavery never existed in Russia. It is imjwssible, however, for any one who considers the 
subject disjmttsionately to avoid the conclusion that the serfs were to all intents and purjxjses 
domestic slaves — chattels sold and bought in open market within the present century. 
Sir 1). Mackenzie Wallace quotes from The Moscow Gazette of 1801: "To Be Sold: three 
coachmen, well trained and handsome ; and two girls, the one eighteen and the other fifteen 
years of age, both of them good-looking and well acquainted with various kinds of handiwork. 
In the same house there are for sale two hairdressers: the one, twenty-one years of age, can 
reatl, write, play on a musical instrument, and act as huntsman ; the other can dress ladies' 



Russia 



4^5 



and gentlemen's hair. In the same house are sold pianos and organs." This advertisement is 
imdeniably suggestive of slavery as an institution of the country. A little further on in the 
same paper a first-rate clerk, a carver, and a lackey are offered for sale. The reason assigned 
by the vendor is superabundance of the articles named. In some instances human beings 
were classed with cattle : " In this house one can buy a coachman and a Dutch cow about to 
calve." The style of the advertisements and the frequent recurrence of the same address 
show plainly that there was at that time a regular class of slave-dealers openly carrying on 
business in human beings — Russians buying and selling their fellow-countrymen, and in Kussia. 

The costume worn by men in St. Petersburg, Moscow, and other large cities is like that 
of London, Paris, and the centre and west of Eurojie generally. It is not specially characteristic. 
In the more retired provinces, however, the peof)le still cling to what may be regarded as the 
national garb. The commonest head-covering is a black or grey fur cap, with a brim drawn 
down so low on the forehead as frequently to touch the eyebrows. The whole body is covered 
by a long, loose, shapeless dark blue or brown great-coat from the shoulders to the heels. 
The favourite outer garment of the peasantry is made of sheep-skin, which is greasy enough 
to keep out rain or snow, and woolly enough to preserve warmth ; while the feet and legs are 
encased in heavy top-boots that reach to the knees. In some cases the wearer desires more 
ease than he can enjoy while closely covered from chin to feet. Then, beneath the folds of the 
great-coat, you may catch sight of the red blouse or the broad red sash and velvet breeches 
which were common among the people in the country districts before town fashions tabooed the 
picturesque in favour of ugliness. As a rule, the dark, long outer garment conceals everything 
else on the person of the ordinary Russian. Men vcho have attained any grade in society 
above that of constant labour evince a passion for uniforms. Nearly all who can be classed 
as gentlemen appear in some specially regulated 
dress, either military or civilian. Even they, with 
hardly an exception, wear over all the heavy riding- 
cloak, without which a gentleman's dress is held to 
be incomplete. In the hottest days of summer, as 
well as during the Arctic cold of a Russian winter, 
rich and poor, old and young, encumber themselves, 
as far as their means will allow, with large fur cloaks 
and caps, which they constantly wear. 

The Russian peasant's food is generally of the 
simplest kind, and seldom includes flesh. It is not 
that he dislikes animal food; but such luxuries as 
beef, mutton, and pork are too expensive for ordinary 
use. The Russian is hospitable, and takes pride in 
a reputation for the quantity and quality of the food 
he occasionally sets before his guests. On a holiday 
there is always as great a variety of dishes on the 
table as he can afiford. In the house of a thriving 
jieasant will be found not only the universal greasy 
cabbage soup, and a dish, made from buckwheat, 
called kasha, but also mutton and pork — perhaps 
even beef. During the meal light beer is sui)plied 
in unlimited quantity, and vodka, a distilled spirit 
representing to the Russian every exhilarating drink 
from champagne to gin, is frequently handed round. 
When the repast is at an end, all at the table rise 
together. Turning towards the picture or small 

statue — the icon of the house — on its little triangular phoioiyj. Patiaro] [Uoumc. 

shelf or shrine in the comer, they bow gravely, a ucssian nuesk. 




4i6 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 




Pholo by J. Daziaro] 

TWO DANCERS, LITTLE BUSSIA. 



[Motcow. 



crossing themselves repeatedly. Thus do they 
give thanks to God for the good things en- 
joyed. The guests then say to their host, 
'^Spasibo za khleb za sol" ("Thanks for 
bread and salt ") — the customary acknowledg- 
ment of hospitality in Russia. The host 
responds, " Do not be displeased. Sit down 
once more for good luck." All comply witli 
this request, as an expression of their friendli- 
ness and goodwill. The vodka is handed 
round again, and in all probability the feast 
will be supplemented by an intemperate 
carouse. The Kussian misses no opportunity 
to drink deep and di'own trouble in tlie flow- 
ing bowl. 

The use of tobacco is universal in Russia. 
Both sexes smoke. No public, and hardly 
any private, dining- or dr.awing-room is free 
from tobacco. Ladies, when travelling, will 
draw from pocket or satchel a little cigarette- 
case, and have no scruple in asking the first 
male stranger they meet to " oblige them with 
a light." Princess Gagarine, however, denies 
tliis ; she says, " It is generally thought that 
in Russia all women smoke. As a matter of 
fact very few do, and those few are nearly all 
middle-aged. Their generation thought it was 
the thing to smoke. In the 'seventies the writings of Tolstoi, Tourgueniev, Dostoievsky, who 
were then at their best, produced some quite unexpected changes in society." 

In spite of the stories of Russian ferocity and inhumanity, repeated and generally believed 
for more than half a century, no people are more humane than the Northern Slavs, and 
none are more generously hospitable. A stranger is entertained with pleasure, and all is 
done to make him feel one of the homely fiimily circle. The beggar, the benighted traveller, 
the fugitive from the tyranny of a too oppressive master — all are made equally free of what 
the household has to ofifer. 

The Russians are a religious people. The Orthodox Greek Church is the State Church ; 
but dissenters from its teaching, as well as Roman Catholics, Mohammedans, Buddhists, and 
others, are tolerated to a- certain limited extent. Religion is supposed to be absolutely free. 
The Czar is the political head of the National Church, and membership of that Church is 
accordingly almost identical with nationality. Hence the public observance of rites and 
ceremonies by Russians of all classes. That people may not be prevented from [)erforming 
their devotions by having to walk too far, there are little chapels open, like shops, at the street 
comers, often facing one another in the same street. In Moscow these open chapels are more 
numerous than beer-houses and gin-palaces in I^ondon. In addition to the chapels there are 
icons, put up in nearly every wall, over many doors, in the bazaars, the exchange, every public 
office, and almost every shop. These are beset with worshippers nearly every hour from 
morning till night. Moscow is an exceptionally pious place, as the Russians there, more purely 
Slavonic than the inhabitants of St. Petersburg, are more pious than Russians elsewhere. 

In Russia marriage d(x»s not disqualify a man for the office of priest. It is true that a 
stringent law of the Greek Church forbids a priest to marry. A man cannot legally take 
unto himself a wife after he has been admitted to clerical orders, but a married man is as 
eligible for ordination as an unmarried man. 



Caucasia 



417 



CAUCASIA. 



To-day the Caucasus is still full of races differing in religion, language, aspect, and character ; 
but it will only be possible to mention here the more important tribes. 

The Svans, or Svanithians, inhabit the Upper Inghur Valley in South-western Caucasus, 
forty miles long by about fifteen in width, shut in on all sides by glacier-crowned ridges. 
The only access from the outer world is by a narrow, and at times imjiassable, ravine, or over 
lofty mountain passes. Nominally subject to Russia, as are all the Caucasians, these people are 
practically independent, and left to govern themselves as they please. Though only 14,000 in 
number, they successfully resist in their mountain fastnesses every attempt of the Russians to 
collect taxes from them. This is the more remarkable when we remember that they are in a 
state of perpetual feud with one another, village against village, family against family. There is 
no organisation among them ; each man rules over his wife and children, and cares nothing for 
his neighbour. Doubtless the nature of their country 
has contributed to form the wild and savage character 
of this people. Herr Radde, the eminent botanist, 
who spent several weeks among them, thus sums uj) 
the result of his experiences: "Amongst the Svans 
intelligent iiices are seldom found. In their counte- 
nances insolence and rudeness are prominent, and 
hoary-headed obstinacy is often united to the 
stupidity of savage animal life. Amongst these 
people indi\iduals are frequently met with who have 
committed ten or more murders, which their standard 
of morality not only permits, but in many cases 
commands." 

The appearance of the people does not create a 

favourable impression on a stranger. Their clothes are 
tattered and shabby, the Caucasian style being un- 

distinguishable in the collection of rags. Men ai'e 

seen wearing sheep-skin caps turned inside-out — an 

arrangement which, while it shades their eyes, adds 

to the ferocity of their apjjearance. The women are 

said to be uniformly ugly, and their costume a mere 

shapeless bundle of rags. 

The men and women, even small boys, are all 

armed with daggers. ]\Iany have pistols attached to 

their belts, or guns, in sheep-skin covers, slung across 

the shoulder. The children run about nearly naked. 

Some of the girls have faces more savage in appearance 

and expression than those of the boys. 

Wives are bought, or if the intending husband 

is too poor, the bride must be carried off by foi-ce. 

Remains of churches found here and there testify to 

the effort of (iueen Tamara to introduce Christiiinity 

in the twelfth century, but her work has not left 

much mark on the character of the people. They are 

iiighly superstitious, and believe that some of their 

number have the power of foretelling the future. 

The Lesghians inhabit Daghestan, on the north- woio^a. fl«;;.u«..«.v,j {at. tamours. 

eastern side of the Caucasus main ridge, and extend a kussian buii>k oi- thk bettku class 

53 





418 



Caucasia 



419 



to the Caspian Sea. Including some minor 
allied tribes, they number not less than 590,000. 

Physically the Lesghians are one of the 
finest races in Caucasia. As the Caucasians hold 
the highest rank in the ethnological divisions of 
mankind, the Lesghians are consequently one of 
the finest races in the world. Their long and 
fierce wars with Russia amply prove that they 
are courageous. At the same time there is a 
proneness to abuse all the power they possess or 
may acquire. They gained the greatest distinc- 
tion they have won in modern times by the 
heroic resistance they offered to the advance 
of Russia for over twenty years. Their leader 
was the warrior-prophet Shamyl (Samuel), who 
was a Lesghian, and not a Circassian, as has 
been generally believed. 

There is nothing specially striking in the 
dress of the men. The chodka, or close-fitting 
frock-coat, extending below the knee, and 
usually confined round the waist with a belt, 
is almost universally worn. Its grey colour is 
relieved by trimmings of fur. The general 
head-covering is a cap of cloth or fur, some- 
times shaf)ed like a hemisphere, and sometimes 
of fantastic height. Socks knitted in tasteful 
patterns, and often with a gold thread running 
through them, and leather slippers with pointed 
toes, are part of the costume of the well- 
dressed. The women also wear a close-fitting 
coat, with long baggy trousers, gaudy in coloui-. 
A blue shift and low cap like a fez form part 
of their attire. 

The Lesghians are naturally most abstemious. 
The conditions under which they live would 
not admit the use of luxuries, even if their 
inclination tended towards them. Though badly 
fed and poorly clothed and generally bare- 
footed, these mountaineers are hardy and strong. 
Sickness and fatigue are almost unknown to 
them. 

Although Christianity is said to have been 
their religion at one time during the Middle Ages, they are now fanatical Mohammedans. 
Their women, however, rarely veil the face. 

The Georgians, who occupy the centre of Transcaucasia, are the principal, and till the 
arrival of the Russians they were the dominant, race in the country. It has long been 
generally admitted that, of all the Caucasian peoples, the Greorgians, whom the Russians 
call Grusians, most nearly correspond to the ideal type of physical beauty. They have tall, 
powerful figures, are clear-skiimed, with brown or black hair, and dark or grey eyes. Their 
physiognomy is strongly marked, owing to the broad, low forehead, jjrominent nose, and 
full, oval face. " They are certainly a splendid race to look at, these Georgians, both men 
and women," says Mr. Bryce, recounting his impressions during a visit to Tiflis, their 




Photo by the Photochrome Co.] 

BUSSIAN PEASANT IN COSTUME. 



[London. 



420 



The Living Races of Mankind 



capital. Every one has heard of 
the Georgian beauties. Kegular, 
finely chiselled features, clear com- 
plexions, large, liquid eyes, and 
erect carriage, combining natural 
dignity with voluptuousness, are 
their general traits. They are 
numerous and influential in all the 
harems of the East, and their blood 
flows in the veins of Turkish, 
Egyptian, Persian, and Tartar 
grtandees. The Georgian ladies 
are, however, deficient in vivacity 
and expression. The men ai-e 
sufficiently good-looking, but with 
a shade of effeminacy in their 
faces, expressive of their moral 
character. The Georgians are 
simple and hospitable people ; they 
love ease, and will not weary mind 
or muscle unnecessarily. 

Georgian intelligence is not 
high. Their brains are generally 
befuddled with excessive wine- 
drinking. Few of the humbler 
classes are able to i"ead and write; 
many even of the higher are in 
the same state of ignorance. Pic- 
turesquely attired, they lounge 
away their time with music, 
dancing, and idling. 

The Circassians ceased to 

exist as an independent nation 

when their country was occupied 

by the Russians in 1864. Before that time they numbered 300,000 in the valleys and defiles 

of the Western Caucasus, east of the Black Sea. Now, owing to emigration, they cannot 

muster more than 123,000. 

It has long been an axiom of ethnology that the Circassians are a magnificent race. Poets 
and writers of romance have made the charms and virtues of Circassian ladies the subject of 
their art. Mr. Biirkley, however, formed a less favourable opinion. He saw nothing to admire 
in the women except their hands and feet. He acknowledged, however, that the men are 
magnificent, and are to the rest of the human race what Arab horses are to humbler steeds. 
" Just as a pretty Ciraissian girl is rare, so a plain Circassian man is seldom to be met 
with. No [leople have more beautifully shaped heads, more i)erfectly chiselled features, or sharper, 
more intelligent, and yet bolder expressions. Tiiey are quick and active in every movement, 
and as restless as a weasel (an animal they gieatly resemble in character) ; but the most 
notable jwirts about them are their hands and feet. I observed hundreds of thorn, and never 
saw one that an English girl of sixteen might not envy for shape and size." 

Tiie Circassian is energetic in his movements. He is always in a hurry. He never 
saunters, but goes so rapidly tliat he may be known at a distance by his short, sharp step, 
erect carriage, and general bearing, suggestive of great vitality. Though eneigetic and active, 
he liates work. He has no scruple in helping himself to the fruits of other people's labour. 




A QEOBOIA.N WOMAN, CAUCASIA. 




CAUCASIAN SOLDIERS. 
421 



422 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 



Robbery is not regarded as a 
crime among the Circassians, but 
as an honourable calling for a 
free man. The Bulgarians and 
others among whom they settled 
soon found it necessary to take 
strong measures to protect their 
crops and flocks. 

The Circassians are incajc 
able of intellectual exertion, it 
follows that science, literature, 
and art were, and still are, un- 
known to them. The wisdom of 
their sages preserved from genenx- 
tion to generation in proverbs, 
maxims, and stories, the legends 
preserved in verse, and the 
practical knowledge each man 
could acquir* during his lifetime, 
constituted all the knowledge the 
race possessed. The boys and 
youths were taught to ride, shoot, 
fence, and hunt, but not to 
respect truth. Audacious lying 
was regarded as a useful accom- 
plishment. The sole end of 
education was to train the young 
for the perils and hardships of 
a mountaineer's life. 

Turning to marriage customs, 
we iind that the bride was gener- 
ally bouglit and cjirried ofiF by 
force from her parents. Many of 
the girls were sold into the harems 
of Eastern jMishas and princes. It 
is said that the Circassian maidens 
welcomed this practice as a means 
of escaping from the life of toil 

and hardship which would otherwise have been in store for them, 
religion of, tiie.'raica. 




From the Slhtuisraijliuat Mu*,.' 



A FINLANDEB. 



Mohammedanism was the 



FINLAND. 

The once prevalent idea that nearly all the European peoples belonged to the various branches 
— Teutonic, Celtic, Slav, Hellenic, Italic — of the Aiyan family has long been exploded. We 
now know that account must also be taken of several non-Ar^'an groups, notjibly the Finns, 
who form the bulk of tiie inhabitants of Finland, and were formerly widely diffused over the 
greater jwirt of Northern and Eastern Eurojjc. 

Finland, a grand duchy of the Russian Empire, has a population of 2,000,000 full-blooded 

I Finns, besides nearly 500,000 Russians, Swedes, and I^apps. The Finns are accounted a 

stidwart j>eople, blond in general and with blue eyes. The Teutons, through tlie Scandinavians, 

have influenced them for centuries, and it is to the Scandinavians that they owe their first 

knowledge of the metals bronze and iron. There is a great deal of Swedish blood in the 



Finland 



423 



people, and many speak the Swedish language. Their own national tongue is, however, being 
rescued from the obscurity into which it had been forced in the centuries during which the 
Finns were Swedish subjects. 

The Finns are not wanting in intellectual vigour. This is seen from the important 
contribution they have made to the world's literature in the Kalevala, an epic poem, 
embodying their ancient myths and traditions, preserved in Eunes, or ballads, which have 
been orally handed down from times long prior to the dawn of history. In the first quarter 
of the present century Lonnrot undertook the collection of the Runes, sifted the miscellaneous 
and often fragmentary material, and put together the national heroic poem, which is now classed 
by some enthusinsts with the works of Homer and the great epics of India and Persia. 

The early Finns were chiefly hunters and fishermen. The dog was their most important 
domestic animal, although they were acquainted in early times with the reindeer, horse, 
and ox, but not with the pig, sheep, or goat, which were introduced about A.D. 1000. Their 
agriculture was limited, barley and rye being the only grain crojis cultivated. They lived 
in tents made of hides stretched on poles, and in huts consisting of holes dug in the earth, 
with only the roof above-ground, many of which are still common sights in Finland to-day. 
They wore skins, which they stitched together, using as needles small, sharp bones ; they also 
had sledges and snow-shoes. 

With regard to religion, though a few belong to the Greek Church, the bulk of the people 
are Lutherans. Though they are clear-minded and intelligent, among the lower classes 
Christianity has not entirely driven out old suj^erstitions and belief in sorcery and magic. A 
curious veneration of the bear is general among them. Ursus takes rank as a kind of divinity. 
lie is lord of all the spirits, and endowed with supernatural power and wisdom. The sorcerer 
is credited with power to make good or bad weather by spells and incantations, and is half 




Photo ht/ the Photockromt Co,} 



[London. 



A l.Al'l- CHILLI O.N RKIKUKKU. 



424 



The Living Races of Mankind 



man, half woman. He can 
take his e3'e out and eat it, 
or allow a bullet to be shot 
through his head and feel none 
the worse ! We are told " his 
demeanour is that of a maniac ; 
his utterance becomes vehe- 
ment ; he foams at the mouth, 
and his hair stands up straight," 
when the spirit possesses him. 
It is surprising to find such 
beliefs common among people 
who are exceptionally intelli- 
gent, who have schools 
throughout the land, a national 
press, and are industrious, 
shrewd in trade, polished in 
manners, and prosperous. 

LAPLAND. 

The country of the I^apps, 
which belongs partly to Kussia 
and partly to Sweden and 
Norway, lies almost wholly 
within the Arctic Circle. 
Tiiough few in number, they 
are a distinct race, and interest- 
in<r for two reasons. In the 
first place, their origin is so 
ancient as to be hardly trace- 
able ; secondly, they .still live 
under primitive conditions 
which have undergone little 
change during the last thousand 
years. At one time they 
enjoyed a great reput<ition for 
witchcraft, and English seamen 
used to go to Lapland to " buy 
a wind" from the natives. 
Some writers derive the name 
from Lap, or Lapp, an old 
Swedish word for " enchanter." 
The latest estimate of the jjoijulation puts it at between 28,000 and 30,000; but it is 
imjMSsible to ascertain the precise number of a people of whom half are wanderers. Statistics 
show that, of the estimated total, 25,000 live in Lapmark and Finmark, which are provinces 
in the extreme north of Sweden and Norway respectively. That would leave about 4,000 to 
inliabit Russian I^pland, including the Kola Peninsula in the Arctic Sea. 

It was the custom some years ago to speak of the Lapps as dwarfs. This is not quite 
the case, although they are certainly the shortest people in Lurope. It apjiears, from a large 
number of measurements that have been made, that the average height of the men is about 
4 feet 11 inches, and of the women 4 feet 7 inches. A striking feature among the lApps is 
the shortness of their legs and arms. Small feet are universal. The shape of their faces 




Pkolo by Ka/cn(iiu A Soiu, Lid ) 



[Vujuiee. 



A MOUNTAl.N LAI'I'. 




fltuto by VaUiiline <t Sotu, lid.] 



A FAMILY OF LAPPS, 
425 



IDutuiet. 



54 



426 



The Living Races of Mankind 



reveals certain Mongol characteristics, and 
it is now genei-ally admitted that, originall}' 
of Mongol stock, the characters of the yellow 
race liave been lai-gely obliterated by cross- 
ing with the Caucasian type. Professor 
Keane says, "Tlie I^pp still retains the 
round, low skull, prominent cheek-bones, 
antl somewhat flat features of the Mongol." 
Yellow and reddish tints are noted in the 
colour of the skin. No other coloured race 
contains so many men of very light hue as 
the Lapps. ]\Iany of the women have delicate 
complexions and rosy cheeks, and Du Chaillu 
describes the appearance of freshly washed 
specimens as positively dazzling. The Lapp 
language is a member of the Finnish branch 
of the Mongolo-Tartar family. 

The different tribes are bound together 
by hardshijis which are the common lot. 
Some are hunters, some fishermen ; others, 
again, herdsmen of deer. All have to 
struggle equally hard for existence. They 
are, howev(>r, cheery and contented. They 
endure with indifference and even manage 
to enjoy hard conditions of life under 
which more civilised peoples could not 
possibly exist. 

Tlie dress of the I>apps has now almost 
lost its old Arctic character, and assumed 
that of the northern Europeans with whom 
alone they communicate. Coarse woollen 
stuffs are gradually but certainly taking the 
place of skins. But in winter both men 
and women wear reindeer-skin with the 
hairy side in. The men's head-gear is a 
huge, four-cornered cap ; while that of the 
women somewhat resembles a helmet on a wooden frame. In summer men and women 
are chid only in a long shirt of wadinal with sleeves reaching to the wrist, and as a 
rule the old national costume is better preserved by the Mountain Lapps than by those of 
the seaboard. In summer they wear tiglit-fitting trousers of reindeer-skin, shoes of leather 
turned up at the toes, and a woollen sliirt. They are nomads, and on their journeys wear 
a strong belt with a knife in it. Tliis belt is occasionally adorned with bear's teeth after a 
successful hunting expedition. They carry leather bags on their back for provisions. Where 
Kurojwan influence is most strongly felt, the dress becomes more like that of the Norse 
l)easant, the women wearing a woollen under-garment, and over that another reaching to the 
knees, with red and yellow stripes on its lower border. An ornamental belt, with knife and 
scissors, girds the waist ; and the dress is completed with blue stockings. 

The weapons of the Ijupps who do not live by fishing are the bow, knife, and bear-spear. 
Th<r lx)W, alx)ut 6 feet in length, is usually made of bircliwood and fir, fastened together 
with fish-glue, and is furtiier secured and strengthened by being Iwund all over with birch- 
bast. .Some of the bows are thick, and show none of the elegjint work which other 
Hemi-wild peoples lavish on tiieir weajjons. 'Jiiey use blunt arrows for shooting fur animals 




Vhoto by J. A. CottUvin] 

A LAPP WOMAN. 



lUo^etli. 



Norway 



427 



when it is desired not to injure the skin. The bear-spear lias a strong blade, and is stoutly 
made, so as to contend successfully with the strength and ferocity of the game against which 
it is used. 

The dwellings of the I.apps are still most primitive. Those of the Coast Lapps are often 
mere earth-huts, made of turf with a few sticks in support, or of timbers leaning together 
covered with turf, without windows, and with not a foot more space than is absolutely necessary. 
In some of the more permanent settlements on the coast they live in log-huts modelled on 
those of the Norwegians. The nomad Lapps, who depend for support on the reindeer, pitch 
their tents wherever pasture can be found. The skins formeily used to cover these tents are 
now replaced by a coarse woollen stuff', which, being loosely woven, allows a little ventilation, 
and is very durable, lasting twenty years and nrore. The cloths, in two jiieces laced together, 
are stretched over a frame of poles, the door being formed by a piece of sail-cloth. In the 
tent, which often covers only 70 square feet, the inmates, with their dogs, huddle together 
on the reindeer-skins strewn on the floor, in the middle of which is a fire of juniper- 
wood under a kettle hung by an iron chain. The furniture is scanty, but always includes 
one or two skin sacks, to hold 
small articles for domestic 
use, besides reindeer-paunches, 
and reindeer-calf or goose- 
skins, in which are kept 
coagulated blood and a prejia- 
ration like sausage-meat. 

The reindeer and the dog 
are the only animals they 
use. The former is easy to 
tame, gives little trouble, and 
is allowed to pasture at will ; 
but the females do not pro- 
duce much milk. The Lapps 
make only a little butter, but 
a good deal of cheese. The 
reindeer is the most valuable 
of their possessions, since it 
is used for drawing sledges 
and riding, and also supplies 
food and clothing. 

The Lajjps are Christians. 
They impress strangers by 
their sincere devotion; but, 
as in the case of the Finns, 
their religion has not entirely 
freed them from belief in 
niagic. 



NORWAY. 

Till'; Norwegians, with the 
Sweflcs, Danes, and Icelanders, 
constitute the Scandinavian 
or Norse branch of the Teu- 
tonic stock, which belongs to 
the Caucasian type. Though 
inhabit ing the siirne peninsula 



I 




Pho(o hy Sottrent Perscn] 

A NORWKGIA.N tilKI- IX 1{UII>AI. DUKSS. 



[lierfftn. 



428 



The Living Races of Mankind 



r^HHHBBHBH^HHjM^H iiiul under the same sovereign as the Sweden, 
^^^^^^^B^^^^^^^^^^B the Norwegians are in ways different. 

^^^^^^K . w 'J'lie popuhition of Norway was 2J35,o()0 in 

^JJlfcir-' « 1897. The best authorities no longer hold 

^ ~* — . ^Ck M the view that the whole of the Seandiiiavian 

~^ Y _ . _ Peninsula once belonged to the I^ip[)s, who 

were driven north by the Scandinavians. 

The Norwegians are not of exceptional 
height, but are thickly and strongly built. 
The honde, or fanner, who may be taken as 
fairly representing the Norse character, is 
manly, self-possessed, and bra\e. Beneath 
his rough exterior he has a kindly heart. 
Outwardly cold, he is easily moved to anger 
or affection. He is kind to his family and 
considerate to his beast. Being industrious 
and resourceful, he is clever at all kinds 
of liandicrafts. When building his house, 
he fells his own trees in the forest, and is 
his own carpenter. As occasion re<|uires, he 
can turn tanner, harness-maker, blacksmith, 
shoemaker, or miller. Along the coast the 
Norwegian can build l)oats, and is an expert 
fisherman. In the mountains he hunts the 
bear, wild reindeer, and brings down tlie 
ptarmigan. 

Like other nations in Northern Europe, 
the Norwegians imitate the styles of Ix)ndon 
and Paris in their dress. But fashions do 
not change so rapidly as in warmer climates, 
and a style whicli once becomes popular 
may last for generations. 

For the men the characteristic dress is 
a short round jacket, much like that known 
to us as the "monkey-jacket," buttoned 
lielow the neck only. It is ornamented 
with two rows of metal buttons, which, in 
the case of well-to-do peasants, are often 
made of silver. The material of the jacket 
is thick homespun cloth. They have waistcoats to match, with smaller buttons, and knee- 
breeches, at one time invariably of leatlier, but now of homespun cloth. Their legs are 
covered with coarse woollen stockings, and the shoes are generally ornamented witli buckles. 
The head-dress is usuidly a round skin cap; but in some parts of the interior they wear tall, 
cylindrical felt hats, strikingly like tliosc? till recently worn by Welsh women. 

The full costume of the women is distinctly national and picturesque, though it is now 
nirely seen except at fancy-dress balls and on similar occasions. It consists of a dark skirt 
of green or blue, and a IkkIIcc of scarlet, edged with ribbons or gold lace, over a muslin shirt, 
with full sleeves, and much pleated in front. The married women have caps of excjuisite 
white muslin, but the unmarried go bare-headed. Kound neck and waist are woni sjiecimens 
of fine, old filigree silver-work, heirlooms which have often Ixhmi in tlie possession of the same 
family for many generations. 

Du Chaillu gives an interesting description of the peculiar dress worn by the jn'ople of 




notobn II- /'!■'. 



A RABDANOEB Gini.. 



1 /,„,../,„>. 




Pli'Ao hy VaUMifli iL' iioiif, Lt'l.} 



[OtIfUin 



JIAIII^ANOKU PKASANT WOMEN. 
420 



430 



The Living Races of Mankind 



Saotorsdal, a valley in the 
south of Norway. They 
are not typical Norwegians, 
being the tallest and most 
jiowerful people, not only 
of Norway, but the whole 
peninsula. Their average 
height is 5 feet 10 inches, 
but men who exceed 6 feet 
2 inches are perhaps more 
often met with than in 
any other part of 
Scandinavia. Their food 
and accommodation are of 
the i)lainest kind. The 
men wear pantaloons ex- 
tending up to the arm- 
pits. Above these, and 
covering only the upper 
part of the breast, they 
wear a short vest adorned 
with silver. The women 
have the shortest dresses 
in Norway. Their dark 
blue-black woollen skirts, 
trimmed with three or 
four brightly coloured 
bands, end just below the 
knee. This costume shows 
the well-shaped limbs, of 
which they are very proud. 
Tlie bodices are trimmed 
with bright metal orna- 
ments, frequently of silver. 
.Sometimes they have 
round their waists hand- 
somely worked belts of 
• burnished copper. These 

jieople, however, often sleep on sheeji-skins without a particle of clothing over them. 

In no country in Euroi)e are the duties of hospitality held more sacred than in Norway. 
Even Ix'ggius are not allowed to go away without an offer of food. It is a curious custom of 
the Norwegians that a guest shall eat alone. In the room devoted to his use the table is 
covered with a fine white cloth,- and the best forks and spoons are set out. After the meal is 
served, the mistress of the house, who waits ui)on the guest, leaves him alone, returning once or 
twice to urge him to |»artjike heartily of the food. Should the guest, after a day or two, insist 
on breaking the national rule, he will be allowed to eat at the plain board with the family and 
farm-hands. He may then decline to use the silver s|x)on, and ask for a wooden (me. The 
Norwegians take ))ride in these rude spoons. Each member of the family has his or her own, 
with the owner's initials carved on the handle. The gue.st may, like the others, plunge his 
sjMwn into the large dish of <frod, or jKJrridge, made of barley-meal or rye-meal, the Norwegian's 
daily dish, and iielp himself to the accompanying sour milk. Potatoes are also a stajile of daily 
food. l''ish, which is plentiful along the coast, and butter and cheese are also freely eaten. 




Photo by (t(>*ta J-'lo^nnan\ 



[Stockhotm, 



A SWEDISH C.inU IS IIUIDAI. DUESS, 



Sweden 



431 



In the Norwegians, who are nearly all ineinl)ers of the Kstablished Lutheran Church, the 
religious sentiment is deep and sincere, without fanaticism or bigotry. 

SWEDEN. 

The Swedes, who occujiy by far the larger i)ortion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, numbered 
in 1898 nearly 5,003,000, and are steadily increasing. They are of Teutonic origin. 

The Swedes are physically a fine race, and are said to have the highest average height of 
anv Euroj)ean nation. The typical " good old English gentleman " has been described as a fair 
representative of the Swede in face and figure. The Swedes have not taken much part in the 
military and commercial activity of the great luiropcan Powers during the present century. 
Their comparative isolation has probably tended to develop the national character and preserve 
their physical chai-acteristics imchanged through successive generations. 

Their dress is in essentials like that which is common throughout Europe between the 
forty-fifth and the sixty-fifth degrees of latitude. The costume of the women, however, has an 
individuality of its own. Until recently hat or bonnet was unknown to the ladies of the 
interior. Even now at a country church on Sunday one may fail to see a single hat or 
bonnet among the women of the congregation. A black silk handkerchief is the favourite 
wear for ordinary use. In winter this may be replaced by a knitted three-cornered woollen 
tippet. Black, indeed, is the hue 
generally adopted for church dress in the 
country, and it sets off to advantage the 
fair hair and skin of the wearer. 

The food of the Swedes is simple 
and wholesome. Soil and climate are 
unfavourable to tlie cultivation of wheat, 
but rye grows well, and rye-bread is the 
staff of life for the Swedes. It is found 
everywhere, on the king's table as well 
as in the peasant's hut. Sour milk, solid 
and firm as jelly, is second only to the 
rye-bread in importance as an article of 
diet. It is placed in the centre of the 
table in a large wooden dish. The creamy 
sui-face is sprinkled with brown sugar and 
ginger, and the family and guests, if 
there are any, mark out with their big 
wooden spoons in a \'-shape what each 
considers a fair proportion. A few words 
of grace are said, and the meal begins. 

An interesting institution has been 
established among the Swedes from remote 
antiquity, and is still common. It is 
called " foster-brothering," and in some 
respects reminds one of the comradeship 
of the ancient Greeks. Two men, in- 
s[)ired by ardent mutual esteem, desire 
to be as brothers to each other. A pro- 
posal is made by the elder or the more 
imjKJi-tant socially ; and when the other 
assents, the ceremony is performed. Each 
jiours out a glass of drink. Tliey then 
stand up; vow that from that iiour each 




I'Imto by Valentine d: Ao/jjt, JJ'f \ 

A TKLLEMARKK.N PEASANT. 



432 



The Living Races of Mankind 




Fran Hit AnUiropotoifical CotUction in the ilutiwn de Parit. 
AN ICELAND WOMAN. 



will regard the otlier as himself, promote his 
interests, iirotect him, and avenge his injuries ; 
and declare that no difference of fortune shall 
interrujjt their true brotherhood. Clasping the 
left hands together, they touch glasses, and 
drink simultaneously. This act is considered 
as solemnly sealing the compact, 

ICELAND. 

The inhabitants of Iceland are Scandinavians, 
being descended fiom Norwegians who occu])ied 
the island early in the tenth century. They 
therefore belong to the Teutonic branch of the 
Caucasian family, of which they are amongst 
the purest representatives. Their speech also 
is the most archaic of all living 1'eutonic 
tongues, having changed little from that of the 
early Norse settlers. 

It is somewhat ditHcult to present a cor- 
rect description of the Icelander. In physical 
characteristics lie does not compare favourably 
with his fellow-Scandinavians. Tlie face is round 
or square rather than oval ; the forehead often 
rises high ; the malar bones stand out strongly, 
while the cheeks fall in. Perhaps his most characteristic feature is the eye, whicli is nearly 
always hard, cold, and expressionless. The stony stare has caused the women to be described 
as generally ill-featured. The colour is clear grey or liglit blue, seldom brown, and never 
black. The younger peoi)le have a fresh, pink-and-white complexion. The hair has seldom 
the darker shades of brown, but in dififerent persons shows all shades from decided red to pale 
yellow. The Icelanders have thick, clumsy bodies, ajjparently too long and heavy for the legs, 
which, if short, are sturdy, while the feet are large and flat. The tread is heavy and the gait 
ungainly, although women, when young, are sufficiently light-footed and graceful. 

The 2X'oi)le are reserved and dignified in their intercourse with each other as well as 
with strangers, but cannot be described, with some hasty observers, as morose. However distant 
in appearance, tlie temperament is really Ixjth cheerful and even animated, combined with a 
frank, unstudied manner, which, however, often betrays an almost excessive self-esteem. Their 
directness in criticising and ridiculing other people's weaknesses has, in fact, created an impression 
that they are boorish and ill-natured. They have strengtli of intellect, joined with penetration 
and slirewdness. Lovers of liberty, hospitable, truthful, they are exempt from most vices, exce])t 
the national failing — drink. In their secluded, insular home they have preserved many usages 
and traditional beliefs, betraying in this respect a conservative spirit comparable to that of the 
Hindus. The Icelanders have emigrated largely during recent years, and the energy, industry, and 
intelligence they di.splay in American cities and other jilaces are highly creditable to them. 

Tlie men dress in breeches, jackets, and vests of strong cloth, with from four to six rows 
of bright metal buttons. The fishermen wear overalls, coarse, sm<K)th waistcoats, and large 
jjiiletots of 8heei)-skin or leather made waterproof by coating with grease or fish-oil. There is 
nothing specially remarkable in the women's costume. 

The foixl of the Icelander consists, now as ever, mainly of fish. In summer he fares on c(Krs 
head Iwiled ; in winter, on sheep's liead soused in fermented vinegar, or sour milk, or in juice 
of sorrel. Wheaten breatl lie eats only on high days and holidays ; the ordinary brcifti is of 
(lark rye-flour, which is procured mainly from Copenhagen, and kneaded into broad, thin cakes. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



OREEOE AND ISLES, TURKEY, BULGARIA, RUMANIA, SERVIA, MONTENEGRO, 
BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, THE GYPSIES. 



GREECE AND ISLES. 

Greece forms tlie end of one of the peninsulas jirojecting from the south of Europe into 
the Mediterranean. It is naturally divided into three parts, — the mainland jwrtion, bounded 
on the north by Turkey ; the Peloponnesus, or Morea, connected with the mainland by the 
narrow isthmus of Corinth; and the islands which mainly lie east and south-east of the 
peninsula, with the Ionian Islands on the west. In 1896 the population was 2,433,806, 
distributed over an area of 25,000 square 
miles. 

The modern Greeks have been the 
subject of much dispute among ethnolo- 
gists. It is generally admitted, however, 
that the coast and island Greeks of Asia 
Minor have kept their blood comparatively 
pure. By some writers it has been main- 
tained that the Greeks of the present day 
are Slavs speaking a corrupt form of 
Greek. Slavonic settlers advanced into 
the Peloponnesus from time to time, and 
have left their influence in dress and cus- 
toms. Tiiey were, however, swamped by 
the inhabit-imts, and it is much more 
probable that the Greeks hellenised the 
Slavs than that the Slavs slavonised the 
Greeks. Another race influence which has 
been exaggerated is the Turkish. In the 
days of their supremacy the INIoslems 
filled their harems with Grecian beauties, 
but in this case also Greece may be said 
to have influenced Turkey rather than 
Turkey Greece. After the War of Inde- 
jjendence many of the Phanariot* Greeks 
of Constantinople, who were remarkably 
pure specimens of their race, returned 
to Greece. The classic type may still be 
seen in many parts of the country, such 
as Patras, and especially in the islands. 

In appearance the average Greek is 
of medium height, spare, and well pro- piioto bf a. luiamaida] [Atkmi. 

portioned, with oval face, long straight a qbeek oibl in national costume. 

* The Phanariot GreekB were so called from Phatiar, the suburb of Constantinople chiefly inliabitcd by them. 

433 55 




434 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 



nose, white regular teeth, eyes full of animation, 
short upper lip, and small hands and feet. He is 
clever and energetic, and of a cheerful tempera- 
ment, but has an unenviable reputation in matters 
of business, and his name is often regarded as 
synonymous with "cunning rogue." His faults are 
in no small measure due to a long period of sub- 
jection to the Turks. The Greeks take a passionate 
delight in politics, and are intensely proud of their 
nationality, a trait which has helped to preserve 
their racial purity. They are hospitable, temperate, 
and thrifty. The moral tone, however, is low ; and 
although many of the urban populations are well 
educated, illiteracy still largely prevails in the 
rural districts. In 1896 about 30 jier cent, of the 
recruits could neither read nor write, and 15 per 
cent, could read only. 

The spoken language of Greece differs con- 
siderably from the classical type, and Slavonic 
influence has made itself felt in the introduction 
of new words and forms. In writing, however, 
scholars and literary men do their best to follow 
classical models. A well-written newspaper article 
is quite intelligible to an English reader who 
has not forgotten his school or college teaching. 
It is naturally in the more distant villages that 
the manners and customs specially characteristic of 
the Greeks are to be found. The national dress, 
which has been adopted from the Albanian, consists 
of a short white kilt. Kound the waist is worn a 
wide leathern belt, with a pouch containing pipe, 
tobacco, flint and steel, and a long knife. The 
poorer countrymen wear white woollen leggings, 
descending like gaiters over the shoes. Over the 
shirt, which has loose hanging sleeves, is worn a 
short jacket, and a red cap with long silk tassel 
completes the costume. Some simply knot a handkerchief round the hair. The dress 
varies in small details in different localities. The costume of the peasant women is also of 
the Albanian type. They wear a short white jacket, with wide sleeves, plain or embroidered 
with silk, over which is a long sleeveless coat, reaching to the knee, of white wool, trimmed 
with red, blue, or black cloth, and embroidered with a similar colour at the comers. The skirt 
is also white, and has extra embroidery of wool or silk for feast days. A yellow handkerchief 
is knotted round the face on working days; but veils of silk and mu.slin, with a string of coins 
across the forehead, are worn on full-<hess occasions. 

The social life of the Greek peasants abounds in symbolism and ceremony. The newly 
born infant is washed with an infusion of myrtle leaves in lukewarm wine, and then generally 
covered with a kyer of salt. In the island of Khodes an elaborate ceremonial is practised. On 
the eighth day after the birth the child receives a final aromatic bath of tlie wine and myrtle 
infusion, and is then placed bj' the midwife in a cradle sunounded by lighted tapers. Another 
child, who must be the eldest of a family, goes up to the babe, touches its lips with honey, 
and says, " 1?«! tliou as sweet as this honey." In Cyprus, when an infant's first tooth ai>i)ears, 
the friends of the family assemble. Songs are sung to celebrate the event, and the child is 




riiolo bf A. HhmuDdct] 

A OBEEK OIBL. 



[Atluiu. 



Greece and Isles 



435 



bathed in water and boiled wheat. Thirty-two of the boiled grains are then strung upon a 
thread and stitched to its cap or bonnet, to promote the safe cutting of the other teeth. In 
Athens, among the poorer classes, it is customary to cover the new-bom babe with a dress 
made from one of the father's old shirts. Under the pillow, if the child be a boy, are placed 
a black-handled knife, a gold coin, and a gospel. In the case of a girl ornaments and jewels 
are placed instead of a knife. These articles are significant of the gifts it is hoped life will 
bring — courage, wealth, and piety. 

There are numerous observances in connection with marriage. In one district after the 
feast the newly wedded pair stand on a wooden press or on the sofa, while the rest of the 
company surround them, singing or making speeches in their honour. Eice and cotton-seed 
are thrown after them as they leave the bride's house to go to the bridegroom's cottage. 
His mother, standing at the door to receive them, holds a glass of honey and water in her 
hand. From this the bride drinks, in order that her words may thenceforth be as sweet as 
honey. The lintel of the door is smeared with the remainder of the liquid, that strife may 
never enter that dwelling. 

There are several interesting burial customs. For example, in the funeral procession several 
bearers walk in front, carrying the coffin with open Hd, and with the corpse exposed, propjied up 
on a pillow, and dressed as if for a festival. Boys carrying the cross and banners of the Church 
follow. Then come the priests in their 
bright robes, and one or two pro- 
fessional mourners in plain clothes, who 
sing a sort of low, wailing lamentation 
as they pass along. Until a few years 
ago high dignitaries of the Church 
were borne to the grave sitting erect 
on the episcopal chair, and dressed 
in the full canonicals of their office. 
This would seem to indicate the high 
antiquity of the custom of burying 
the dead uncovered. At the grave a 
pillow filled with earth is put under 
the head of the corpse, and tlie lid of 
the coffin, which is made of the lightest 
material, is put on, when the body is 
lowered into the grave. In Cyi^rus the 
pillow is not stuffed with earth, but 
with fiowers and leaves of the lemon- 
tree ; and a dish of flour or grain is 
interred with the deceased, as a pro- 
vision for the last, long journey. When 
the earth is filled in, the wooden bars 
on which the coffin is carried by the 
four or six bearers are stuck upright in 
the ground, and a candle is left burning 
on the grave. After a death the house 
is left unswept for three days, and it 
is iinjwrtant that the broom which is 
then used should be burned immedi- 
ately. In Nortiiem Greece the women 
of the family in which death has oc- 
curred dress in white for mourning, 
and keep the head uncovered, with the 




Photo by A. RhonuUda 



[AUum. 



A UUKEK SOLOIEB. 



436 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 



luiir hanging down. The doors 
of the house where the body 
lies are left open, and the 
neighbours come in and out 
as they please. 

Our space will permit of 
but a very few words on the 
Albanians, who are remotely 
akin to the Greeks, being a 
renmant of the Thraco-Illyrian 
group. To the Turks they are 
known as Arnauts, a corruption 
of Arvanites, which is the By- 
zantine form of Albani ; but 
the national name is Skipelar, 
i.e. "Highlanders." There 
are two main divisions, the 
northern Guegs, and the 
southern TosKS, the former 
the ruder and finer race, the 
latter more cultured, and 
more akin to the Greeks in 
speech and religion. Most of 
the Ghegs are Mohammedans, 
the rest Catholics of the I^atin 
rile, and these come more in 
contact with the Slavs than 
with the Greeks. As a race 
the Albanians are handsome, 
with high forehead and well- 
cliiselled features. Their 
women and children also have 
a reputation for remarkable 
beauty. They are active and 
hardy, as might be expected 
of a mountaineering people, 
and they supjjly valuable 
recruits to the Turkish army. As enemies they are cruel, but as friends they are true and 
hospitable. They are indejjendent and intractable, but base never attemjited to develop an 
organised state, being still constituted in smidl tribes or clans without national cohesion. 

Their dress varies according to local divisions; but the chief features of the national 
costume are a gold-embroidered vest, bright sash, leathern pouch, containing pistol and 
yataghan, and the national kilt. The Albanian women wear a good deal of gold embroidery 
on their dress. They are for the most part veiled. The Mirdites, a sub-division of the 
Ghegs, are Roman Catholics, but despised by the rest of the clansmen as traders and hucksters. 
Their jwsition under the Turkish Government has been compared to that of the Jews in 
mediaeval Europe. 

TUKKKY. 

The Kuropean Turks are chiefly confined to Constantinople and the neighbouring maritime 
districts, where they number probably not more than 2,000,000. They belong to the Osnmnli 




A TURK. 




e/iolo bi/ F. HelMli] 



IConntantinojtUt 



A TUUKI8H PKULAIt. 
437 



438 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 




branch of the widespread Turki people, who 
undoubtedly formed originally one of the 
main divisions of the Mongolo-Tartar family. 
l!ut by frequent admixture with Caucasian 
races the European Tui-ks have lost nearly all 
their Mongolic characteristics, and ntiay be 
classed in the sub-division of the Caucasian 
type which is distinguished by dark complexion 
and dark hair. They are of full build, with 
stately carriage and grave and dignified manner. 
The peasants especially are well built, strong, 
and possess great capacity for endurance. 

In temperament the Turkish peasant is 
quiet, submissive, and generally ignorant and 
improvident. His mode of life is simple, and 
lie is sober in his habits, his coffee and 
chibouque being almost his only enjoyments. 
His house, though clean, is badly built and 
comfortless. The peasant women, some of 
whom have regular European features, do nearly 
all the household and much of the farm work. 

The Turks of the upper class have almost 
entirely adopted the ordinar}' European style 



[i'iidadai'Uia. 



A RUMANIAN BRIDE. 



of costume. A frock-coat buttoned up to the 
throat, trousers, and fez form their usual attire, 
the fez alone rejjre.senting an Oriental ^element. 
Tiie peasant still wears his prodigious turban, 
and seldom exchanges it for the fez. As a rule, 
be is worse clothed than the Christian peasant. 

As among the Greeks, many curious customs 
are observed on the birth of a child. They are 
mostly directed to averting the ill effects of the 
^za?*— the evil eye. Charms, amulets, prayers, 
and incantations are all employed for this pur- 
iwse. If cloves, thrown into a brasier, should 
burst, the evil eye has evidently exerted its 
influence; and to avert the thre.atened danger 
some hair from the head of the mother and 
cliild must be cut and burned, and tlie mother 
and child fumigated with the smoke thus pro- 
duced. Tlie slightest indisposition in children 
is put down to the evil eye. 

Early marriages are the rule among the 
Turks. Men maiTy in their eighteentii year, 
and girls at twelve or tliirteen. Polygamy is 
almost unknown among those of the poorer class. 




Pkota by Mr. H'. Artu] [PhilaiUlphia. 

A BUUANIAN DAIRY-MAID. 



I 



Bulgaria 



439 



and they seldom seek divorce. 
An old maid is absolutely un- 
known among the Mohammedans 
in Turkey. The preliminary 
negotiations for marriage are 
undertaken for the young people 
by their parents. The dowry is 
given by the bridegroom, the 
bride being expected merely to 
furnish her outfit. The husband 
has no right over his wife's 
property. The Turk has only 
to say, " Cover thy face ; thy 
nekyah [mai-riage contract] is in 
thy hands," when she ceases to 
be his wife and must leave his 
house instantly. Her dowry still 
remains to her, and this is a safe- 
guard against hasty divorce. The 
marriage contract is religious as 
well as civil, and is made verbally. 
When concluded, the bride and 
bridegroom are not allowed to see 
each other till after the duhun, 
or celebration of the wedding 
feast, which may extend over a 
few weeks or even months. No 
messages or communications of 
any kind are allowed to })ass 
between the wedded pair. When 
at length the duhun is ended, 
they meet possibly for the first 
time. 

The Moslem regards the 
approach of death with stoical indifference. Kismet (destiny) and edjel (which means the time 
of death) are decreed unchangeably by Allah. The dying man appears perfectly resigned to 
his fate, which no power can alter. The Turks do not keep their dead long unburied. 
The eyelids of the corpse are pressed down and the chin bandaged. The body is then undressed 
and laid on a bed called the " couch of comfort," with the hands stretched by the side and 
the feet tied together. A veil is then laid over the body ; and if it be that of a man, it is 
carried on a stretcher into the court-yard to be washed. This is a religious ceremony, and is 
jierformed by an Imam and two subordinates. The lower part of the body is kept covered, 
and it must be handled with great care and gentleness, otherwise those engaged may draw 
upou themselves the curse of the dead. 




Plwlo by r. ikbaJi] 



[Constantinople, 



A MONTENEGRIN. 



BULGARIA. 

The Bulgarians are found not only in Bulgaria proper, lying between the Danube and the 
Balkan Mountains, but also in P'astem Ruinelia, south of the Balkans. Since 1885 the two 
provinces have been united, and Eastern Kumelia is now known as South Bulgaria. The total 
population is 3,376,467. 

Although they speak a Slavonic tongue and are now ranked among the Slavonic peoples, 



440 



The Living Races of Mankind 




Fholo by Bon. Urt. Kejitudf ] 

NATIONAL DANCE OP MONTEMEOBO AT THK PRESENT DAY I 
DANCING THE " MORA." 



the Bulgarians are, like the Turks 
and the Magyars, of Mongolo- 
Tartar origin, being descended 
from the Finno-Ugrian branch of 
that division. Even the Slavonic 
dialect, adopted with Christianity 
in the ninth century, still shows 
traces of this connection. 

The Bulgarians of the present 
day are on the whole of smaller 
stature than their neighbours the 
Servians. They are, however, 
powerfully built, and carry the 
head erect. Both men and women 
are broad-shouldered, wide- 
chested, and large-limbed. They 
are dark-skinned, black-haired, 
and black-eyed. The complexion 
is muddy, and the features are 
generally coarse and ill-formed, 
the Tartar element thus still 
showing itself in the physiognomy. 
Their long subjection to Turkish rule has rendered them less aggressive than they were 
in their heroic age. Indeed, the Bulgarian of the present day is remarkable chiefly for 
stolidity. He is quiet, but determined. The peasants are fairly prosjjerous, and are a peace- 
loving and hard-working folk. They have no great liking for strangers, towards wliom they 
are reserved and undemonstrative. 

The prevailing styles in dress are European rather than Oriental, and there is little to 
remind one that this was till a comparatively few years ago a Turkish country. The peasants 
dress in sheep-skins, with their legs swathed round with woollen cloth, tied on with strings 
at the ankles and calves. Tlie women wear a kind of embroidered jacket of many colours, 
hanging loosely down to the knees. Underneath is an embroidered flannel petticoat, falling 
almost to the sandalled feet. The head is covered with a turban, bound in folds round 
the hair. The turban is generally white, and to it are attached two long tails, which stream 
down the back. Among the younger women the hair is frequently decked with strings 
of coins. 

Tlie following account has been given of the best class of houses in which Bulgarians 
live. Every house is one-storeyed. Inside the wall enclosing the house and grounds are wooden 
sheds and stables, with plots of open ground, half waste, half kitchen-garden. Pigs, fowls, and 
ducks strut about round the cottages, where they seem as much at home as the human 
occuiKints. The kitchen is also the living-room, and behind it is a sleeping-room, with a 
bedstead for the head of the family. The sons and daughters sleep on mats stretched upon 
the floor, which is of hardened mud ; while the furniture consists of wooden tables, benches, 
and chests, with crockery and household utensils of the commonest kind. There is, however, 
a good deal of rough comfort. Everything is kept in good order; and the 'cookery, if plain, 
is at all events clean and palatable. 

On market days the peasants troop into town from the country, with their long heavily 
laden waggons, formed of a pole with planks on each side, and drawn by oxen or buffaloes. 
Men and women tramp along together, the men in front, the women behind. They seldom 
speak to each other. The women carry the household burdens, while the men walk unloaded, 
as did their Ea,stem forefathers before them. Smoking is not common among the men ; 
and although on festivals they indulge freely in wine, drunkenness is not often seen. The 



Rumania 



441 



Bulgarians are as a rule sober and quiet. Street quarrels, rows, shouts and cries of any kind, 
are of rare occurrence ; even children in the street play in silence. 

The country is governed by a prince, elected by the National Assembly, with a popular 
legislature. It acknowledges the suzerainty of the Porte ; but this is little more than nominal. 
The bulk of the population belongs to the Orthodox Greek Church ; but there are large 
numbers of Mohammedans, Jews, Konian Catholics, and Protestants. 

RUMANIA. 

To the ethnologist the Rumanians are perhaps the most interesting of the Balkan jjeoples. 
The kingdom of Rumania, comprising the united provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia, was 
recognised as an independent ijrincipality in 1878, and was promoted to the dignity of a 
kingdom in 1881. The population is estimated at over 5,800,000, but it must be remembered 
that this does not include more than half of the Rumanian people ; quite as many of the 
race are to be found in adjoining territories. 

Physically the Rumanians are characterised by dark skin, black hair, and black eyes. It 
may or may not be the case that they have been influenced in this respect by an infusion of 
gypsy blood. Gypsies are to be found in great numbers in Rumania. The Rumanians are 
■well built and muscular, and are altogether a fine race. 

In the cities French manners prevail, and the moral tone is decidedly lax. The peojjle are 
mostly agricultm"ists, and in the country they are primitive, lazy, and inclined to be suspicious 
of strangers, though hospitable. The artistic sense is well developed, and some of the designs 
of their textile fabrics and household utensils seem to date from Roman times. 

The men generally wear a long blouse of coarse, white linen, drawn in at the waist by a 
number of cords passed round the body or a wide belt. The trousers are made of the same 
material as the blouse. Some wear boots, but sandals are most usually worn, the cords used 
to keep them on their feet being wound some distance up the leg. Hats of common felt or 
cheap cloth are commonly worn, but a high cylindrical hat of sheep-skin is the national head- 
dress. In winter the coarse linen blouse is replaced by a garment of sheep-skin ; and when 




442 



The Living Races of Mankind 



wrapped in this, the Kuraanian is impervious to 
snow or frost. The women usually wear a kerchief 
folded over the head and fastened under the chin. 
The upper part of the body is clothed in a loose- 
fitting jacket or bodice, sometimes white, but often 
of some showy material. The lower limbs are 
covered mth a skirt, which is generally of a darker 
material than the jacket, though sometimes bright 
and showy in colour. This is the every-day dress 
of the Kumanian peasant. The Sunday and holiday 
dress is naturally more elaborate in colour. 

The Eumanian peasant is frugal in his diet, 
which consists principally of milk, eggs, maize, 
porridge, and pig's flesh. Drunkenness is common, 
liowever. 

The dwellings in some of the rural districts 
are still of a rude type, consisting in great 
measure of pits dug in the eartli and then covered 
with more or less art. A large hole is dug deep 
in the ground. Often it is lined with clay. From 
the surface of the ground, or from a wall raised a 
foot or two above the soil round the edge of the 
pit, a roof is formed of branches and twigs. In 
the centre of this a hole is left for the smoke. 
Sometimes a simple doorway at one end gives 
entrance, and the occupants descend to the floor 
either by steps or on an inclined plane, while at 
the end opposite the door a window is often 
inserted. There are two rooms, in which the entire 
fimily live; and as animals share the accommoda- 
tion, dirt and disease are widespread. Marsh fever 
is especially prevalent. Yet there are some who 
maintain that these dwellings are not unhealthy. 
They were originally constructed in this way in 
order to escape the notice of the marauding bands 
which from time to time overran the Danubian 
territories. 'I'hey were formerly surrounded by trees, 
wliich have been cut down for firewood. The spirit 
of conservatism causes many peasants, otherwise 
well to do, to prefer these underground dwellings 
to the modem cottages found in the" villages of the 
higher lands. 

Tiie Kumanian women, like tlie women in 

several other Continental countries, do most of the 

work tliat is done in the fields, and ai"e said to be 

more industrious than the men. They are even 

called on to do the work of navvies, and toil with 

the men in making roads, digging out niilway- 

cuttinga, and in heavy labour generally. Men may be seen working in the fields witli square- 

bladed spades, while the women use an implement with a heart-shaiiod bhule and a handle as 

long as a broomstick. 

Of the nmu8?nient8 of the Humanians, the most striking is the hora, or national dance. 




PkolO tf F. lopiq) 

A BOSNIAM BELLE. 



[Sarcycw, 




Photo by F. Topiq] 



A JiATIVl-; OF BOSNIA. 

443 



iSarajivo, 



444 



The Living Races of Mankind 



The following description has been given 
by an eye-witness. After the dancers 
had gone one or two paces in pairs, 
moving in a circle, the men seimrated 
from the women. The latter then 
moved singly round the men, as if they 
were seeking some object dear to them. 
The men then drew together, and moved 
their feet like marching soldiers; next, 
losing their long sticks, they made 
irregular springs and uttered loud cries, 
as though engaged in battle. The 
women wandered about like shadows. 
At last the men with joyful gestures 
rushed towards them, as though they 
had found them after great danger, led 
tliem back into the circle, and danced 
with joy and animation. 

This dance is said to be illustra- 
tive of the conquered condition of the 
people. M. de Kichard, whose interest- 
ing account appeared in 1895, describes 
it as a complete poem. "Who knows," 
he continues, "of what long-forgotten 
incursion of the barbarians it is pre- 
served as a reminiscence ? " 

SERVIA. 

As in the case of the Rumanians, the 

Servians are by no means to be found 

only in the country to which they give 

their name. There are Servians in 

Austria-Hungary, for instance, and in 

Herzegovina. Sorviix, which is separated 

from Hungary by the Danube and Save, 

has an area of 19,050 square miles, 

and the poi)ulation was estimated at 

2,314,153 in 1895. 

The Servians are physically a stalwart race. They are hospitable, energetic, and brave. 

Though proud, quick-temjjcred, and apt to fight on comparatively slight occasion, they are 

fond of social intercourse, and cling to old customs and old beliefs. 

Their dwellings are of the poorest kind, consisting merely of mud-huts, which are 
usually small, low, and without anything in the way of ornament. Tlie Servian farmer 
could aft'ord a more pretentious house if he chose. Centuries of oppression imder Turkish rule 
drove the people to conceal whatever wealth they possessed ; and this halnt, now become a 
second nature, accounts for the lack of ostentation in the Servian manner of li\ing. 

The Servians are thoroughly democratic in their institutions ; each family owns the ground 
it tills, 80 that in the country day-labourers are scarce. Few will consent to become house- 
hold servants, and cooks and men-servants come mostly from Croatia or Hungary. When a 
iarmer is unable, with the help of his family, to gather in all the produce of his land, he 
applies to his neighbours, who will readily come to his assistance, but would be insulted 
by the offer of money. They act on the principle of service for service, and expect in a 




/■;,<,(.. (.;/ /■. i^rxi] 



[Saroijevo. 



A BOSNIAN SOLDIEB. 




nolo by F. Topiq} 



X NATIVE OF BOSKIA. 
443 



i/Saniijcvo, 



446 



The Living Races of Mankind 



similar emergency to receive help in their turn. All Servians are proud, and are equal 
under the King. There is no aristocracy, and the middle class, merchants, shopkeepers, and 
others, are few. The Servian who works in the field does not recognise a sui)erior in the 
better-dressed and better-educated official. 

There is no j)auperisni in the country. The old and sick are maintained by their 
neighbours in the rural districts, and in the towns by the commune or the workmen's 
associat ions. 

Education is compulsory and free, and is making rapid strides. There are schools in every 
village. Not only do children of all classes receive free education, but very poor children 
obtain a small allowance from the Government to support them during the time they must 
study in the secondary and higher schools. When they can do so, poor students eke out tliis 
allowance by doing work of some kind in the houses of their richer fellow-students. In this 
way low birth and poverty are no barrier to the attainment of the highest administrative 

and official jiositions. 

The Servians are an 
eminently pious race. The 
fasts of the Churcli are rigidly 
observed, and the peasant 
never fails in the morning 
to invoke a blessing on the 
coming day. Every family 
in Servia has its patron saint. 
The care of this patron saint 
is committed to the sons, and 
not to the daughters, who 
concern themselves with the 
saints allotted to their future 
husbands. The feast of the 
patron saint is an ancient 
custom, going back to the 
times when the patriarchal 
family lived together under 
the same roof. It is prac- 
tised everywhere even at the 
present day, the busy towns 
not excepted, and it lasts 
several days. The house is 
decorated with branches and 
flowers, and the nearest rela- 
tions meet at a banquet 
presided over by the head of 
the family. A loaf made of 
the finest wheaten flour is set 
in the centre of the table. 
A cross is hollowed out in the 
middle of the loaf, and in the 
centre is fixed a candlestick 
with three branches, all of 
which are lighted in honour 
of the Trinity. A prayer is 
said, in which the blessing 
of (iod is invoked upon the 




Pkela bn Lttf Ui^jt.) 



[Pat-U. 



A BOUEMIAK WOMAN. 



Montenegro 



447 



whole family. Dessert follows with toasts and 
songs, and the party give themselves up to 
merry-making. 

MONTENEOEO. 

The little Balkan state which is known by 
this name — literally the "Black Mountain" — 
occupies an area of not more than 3,630 
square miles, with a poi^ulation of about 
230,000. Beyond the low and narrow coastal 
fringe washed by the Adriatic, the country 
rapidly becomes a maze of peaks, crags, ravines, 
and gorges. The jieaks range in height from 
6,500 to 8,000 feet. The mountains are in 
places heavily timbered, and also afford good 
pasturage for sheep, goats, and cattle. 

The Montenegrins have been called the 
flower of the Slav race. They are tall, well 
formed, and handsome. The women, however, 
who have to do nearly all the hard work in 
the home and on the farms, while the men 
hunt, fight, or idle, soon contract a worn and 
aged appearance, and lose their good looks 
early in life. The Montenegrins are brave 
and warlike, simple in their manners, and 
honourably celebrated for their honesty and 
their chastity. The honour of women is sacred 
and safe among them. They are polite and 
hospitable, and may be regarded as one of the 
most picturesque peoples of the present day. 

The people live in little villages consisting of small stone houses. In all Montenegro 
there is not a single group of dwellings which can be correctly designated a town, except 
Cettinje, the capital. 

The principal business of the Montenegrins for many generations apparently has been to 
fight the Turk. At the present day the chief occupation of the people is agriculture. They 
cannot be said to dis2)lay any keenness in adopting new methods. Farming is conducted by 
them on very much the same princijiles which their remote ancestors probably considered 
satisfactory. It cannot be denied that the Montenegrin regards the arts of peace as rather 
derogatory, and a very jwor substitute for the livelier pursuit of war. This is a not unconiiiion 
trait in half-civilised mountaineers all the world over. One has only to remember the 
Albanians and the Afridis, for example — not to mention Scotch Higlilanders. 

Tlie Prince of Montenegro, although absolute in theory, is far from being an arbitrary or 
irresponsible governor. In making new and administering the ancient laws of his little state, 
he is assisted by a council and ministry of six members. The patriarchal form of government 
really prevails in the State as well as in the separate families. The Prince decides all matters 
in dispute, and the tree of justice under which he sits and dispenses law and equity t« all 
comers free of cost is a well-known institution. A few years ago an English member of 
Parliament found himself in the course of his travels at Cettinje, and was much im])ressed 
by the simplicity and efficiency of this patriarclial mode of legal procedure. Tlic real statute- 
book is national custom. 

The Montenegrins are making rapid strides in the direction of a higher civilisation. 




Photo by J. Taubtr] 



C7aiu. 



CHEKHS. 



448 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 




Pkolo by A. Otto] [Aitenburg. 

A WEND (FRONT AND BACK VIEW) 



Education is becoming more general, and new roads have been 
constructed. Every male person above the age of seventeen 
has to serve in the army, which can muster about 35,000 men. 
Not more than 150 are on permanent service. These form the 
bodyguard of the Prince. It is not necessary to maintain 
soldiers or police constantly on duty in jNIontenegro, where 
crime is almost unknown. 

The Montenegrins ha\e the poetical foculty, but that they 
are not necessarily a literary people may be inferred from the 
fact that the first bookshop in this ancient country was opened 
as recently as 1879. They have always had more to do with 
the sword than with the pen. " Every man, dressed in the 
picturesque costume of his tribe, carries his pistol and yataghan 
in his girdle," says one who has 
lived among them. When war 
breaks out, the schoolboy and the 
veteran will be found equally eager 
for the fray. 

It has been said that courage 
and energy, with other kindred 
virtues, may be seen in their 
highest perfection atnong the Montenegrins. When a girl is 
born, the motlier says, "I do not wish thee beauty, but 
«ourage. Heroism alone gains the love of men." Two incidents 
of the war of 1879 illustrate the devoted heroism of which 
Montenegrin women are capable, and the desperate steps they 
will take to avoid contamination by submitting to a foe. A 
Turk named Mehmed Pasha carried away a Montenegrin girl, 
the beautiful Yoka. They were in the mountains. The girl 

implored her captor to desist 
from his endearments, which 
were doubly disgraceful as they 
were in the presence of the 
Turkish soldiers. The road they 
had to traverse was only a 
narrow ledge of rock above a 
precipice. Overcome by emotion, 
she sank to the ground. jVIehmed 
>ei/ed her in his arms. She 

liim. Suddenly she turned and drew him to the edge 
of the rock. Clinging to him with all her force, she 
dragged him with her over the precipice into the deep 
abyss, where their bodies were subsequently found. The 
other incident occurred in a frontier village. The men 
had left the village to join the main body of their forces. 
Soon after their departure the Turks entered the place. 
'Ihe women took refuge in an old tower, where they 
tlefcndcd themselves like Amazons. The only weapons 
they had were old guns, and successful resistance was 
iiopeless. The women and children heaped the jwwder- 
fMobfj.e.Kranijfuur) iTatu. barrels together. When eventually some fifty Turks 

cHEKus. divshed into the tower, a torch was aiiplied to the powder, 





WEND WOMAN IN FULL DBES8. 



embraced and cluii}' to 



Bosnia= Herzegovina 



449 



there was a terrible explosion, and the victorious Turks as well as the heroic women were 
buried in the ruins. 

BOSNIA-HEEZEGOVINA. 

The inhabitants of these two Turkish provinces, which are now administered by Austria, have 
many characteristics in common. They are of the same race — the Servian branch of the Slavs — 
and speak the same language. 

Bosnia. 

The prevalent physical type of the Bosnians is suggestive of pride, activity, and endurance. 
Of modei-ate height, with oval face and aquiline nose, deep-set bright eyes under bushy brows, 
black hair, and black moustache, they look at once dignified and handsome. They are warlike, 
independent, and jealous of their liberty, and enjoy the reputation of being straightforward, 
trustworthy, and sincere, as well as truly Oriental in their hospitality. From the moment 
you have shared a meal with your host he is your friend. Friendship is as sacred as 
hospitality. Compacts of friendship are often made in church before a priest, or in the 
presence of others. The pair then exchange their weapons and give each other the kiss of 
peace. There is a legend that two of these adopted brothers fell in love with the same 
woman, and rather than quarrel with each other, killed her. 

Costume differs according 
to locality. A large white 
turban, brown vest braided 
with black, wide-flowing 
trousers of a deep red colour, 
and gaiters form the dress of 
a well-turned-out man. An 
almost indispensable feature 
is the leather girdle or silken 
sash, in which, among other 
articles, he carries a knife, 
tobacco, and a long cherry- 
wood pipe. 

The food of the Bosnian 
peasant consists principally 
of flour made from maize and 
a kind of black wheat, mixed 
with milk. They distil from 
the fruit of the plum-trees 
which are to be found growl n;,' 
round the houses of even tin- 
poorest a kind of spirit, whicli 
is their chief .solace in life. 

The shops in Brod, an 
ancient Bosnian town, are 
typical of those seen in 
nearly all the Balkan countries. 
At night they are closed with 
two large shutters placed 
horizontally. When a shop 
is opened, the upper shutter 
is drawn in, and forms the 
ceiling. The lower falls out- 




F/iolo Oy J. 2'auiierl 



[Taui. 



GEBMAKB OK SOUTH AC8TBIA. 



67 



450 



The Living Races of Mankind 




ward, and becomes the counter. On this the 
proprietor takes his seat among his goods, 
and waits for his customers. 

In the towns the houses are square 
and roofed with wood. When not used as 
a sliop, the ground-floor often serves as a 
stalile. The house is divided into two parts, 
each with a separate entrance. One part is 
occupied by the women, the other by the 
men. The peasants live in mud-huts, which 
are covered with thatch or lime-tree bark, 
and consist mostly of one apartment, wliich 
swarms with pigs, goats, fowls, and children. 
There is no chimney, and the smoke gets 
out as best it can. 

There are three forms of marriage. The 
first is by capture. When he has carried 
off his beloved, the captor places her in the 
women's department of his house ; but she 



Photo by QUderon a Tarbaj 

HUM6ABIAN PEASANTS. 



iBudapatt. 



is yet only his betrothed. Preparations for the 
formal marriage e.xtend over a week. The bride's 
jjarents usually appear violently opposed to the match 
at first, but end by consenting, as their daughter 
would be disgraced if she returned home unmarried. 
Another method is called "at sight." The bride- 
groom is allowed to see the girl face to face at least 
once before making up his mind. If he decides to 
have her for his wife, he sends her a ring, on which 
his name is engraved. This amounts to a contract 
to marry. Festivities are kept up for a week before 
the bride is taken to her husband's home. The 
third form is merely a business transaction, and 
obtains only among the rich. The marriage is 
arranged by the parents without the bride and 
bridegroom ever having seen each otlier. When a 
death takes place, the memtjers of the family meet 
together. The body is washed ; the nose, mouth, and 
ears are stuffed with wadding to prevent evil spirits 
from entering. Tlie corpse is then buried, wrapped 
in a white shroud, and not enclosed in a coffin. 




/Violo lif J. Taubcr] 

A SOUTH ArSTUIAN PEASANT. 



CTalU. 




I'Uulu ty A. Icckiur 



A TYUOLESK GIUL. 
451 



452 



The Living Races of Mankind 



Till recently most of the Bosnians were Mussulmans; now (1901) the majority (673,000) 
are Orthodox Greeks, 548,000 Moslem, and nearly all the rest (334,000) Roman Catholics. 
The Bosnian Mohammedans do not practise polygamy, and have remained faithful to many 
of the Christian customs which prevailed in the days before they changed their creed for 
that of their Turkish conqu<'rors. Should a child fall ill in a Mussulman family, the father 
hastens to the nearest monastery to order masses. When he is ill himself, he goes to the 
Greek monks to have the Bible read over his head. " At nightfall," says Victor Tissot in 
" Unknown Hungary," where he speaks of Bosnian customs, " one may often see a young bey 
secretly conducting a jjope to pray over the tomb of his father." 

Herzegovina. 

Herzegovina is a rocky, limestone region, and of a far more rugged nature than the sister 
province of Bosnia. The Herzegovinans are tall and broad-shouldered, and generally of darker 
complexion and of greater per.sonal bravery than the Bosnians. In form and character they 

approach more nearly to the 
jMontenegrin type. In the 
Yablanitza district especially 
the men are of powerful 
build, independent, and de- 
fiant. Their features resemble 
those of the Italians more 
than the Greeks. The women 
are taller than their Bosnian 
sisters, and they are generally 
believed to be more handsome 
and prepossessing. 

The dress of the Herze- 
govinans resembles the Monte- 
negrin rather than the Bosnian 
style. 

In Bosnia the walls of 
the houses and the dividing- 
walls between fields and 
gardens are made of wood. 
In Herzegovina the buildings 
contain hardly any wood. The 
houses in Yablanitza are to 
a great extent built of black- 
and-white scorified lava, and 
are roofed with slabs of slate. 

The social customs of the 
Herzegovinans are similar in 
most respects to those of the 
Bosnians. The more truculent 
characteristics of the former 
are no doubt largely due to 
the sterner nature of their 
country. 

As in Bosnia, the 
Moslem has ceased to be 
the dominant faith. In the 
Yablanitza district the 




By pmutMlMl ^ Dr. Amd. 

A HUKOARIAM WOMAN FBOM 8ZIROK. 



Austria=Hungary 



453 



> 



women have not adopted the Mohammedan custom 
of veiling the face, although it is strictly observed 
in other parts of the country. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

The dual monarchy has for the ethnologist no mean- 
ing whatever. It is merely a political expression. 
The population, returned in 1896 at 41,058,000 
(excluding the people of Bosnia-Herzegovina), con- 
sists of a great variety of races, having nothing in 
common except their allegiance to Francis Joseph in 
his dual capacity of Emperor of Austria and King 
of Hungary. Thus there are 18,764,000 Slavs, 
including the Chekhs and Slovaks of Bohemia, 
Moravia, and Hungary, the Poles and Ruthenians of 
Silesia and Galicia, the Slovenes, Serbs, and Croats 
of Slavonia, Bukovina, Croatia, and Dalmatia. There 
are also 8,628,000 Germans, 7,435,000 Magyars, 
2,615,000 Rumanians, and 681,000 Italians. 

It will be readily understood that, from the point 
of view of race, it is out of the question to speak of 
either an Austrian nation or an Austrian language. 
The characteristics of some of the peoples which 
make up this political tower of Babel are dealt with 
elsewhere. Space will allow of only a very brief 
survey of the leading features of the rest. 

Austria. 

Under this heading come most of the races just 
enumerated, Hungary comprising chiefly Magyars, 
Germans, Rumanians, Croats, and other Slavs. The 
Austrian of Vienna is of Teutonic stock, and German 
is the official language. The people of the capital 
are characterised by levity, and love of gaiety may 
be said to be the prevailing note. Their indolence 
and lack of energy may be attributed partly to the 
enervating life of a great city and jiartly to Oriental 
influences. The women are celebrated for vivacity 
and brightness of disposition, and physical beauty 
and womanly grace are present in all classes. It 

is notably among the working classes that their good i>hoi„ by r. lecimer] irimna. 

qualities are apparent. A devoted and capable wife is a uunoabian. 

generally found under the roof of the Austrian workman. 

The Chekhs, who belong to the Slav family of nations, may be reckoned among its finest 
specimens, and are noted for their high intellectual qualities. Their keen sense of nationality 
and the stubbornness with which they cling to their language have been a source of difficulty 
to the Austrian Government. German is the official language of the empire, but the people 
of Bohemia have never submitted to the disuse of their own, and their representatives in the 
Austrian Parliament have always insisted on its use. A few years ago the Emperor, yielding 
to their demands for its recognition, caused his ministers to decree that it should be placed 
on an equal footing with German. The wrath of the German party in the State was kindled, 
and the decree was rescinded. At the moment of writing the Chekhs axe once more carrying 




454 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 



on a determined agitation, and it seems that the "languages question" will be a permanent 
thorn in the side of the Austrian Govemment. 

The Chekhs are reputed to be industrious and excellent workers, and have produced 
talented musicians. 

The Moravians are so closely akin, in race, language, and customs, to the Bohemians, that 
they call for no sjiecial mention. 

The Poles are found principally in the Eussian Empire, where there are about 10,000,000; 
but a large number of them are under the Austrian Crown. They appeared under the name 
of I^khs about the seventh century of this 
era, and by some writers are supposed to have 
been a Norse tribe which overcame and amal- 
gamated with a Slavonic people. They may 
be regarded as one of the numerous sub- 
divisions of the great Slav race. Physically 
they are of medium height, the Poles of the 
south being generally of darker complexion 
than those of the north. They have always 
been distinguished for bravery, polite manners, 
and great intellectual gifts. Their women are 
handsome and vivacious. 

Hungary. 

Before dealing with the Magyars, who 
constitute the great majority of this kingdom, 
a few words ought to be devoted to the in- 
habitants of Croatia and Slavonia, which form 
an annexe of the Hungarian Crown. 

The Croats are a branch of the Slav race, 
and are closely akin to the Servians. They 
difier in being Koman Catholics and in using 
the Latin alphabet for their two dialects — 
the Sloveno-Croatian and the Serbo-Croatian 
(Brown). The author here referred to, in his 
interesting account of this people, describes 
them as having for their physical character- 
istics black or very dark brown hair, and 
greyish or blue eyes, with a countenance 
suggestive of cruelty and suspicion. They 
are lazy and intemperate, but good-humoured 
and hospitable. Their women, who do most 
of the work, are both ignorant and super- 
stitious, and do not rank high in the scale 

of civilisation. They are noted for the beauty of their costume, which is usually radiant, 
white tunic, scarlet waistcoat, and red sash or belt of leather with beautiful patterns are 
among the various articles of attire, which differ in every village. A love of gorgeous 
colours and silver ornaments is displayed everywhere. 

The Slovaks, who are found associated with the Ruthenians in Moravia and Galicia, are 
carefully to be distinguished from the Slovenes, who are numerous, especially in Bukovina 
and Slavonia. They are a ijastoral people, and are generally regarded as hard-working and 
contented. 

The Magyars spring from the Ural-Altaic stock. At the close of the ninth century of 
our era a horde of mixed Turkish and Finnish origin entered Hungary, and it is from these 




/ ColUctton in the Musi'UBl de J'uri.^ 



A PUKE GYPSY, ALSACE (PROFILE). 



The 



The Gypsies 



455 



immigi-ants that the Hungarians descend. "An indefinable Oriental air may be noted in most 
Magyars of good family. The fact that the structm-e of the Magyar language is Ugro-Finnish, 
while it contains Mongol and Turkish words, and has in more recent times borrowed from German 
and Sla\onic, points to a good deal of mixture in the composition of this jjeoj^le " (liatzel). 

Physically they are accounted one of the handsomest races in Europe. They have a 
manly, upright carriage and an energetic air. Their frames are tall, athletic, and robust. 
Their eyes are intensely black, the nose straight, the teeth white and regular, and the hair 
bushy. Their women are even better-looking than the men. The jSIagyars have pushed 

their way into the front rank of nations by 
their jihysical strength, bravery, and strong 
patriotic sentiment, which engenders a vanity 
bordering on self-conceit. Their hospitality 
is i^roverbial, and has brought many wealthy 
families to the verge of ruin. Trade and the 
industries have in recent years been greatly 
developed. 

The national dress is exceedingly pictur- 
esque. Its principal characteristics are the 
buncla (a long outer cloak), long boots, and 
spurs. A Hungarian nobleman attached to 
the Austro-Hungarian Embassy in London 
attracted universal attention at a levee at 
St. James's a few years ago by the magnifi- 
cence of his attire. 

A Hungarian wedding is a remarkable 
ceremony. The feast lasts for several days. 
" After the wedding ceremony is ended, the 
bridegroom's friends, headed by a band of 
musicians, come to fetch the bride, who, thus 
escorted, goes to her new liome ; here, as 
well as during the procession to the church, 
firearms are discharged and other noisy 
demonstrations made by the guests, who 
afterwards sit down to the table and prolong 
the feast far into the night. It is the 
custom — and a curiously suggestive one it is — 
for each guest to dance in turn with the 
Ijride, and then to give her a few kreutzers 
(or pence), in exchange for which he receives 
a kiss. Each guest also brings a present, 
which consists of a fowl, a pigeon, some fruit, 
or other articles of provender. This is duly 
handed to the bride, who, by accepting it, binds herself to dance with the donor " (Brown). 

The dominant religion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire — or rather of the various races 
composing it — is the lioraan Catholic. The members of this Church numbered, in 1898, 
32,240,000. Tiiere are also 4,208,000 Protestants, 3,178,000 members of the Greek and 
Armenian Churche.s, and 1,870,000 Jews. 




From the Anthropological CoCUction in the Muieum de FarU. 
A PURE GYPSY, ALSACE (PULL-FACE). 



THE GYPSIES. 
Before taking leave of the peoi>les of Central Europe, a few words may appropriately be 
devoted to the Gypsies, who are here found in larger numbers than in any otlier part of the 
world, over which they wander at large. 



456 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 



The Gypsies are undoubtedly of Hindu 
origin, as is clearly shown by the structure 
of their language. They first appeared in 
Europe early in the Middle Ages, when 
they were believed to have come originally 
from Egypt. This theory is now exploded, 
and survives only in the name by which they 
are known in some places. Their language 
bears traces of all the countries through 
which they have passed at different times, 
so that it may be said that they have no 
language and no country of their own. They 
have adopted whatever country has suited 
their taste, and have absorbed a little of its 
speech into their original dialect. Wherever 
they are found, they are strangers and out^ 
casts, and have no part in the government 
or national life of their adopted country. 

Physically the Gypsy of pure blood is 
strongly suggestive of an Eastern origin. 
His bright black eyes, oval face, black hair, 
and dark brown comi^lexion render him 
easily recognisable wherever he is seen. His 
mental characteristics are not such as to 
earn for him the respect of his fellow-men. 
He leads a shiftless, vagrant life, and his 
pro])ensity for thieving is ineradicable. Of 
religion the Gypsies have little, and they 
are generally as ready to adopt that of the 
country they find themselves in, whenever it 
suits their convenience, as to borrow from 
its language or its hen-roosts. Although 
their moral conceptions are not of a high 
order, they have certain beliefs and super- 
stitions which redeem them from absolute barbarism. 

Their customs differ widely in the various regions in which they live. Everywhere they 
display a jiassion for bright colours in their dress and for glittering ornaments. They have no 
liking for sedentary life, and their pursuits are such as can be best carried on in a life of 
movement. As tinkers and mctd-workers, and in making baskets and brooms, they show 
much skill. 

A gcKxi description of the Gypsies of IJosnia is given by Tissot, who says : " Their com- 
plexion is as brown as old leather. Tiu>y have keen black eyes and oval faces, and their long 
curly hair, fulls in oily masses over their shoulders; their figures are athletic and muscular; 
they lejul a vagabond and wandering life, braving carelessly the inclemency of tlie seasons under 
their tents of ragged cloth, and too often exercising the calling of brigands and tliieves. 
I must tell you further that the Bosnian Gypsy women are often of a rare beauty, and 
know how to make the most of their charms. As dancing-women and ballet-girls they enter 
the harems, distracting the hearts of the beys and pashas, and they are often to be met in 
public places dancing in picturesque costumes on a piece of carjjet. The Tziganes were for 
long the only people who worked the rich mines of Bosnia, but they contented tliemselves 
with dragging a fleece of wool in the bed of the torrents, and picking out the spangles of 
gold which in some streams are found in abundance." 




From the Anthropotf>i/icai tUUcUon in tlu Mu£&um de }*ari$, 
A BOIIKMIA.S GYPSy OIBL. 



CHAPTER XX. 

GERMANY, SWITZERLAND, ITALY, FRANCE, SPAIN, AND PORTUGAL. 



GERMANY. 

The Germanic or Teutonic stock forms the basis of the Scandinavian, Dutch, and to some 
extent the British peoples. In the previous chapter we have already pointed out that a large 
number of Germans are to be found in Austria-Hungary. The Teutons form one of the 
principal branches of the Aryan family of nations. But in the every-day use of language 
we generally mean by the word "German" a person who owes allegiance to the Kaiser, 
or Emperor, of Germany. Its significance is therefore rather political than scientific. The 
German Empire is a confederacy of five-aud-twenty states, dating from the year 1871, with 
more or less independence in their internal afi'airs, presided over by the King of Prussia, who 
bears the title of Kaiser, or Emperor. The united provinces of Alsace-Lorraine, annexed 
after the Franco-Prussian War, now form part of the empire, being administered as a kind 
of Crown colony. 

In the year 1895 the German people 
numbered 52,246,589, but at the present time 
the population is probably not far short of 
55,000,000. Racially the Germans may be 
■divided into two great branches, corresponding 
to the two very different physical divisions of 
the land. To the south and west of the 
Hartz Mountains Germany consists of higli 
tablelands and valleys ; to the north and east, 
of a vast tract of lowland country, in which 
the only important elevation is the Teuto- 
biirger Wald. 

The inhabitants of the southern portions 
of the empire are generally known as the 
High Germans, while those who dwell in 
the low-lying regions of the north are called 
the Low Germans. The former are also 
known as Swabians, the latter as Sa.xons. 
There is a well-marked distinction in tlie 
physical type of these two branches of the 
race. The Swabians represent that portion 
of the Teutons which, in its early migrations, 
displaced a Celtic people at one time settled 
in , the mountainous part of the country. 
ITiey are darker than the Northern Germans, 
and perhaps this may be accounted for by 
[Kirtial fusion with the conquered CelLs, who 
had in their turn already absorbed a dark 
race of the time of the New Stone Age — 

<w 58 




rholu by y. 



lUtrlin. 



A LITTLE aiSRMAN HOY. 



/ 



/ 



458 



The Living Races of Mankind 



that is, a Neolithic people, to use the 
scientific term. The Saxons, on the other 
hand, have for the most part the blue 
eyes and light hair which are generally 
taken as typical of the modem German. 
The Germans, however, are no excej)tion to 
the rule that all European peoples are so 
mixed that none of them can be resolved 
into their primary Celtic, Teutonic, Scandi- 
navian, or Slav elements. The Slav element 
is indeed prominent in Germany, although 
the i^urely Slavonic inhabitants are slowly 
but surely becoming Teutonised. Of these, 
the I.etto-I^ithuanic people in the extreme 
north-east of the empire are a sort of 
connecting-link between Russia and Germany, 
as they are found in large numbers in the 
western jirovinces of Kussia. This race may 
be described as handsome, well built, and 
fair, with blue eyes and clear white skin. 
They are mostly Protestants, and bear a 
great reputation for piety. It is said that 
nothing is ever allowed to keep them away 
from church on Sunday. They retain, how- 
ever, a gi-eat number of pagan superstitions 
which were blended with their Christianity. 
The Wends of Lusatia are another survival 
whose name, supjiosed to mean " \^'anderers," 
has been identified with that of the ancient 
Veneti (A'enetians). They still retain the 
old dialect known as Sorb, which, however, is destined in time to give way to the German 
which they are rapidly learning to speak. In the provinces of Silesia and Posen there are as 
many as 2,920,000 Western Slavs, nearly all Pole.-;, with a few of the kindred Cilssubs and 
Mjizurs. These last, being Protestants, are naturally more susce2)tible to German influence. 

About 50,000 Chekhs, on the Kohemian frontier, are under German sway, as are the 
Schleswig Danes. The French are numerous, especially in Lorraine, where are also a few 
Walloon communities. Nor must the Jews be omitted, who number about 1 per cent, of 
the iMjpulation, and exert a powerful influence on the art, literature, music, and finance of 
the country. 

Before we can arrive at anything like a correct estimate of the mental characteristics and 
tem])eniment of the t^'pical modem German, it is necessary to take into consideration the 
immense influence which the State has exercised in modifying the national ch.aracter. One 
of the chief agencies by which this has been brought about is of course the army. Military 
training is conijjulsory and universal. The Germans of the upper class devote as much time 
and 8eriou.s attention to the jjrofession of arms as Knglish gentlemen do to politics, or the 
various pursuits of country life, such as hunting, shooting, fishing, or racing. A German 
officer, as a rule, lives for nothing but his work, and his one ambition is to become as 
proficient therein as possible. The consequence is that Germany now jwssesses tiie finest 
army in the world. Nor is it by the army alone that discipline is taught; the Stnte controls 
the education of the citizen, directs the post and the railways, and assists trade and commerce 
by encouraging technical instruction and subsidising giowing industries and ti-ansoceanic 
shipping. Everywhere and over everything the influence of the State makes itself felt. 




I . Scheuriek} 



IBerUn. 



A OKBMAM LADY. 



Germany 



459 



It is perhaps not too much to say that Germany is the most thoroughly organised and 
completely drilled nation in Europe. It would obviously be outside the scope of the 
present work to inquire into the advantages or defects of German methods from the stand- 
points of statecraft and of commerce. Yet their influence in moulding the character of the 
German citizen is of the utmost importance, as has already been pointed out by more than 
one thoughtful English observer. In travelling about Germany, the writer has been pleased to 
note the absence of that rowdy behaviour so frequently seen in the streets of London. 

Education, both in the public or national schools and in the universities, is systematic 
and thoi'ough. It differs from our English system in two respects. In the first place, it is 
open to men in every rank of life, and the average German has acquired a far greater amount 
of scholastic knowledge than the average Englishman on leaving school. In the second place, 
it is directed almost exclusively to training the intellect, and has little or no effect on the 




'^S 



the I'hvluckro.iie O,. 



>x~S?- 



THttEJi SWI8S »IKl,». 



[;...„.(.. 



460 



The Living Races of Mankind 



manners or the morals of the pupil — a defect which cannot be justly ascribed to the training- 
of an English gentleman. Tiie masters at our public schools have undoubtedly exercised a 
strong influence for good on the boys committed to their care, and the same may be said 
of many of our private schools. 

What are the mental characteristics of the German ? From the excessive militarism of 
his country he acquires s somewhat brusque and off-hand manner, which is esf)ecially marked 

in members of the aristocracy. His educa- 
tion, with its tendency to sjDecialism at an 
early age, makes him learned and naiTow, 
and lacking in the graces which a more 
general culture and wider training might 
bestow. The constant interference of the 
State in his domestic and business concerns 
is apt to weaken his independence and rob 
him of individuality and character. Behind 
his ac(]uired conventionality, however, he is 
honourably distinguished for loyalty to the 
l''atherland and his friends, as well as for 
kindly disposition and family affection. Not 
the least attractive characteristic of the 
German is his fondness for music, which 
does much to soften his asperity of manners. 
A strong vein of sentimentality has often been 
noticed in the Teutonic disposition, although 
it is kept well in hand by discijiline and 
training. A curious instance of this was 
related by the corresjiondent of an English 
news^japer during the Franco-Prussian War. 
When the Germans entered Paris, a good deal 
of looting and violence took place. An ofKcer 
broke into a house, and, entirely disregarding 
the trembling occupiers, sat down at the 
piano in one of the rooms and ran his 
lingers over the keyboard. Presently he broke 
out into a i)laintive melody which celebrated 
the charms of his lady-love. The performance 
afl'ected him to tears. He was able, however, 
to master his emotion sufficiently to call in 
his orderly and direct him to have the instru- 
ment packed up and sent to Germany ! He 
then left the house without so nuich as a 
word to his unfortunate hosts. The Germans 
are, as a rule, frugal and imostentatious in 
their habits. ^lere wealth h.is less social j)ower 
among them than in England. It will not buy 
the enlrie into high society. Class distinctions 
are well marked, and even the poorest nobleman of a long line is recognised as a far superior 
being to the wealthiest jwirvenu. In this resjject Germans take themselves very seriously. To 
omit tiie von, denoting gentle birth, before the name of an untitled gentleman would cause 
him to feel much aggrieved. Even official titles are guarded by tiieir jiossessors with the same 
strong jealousy. Wives are addressed in such a way as to show that they share in the 
official title— e.^. "Mrs. General" or "Mrs. Station master." 




Fhot* dy tkt tkttotkrxm* Cb.] 

A SWISS MAK. 



Clomten. 




Photo by Schtoeder, 



A lOI N(; WOMAN OF UKUN. 
461 



IZurich. 



462 



The Living Races of Mankind 



Domestic life in Germany is apt to 
strike the stranger as decorous, but distinctly 
dull. Women are by no means badly edu- 
cated, but they are not expected to share 
the intellectual or business interests of their 
husbands. Their proper sphere, even in 
the upper classes, is supposed to be the 
kitchen and the nursery. Many are expected 
to attend a church regularly ; hence the 
saying one so often hears in Gernuiny, 
"■ Kirche, Kinder, Kiiche," which means 
" Church, children, and kitchen." Although, 
on the whole, German wives are well treated 
by their husbands, they are often little better 
than a kind of upjjcr servants. A German 
girl is not expected to have a higher 
ambition in life than to become in due 
time an efficient Hausfrau. The Germans 
are fond of amusement, although their 
pleasures are of a mild nature. In youth, 
however, they are much given to fencing 
and other gymnastic exercises. Even duelling 
is encouraged in the highest quarters, being 
still a noticeable feature of student life. The 
present Emperor, however, has checked it to 
some extent among the officers of the army, 
owing to the scandalous frequency with which 
these "afiairs of honour" occurred. In 
holiday time they throng the public gardens 
and listen to the excellent military bands for 
which Germany is famous. Here they will 
sit for hours at the small tables which hold 
the ever-replenished glass of Munich, Pilsener, 
or other beer, and smoke cigars made in 
Germany, and therefore inexpensive. 

It is reckoned that about 63 per cent, 
of the inhabitants of the empire are Protes- 
tants and 36 per cent. Roman Catholics, 
remainder are by creed and extraction mostly Jews. 




Fhoto &y tiu Photochrome Co,} 

A SWISS CIKL. IN BRIDAL DRESS. 



while the 



\^Lvi\aiJH, 



SWITZERLAND, 

The union of the Swiss people as a nation is entirely political, and in an ethnographical 
sense there is no such thing as a Swiss nation. Their country has an area of only 15,976 
square mile.s, and in the year 1898 the census showed a population of rather less than 3,120,000. 
In this small comiwiss, however, three if not four distinct nationalities have their home. In 
the valley of the Upj)er Rhine as far as Basle (or Bale), and in the valley of the Upper 
Rhone as far south as Sitten, the people are of Teutonic stock, speaking a German patois. 
They are sprung from the Alemanni, one of the Teutonic tribes which descended on the Roman 
Empire. The (iennan Swiss are by far the most numerous, being about three-sevenths of 
the entire jKipulation. Part of the Upper Rhine Valley and the sloj)es of the Juni in the 
west are known as French Switzerland. Here the people are descended from the Burgundians. 



Switzerland 



46: 



Though the Bargundiaiis were also one of the German tribes which contributed to the break up 
of the iiower of Rome, their descendants now speak the French tongue in the district which 
comprises Neuchate], Geneva, the Valais, and the Pays de Vaud. In the basin of the Po — 
canton of Ticino — the jieople are Italian and speak the Italian language. 

Besides these three main groups there is a small fragment which may be described as an 
ethnical survival, destined in language, at any rate, to disappear before the German or Italian 
elements by which it is surrounded. This fragment comprises the Rhasto-Eomance people, 
living in the Grisons and the hilly region between the upper tributaries of the Rhine and the 
banks of the Upper Inn. They are believed to be descended from the Rhnetians, an ancient 
tribe which had settled in the district before the German or Teutonic migration, and even 
before the Romans, who had already conquered and mixed with the primitive inhabitants. 
Their language is the Rumonsh, which has two dialects, the Rumonsh proper, sjioken on the 
Vorder Rhine and in some parts of the Hinter Rhine, and the Ladin of the Engadine and 
the valley of the Inn. Both represent in a somewhat modified form the Latin spoken by the 
Roman peasant of the time of Livy. But however interesting the Rumonsh- speaking race may 
be from the ethnogi-aphical point of view, its members are numerically unimportant. According 
to the latest returns (1898), 2,150,000 of the inhabitants of Switzerland were of German, 
700,000 of French, 170,000 of Italian, and 38,000 of Rumonsh speech. While French is 
stationary, Italian appears to be encroaching 
on the German and Rumonsh territories. 

The various nationalities found in 
Switzerland are held together by a con- 
federacy, or union of twenty-two cantons, 
each of them quite independent in its 
local administration, somewhat in the 
manner of the United States of America. 
It follows, from what has been said, that 
the Swiss must present a variety of tyj)es, 
both physically and mentally. Not only 
have the racial differences to be taken 
into account, but also the difference in 
character and manners which we should 
exjject to find in a country where every 
little commune is practically free to go 
its own way without interference from its 
neighbour. 

Physically the Swiss may be described 
as well built and hardy, with a vigorous 
physique, due to plain living and mountain 
air and an outdoor life. They are sober, 
frugal (quite as much from necessity as 
from choice), cleanly, and fairly honest, 
except where rich English and American 
tourists ofifer an irresistible temptation to 
ask exorbitant prices. The late Mr. Ruskin 
spoke in his " iModern Painters " of the 
sad deterioration that had taken place 
already at that date in this resj)ect ; and 
his wise words of warning might be equally 
applied to Scotland, or even Norway. 
Education flourishes, and technical instruc- _ ,,a » , ^ j ., , « , u- , x, » ■ 

' Bi/ permission of the Professor of Anthropology, Nat, Hist. Museum, Pans, 

tion is well attended to. The Canton an Italian man. 




464 



The Living Races of Mankind 



Vand has been called the paradise of peasant-proprietors, and here the agricultural Swiss may 
perhaps be seen at their best. In contrast with their French neighbours the Vaudois are 
thrifty and intelligent in their husbandry. Their cottages are not only picturesque, but 
scrupulously clean. They supplement the livnig they obtain from the soil by such industries 
as clock- and watch-making. In this business they have shown their extraordinary aptitude for 
delicate and minute workmanship. In I^ V'allee, the centre of the industry, the inhabitants 
are said to have taken to this employment on account of the hard winters and short summers, 
which made a purely agricultural life rather precarious. Agriculture, which can alone be carried 
on in the valley.s, is not sufficient to support the whole community ; and even with the rapid 
growth of their commercial industries the Swiss are obliged to go abroad in large numbers 
and look for employment in other countries. As servants, couriers, hotel-keepers, and waiters, 
they are found in nearly every great city of Europe and America. In the summer months 
the country is invaded by a large army of tourists, who contribute largely to the support of 
the people. In spite, however, of their financial difficulties the Swiss are free from pauperism 
as it is known in Kngland. They set a good example to the rest of the world by assisting 
each other in times of distress. Every commune has its fund out of which the children of 
parents who have died have their education paid for, and the old folk who are past working 
are maintained from the same source. The smallness of the commune makes it easier for 
public opinion to enforce a high standard of self-respect. 

Each canton has its own manners and its own institutions. Taken as a whole the Swiss 
are undoubtedly democratic. As in Greece, there are no hereditary titles, and the only trace 
of anything approaching to an aristocratic state is to be found in the canton of Bern. Here 
many of the citizens are descended from the lords of Bern who ruled that republic in former 
days with the majesty of the doges and princes of Venice and P^lorence. These are held by 
their less illustrious brethren in great honour. But although a democratic people, the Swiss 
are conservative in clinging to old customs. The little commune of Gersau, now incorporated 
in the canton of Schwytz (from which Switzerland takes its name), was at one time an 




Pkola 6> a. Snuuri 



THE "TARAMTELLK" IN VATUSa. 



[Sapta. 




Photo by Alinari] 



A.N ITALIAN- SHKI'IIKUDESS. 
4G5 



[t'lotruce. 



59 



466 



The Living Races of Mankind 



independent state. The memory of its grander 
days is kept alive by an interesting ceremony 
which takes place annually. On a certain 
Sunday in May the people meet together 
under the j)residency of the chief magistrate 
(wlio is glorious on this occasion by reason of 
being girt witli the sword of state), elect the 
various administrative functionaries, and dis- 
cuss generally the affairs of the commune. 

The Swiss ha\e always been proud of 
their independence, and have clung tenaciously 
to their liberty. In this they were aided by 
the conformation of their country, which 
otters a natural barrier to invasion. When 
first forming part of the Holy Eoman Empire, 
the forest cantons revolted against the Emperor 
Albert in 1313. From motives of prudence 
subsequent sovereigns favoured their spirit of 
independence. It was not until their defeat 
of the forces of Charles the Bold in 1477 
that the Swiss attained to a full conscious- 
ness of national existence. The Emperor 
Jlaximilian made a final effort to reduce their 
growing pride, but after a protracted struggle 
he was forced in 1500 to recognise their 
practical independence by treaty, although it 
was not until the Peace of Westi>halia in 1G48 
tliat the Swiss Confederation was recognised 
by the world at large as a sovereign inde- 
pendent state. That the Swiss are still pre- 
pared to guard and, if necessary, fight for their 
freedom is shown by the attention paid to 
military training, which is obligatory on every 
male subject of the State. The last occasion 
on which the Swiss were nearly being called 
upon to take up arms was in 1857, when a war with Prussia seemed by no means 
improlmble. 

By the Treaty of ^'ienna the Prussian Crown retained certain rights of sovereignty over 
the canton of Neuchatel, and apix)inted its governor, although in all other respects the people of 
Neuchatel enjoyed the full liberty of Swiss citizenship. This anomaly gave rise to a consider- 
able amount of friction, which culminated in a threat on the part of the King of Prussia of a 
iniliUiry occuimtion of the canton. This the Swiss Coilfederation would have certainly resisted. 
The matter was. however, ultimately settled without recourse to arms. 

The legislative power of the Confederation is vested in a Federal Assembly, which consists 
of two chambers — a National Council of 147 members, and a Council of States of forty-four 
members. The texecutive ix)wer is in the hands of a Federal Council composed of seven 
members. This body, which is elected by the Federal Assembly, is presided over by the 
President of the Confederation, who is the bend of the State for the time being, and holds 
office for ft year only. Some idea of the modest scale on which the Swiss jwy their 
national servants may be gained from the fact that the highest salary, that of the President, 
is only £540. 

In Switzerland the adherents of the Koman Catholic Church are estimated at 40 per 




PliaUi bn J. S. Cainpton] 

AN ITALIAN HONK. 



[LandoK. 




Phola 1,1/ licy Il,cti.\ 



[Paris, 



YOUNCJ WOMEN OK VALENCE. 
467 



468 



The Living Races of Mankind 



cent, of the pojiulation, and 
the Protest.ints as 59 ^ler 
cent. In 1888 the Jews 
numbered 7,400. Geneva, 
long noted for its manu- 
lacture of watches, was the 
home of Kousseau and 
Necker, and has been a 
chief stronghold of Calvinism 
since the sixteenth century. 

ITALY. 

To some extent the political 
relations during the last 
three decades have been 
much the same in Italy as 
in Germany. Before 1870, 
when its unity as a kingdom 
was first achieved, it was 
divided into a number of 
separate states. Italy at 
the present day comprises 
the states of Sardinia, the 
IVo Sicilies, the Pontifical 
States, the Ivombard and 
Venetian provinces formerly 
belonging to the Austrian 
Empire, the duchies of 
Tuscany, Parma, and 
Modena. With a total area 
of 114,410 square miles, it 
has a population estimated 
in 1900 at 31,856,000. 

It would be hopeless 
to attempt to arrive at a 
just estimate of the racial 
elements of which the modem Italian is comiwsed. To describe him as l^itin would merely be 
an easy means of getting over the difficulty by giving him a classical name. When Italy first 
emerges into the light of history, it is seen to be the home of a number of tribes destined 
afterwards to be absorbed in a great linguistic family to which the pooi)le of I.,atium gave 
their name. The Umbro-Sabellian group were the most imiwrtant of these early inhabitants, 
although their arrival in Italy was comparatively late. The I^atin race, with which the Greek 
was closely allied, was j)robably the advanced-guard of the gieat Aryan migration into 
Southern Europe. The Etruscans were est^iblished in Italy some time prior to the arrival of 
the Jjitins, and have left a deep impression, both as regards physical character and mental 
culture, on the Italian race. In later times they were as.sociated more particularly with the 
portion of Italy now known as Tuscany, but there can be little doubt that they once 
extended over a much wider area. They were a non-Aryan people, and have been classed 
by some writers with the Iberians, as a survival from Js'eolithic times. Others luive put 
forward the untenable view that the Etruscans were a branch of the Finno-Tartars. In 
appearance they seem to have been small and dark. They attained to a high degree of 




Pkolo by PiloUi <t- Porpel] 

AH ITALIA.S PEASAN'T-GISL IN HEB WeDDING-DRGSS. 



Italy 



469 



culture, and remains of their inscriptions and monuments have been found in abundance. 
They gave a good deal of trouble to the Eoman people in early days by their warlike habits 
and character, but in the end were conquered. Even the Gauls had at an early date settled 
in North Italy. The Ligurians are considered to have been an older non-Aryan race. In 
the south and in Sicily the Greek element has combined with another pre-Aryan race, the 
lapygian, while Ph«;nician settlers from Africa helped to create still more variety. When 
the Koinan Emjiire fell to pieces, Italy was swept by barbaric tribes which brought Slav 
and Teutonic blood into the nation, lluns, Bulgars, and others of Mongol and Ugrian origin 
gave an Oriental touch to the blend. In her later history the land has seen foreign dynasties, 
Spanish, Austrian, and French, exercising their sway. How far these waves of foreign 
immigration have modified the physical and mental attributes of the old Italian people it 
is impossible to say. That they must have influenced its moral character is practically 
certain. Taking the Itidian as he is to-day, we naturally expect to find differences of type 
in the various states which have been but lately welded into one. Space, however, will admit 
of our noticing only some of the more important characteristics. 

The Italians are a remarkably handsome race, with well-formed, symmetrical features and 
limbs. An average Italian makes a better model for the painter than the average member 
of any northern race. Owing to Celtic and Teutonic influences, the Italian of the north is 
of a lighter complexion than his brother of the south. In Genoa blond representatives of 
the race may frequently be met with. The dark hair and rich colouring of the Southern 
Italian are generally accepted as marking the true Latin tyjie. 

The Italians are an agricultural people. Though natui'ally of a cheerful and patient 
disposition, they have been plunged by 
centuries of bad go\ernment, oppression, and 
high taxation into a state of poverty and 
misery. In the north the cultivation of the 
olive and the silk industry are the principal 
means of supporting life, and here the 
peasants are industrious, and have a better 
cluaracter for steadiness and sobriety than the 
fickle southerner. The Lombards were at one 
time celebrated for commercial and industrial 
energy, and this character the j^eople of to-day 
still retain. In IMilan the townsfolk are 
more reticent and thoughtful than the idle 
people of Naples. The lot of the peasant 
throughout Italy is extremely hard. He lias 
received no assistance in the shape of intelli- 
gent government in his efforts to cope with 
difficulties. The Campania, which in classical 
times was a rich tract of com land, has, 
on account of neglect, become marshy and 
malarial, and its unhappy cultivators find their 
rough 8hee{)-skin garments afford but scanty 
protection against the poisonous night air. It 
is perhaps in Naples and Sicily that the 
degradation of the jieople from maladminis- 
tration is most apparent. Things are much 
better now than they were under the Bourbon 
rule, but the conditions both in town and 

country are still far from what they ought nom in, m. Beriimud] 

to be. In Naples the visitor may see little a fish i:r- woman ok poutel. 




i_Boutoj;ne, 



470 



The Living Races of Mankind 



but what is picturesque and pleasant, but in the poorer quarters of the town disease, 
pestilence, filth, and dirt exist in their most repulsive forms. Sicily barely conceals beneath 
the smiling exterior of her fair vineyards and omnge-groves the extreme destitution of her 
l)easantry. It is here that secret societies like "La Mafia" flourish. 

If Italian morals compare unfavourably with those of colder northern races, one can easily 
perceive some of the causes at work. Although passionate and deceitful, the It^ilians are 
warm-hearted, generous, and hospitable. P'or a good-natured people, their cruelty to animals 
is, at first sight, extraordinary ; but it must be remembered that the bigoted and uneducated 
Latin of the lower orders, whether Italian or Spaniard, regards it as superfluous to bestow 
kindness on beasts which have no souls to be saved. Italians of all classes are noted for their 
charming manners, keenness of wit, and vivacity of expression. The intellectual gifts of the 
race are considerable, but they do not exhibit any of that stolid earnestness which we associate 
with the Teutonic peoples, p-acility is one of their chief characteristics. In dress they show 
a natural instinct for arrangement and effect. In matters of diet they are extremely frugal. 
But little meat is eaten ; polenta (maize porridge), with bread and vegetables, forms the staple 
meal of the northern peasantry. A genial climate enables the southerner to exist for an 
incredible time on a little fruit and some bread and wine. The Italians are fond of amusement, 
and the carnival still forms one of their national institutions. 

The State religion of Italy is the Roman Catholic. The fusion of the Papal dominions 
in the secular kingdom of Italy has deprived the Pope of all territorial power; and although 
he still rules over the A'atican, his position in Rome is only that of a foreign prince. There 

is a Protestant community of 
Waldenses, numbering about 
20,000, in the district of Pinerolo 
in the Cottian Alps. 

FRANCE. 

The French people are connected 
geographically and by language 
with the Italians. In the year 
1896 the poj)ulation of France was 
38,517,97.5, and the annual increase 
is so slight that these figures are 
probably not far short of the actual 
number of inhabitants at the 
present moment. In early historic 
days the land was peopled by the 
Gauls, a branch of the Celtic 
stock. Some older race was there 
before them, the race which erected 
the wonderful stone circles, dol- 
mens, and avenues of upright 
stones seen in Rrittany. Arclia'olo- 
gists are inclined to think that 
these prehistoric builders are repre- 
sented at the present day by the 
Basques or Iberians; but these 
questions cannot be discussed here. 
The reader who wishes to follow 
up this subject may refer to the 
present writer's "Prehistoric JNIan 
and Beast." 




fkolo bt M. MmU frtdUM] 



AN OLD rRRMCHWOMAN. 



[Bulcra. 




Photoby M, Emil Freckon] 



TWO FHENCH PEASANTS. 
471 



[Bish'a. 



472 



The Living Races of Mankind 



After Cffisar had invaded and conquered Gaul, Koman civilisation transformed the country. It 
was not the policy of the conquerors, however, to fuse with the conquered, and from Rome 
Prance received only her language and her laws. France was afterwards overrun by tribes of 
Teutonic stock, Goths, Burgundians, and Franks, from the latter of whom the French have 
acquired the name they now bear. Later came the Normans, a Scandinavian people. Thus it 
will be .seen that the French are a I^tin people in language only, while the ethnic basis is 
undoubtedly Celtic, with a tinge of Teutonic and Scandinavian elements in theu- composition. 
In the south-east of France Greek colonisation had gained a slight footing centuries before 

the Roman conquest. Marseilles, Antibes, 
and Nice were, with one or two other 
places, the sites of their settlements. 

Two physical types have been noticed 
in France. In the north there are people 
of tall stature, light hair, light eyes, and 
oval-shaped head. These are generally 
taken to represent the purely Celtic Gaul 
unmixed with the pre-existing inhabitants, 
though possibly they owe these character- 
istics to the Teutonic and Scandinavian 
elements that have been mentioned. 
South of the Loire the average stature 
is lower, the head rounder, and the eyes 
and hair dark. This phenomenon is ex- 
plained to be due to the persistence of 
the Iberian type. It must be admitted, 
however, that the highly civilised races 
of Western Europe have undergone so 
many racial transformations that it is 
im})ossible to analyse them with minute 
precision. 

Mentally the French are characterised 
by the vivacity and quickness which are 
the tyjiical traits of the Celtic intellect. 
'Ihey share with the inhabitants of 
Southern Europe generally the habit of 
temperance in diet, which is due in a 
large measure to the lighter strain under- 
gone by the system than it is subjected 
to in the more bracing climate of the 
North. 

It is from the bourgeouiie — the great 
middle class— and the peasantry that we 
get the most typical Frenchman. In the 
various political catastrophes that have 
Ix'fallen France the aristocracy have practically disappeared as a social force. The jiossession 
of a title is of little assistance to its owner in obtaining State employment, and the few 
remaining representatives of noble families, for the most part impoverished and retired, exercise 
hardly any influence on the character of the country at large. 

The iourgfioia, however — a name which covers professional men, merchants, tradesmen, 
and public functionaries — is the central figure in French life, at all events in the towns. 
Frenchmen of this cla.ss are by no means wanting in alert intelligence and the jKJwer of 
forming indej)endent and shrewd judgments. They are, however, terribly afflicted with a 




tlioto bf M. b'Mtl Fnchonl 

A PBENCH FiaHERMAN. 



IBMra. 



France 



473 



desire for uniformity, at any rate in outward conduct. Their lives are regulated entirely with 
a view to observing les convenances, which means that they are more conventional and subservient 
to the opinions of their neighbours than even the corresponding classes in our own country. 
Thrift is one of their most imj)ortant characteristics. They have a horror of debt, and it is 
almost second nature to a Frenchman to economise and live within his means, however small. 
This trait in their character sometimes appears ridiculous, but it lias done much to restore 
France to the great position among nations which she came near to losing altogether after 
the Franco-Prussian War. Ostentation in dress or style of living is rarely seen. On the other 
hand, the French are generous in setting before strangers the best they have to offer. Consequently 
the temjiting variety of the dishes and the simplicity with which they are served, combined 
with the good taste and absence of stiffness shown by his hosts, jirocure for the guest in a 
typical French house far more enjoyment than he would experience in a more showy mansion. 

We are rather apt to suppose that the frequency with which the French have changed 
their forms of government is due to fickleness and levity of disjiosition. This, however, is 
not altogether true. The ordinary Frenchman troubles himself very little about politics, and 
makes the best of whatever regime he may 
happen to be living under for the moment. He 
is far too much concerned in the care of his small 
fortune to wish for social upheavals. Politics 
he leaves to the professional politician and the 
journalist. 

Until 1882 France was badly off in the 
matter of education, and this accounts to some 
extent for the lack of depth and knowledge dis- 
played in the easy rattle of French conversation. 
Now, however, education is general and com- 
pulsory. Primary instruction is given in the 
communal schools found everywhere throughout 
France, while secondary education is provided in 
lycees or colleges. Higher education of the kind 
afforded by EngUsh universities is to be obtained 
in the "academies," of which there are sixteen. 
Technical training is also supplied, and the whole 
system of education is under the direction of a 
Minister of Instruction. 

The lycee is eminently a republican institu- 
tion. Boys of all grades meet on a footing of 
equality. They wear; a plain, dark uniform, and 
their life is conducted on semi-military principles. 
Although the teaching is of excellent quality, 
there is none of the training in manners which 
is found in English public schools. The State 
does not aim at turning out gentlemen, and 
recognises no class distinctions. Lycees and 
compulsory service in the army supply the country 
with a monotonous type of citizen, and establish 
a cut-and-dried pattern to which everybody and 
everything must conform. The college, on the 
other hand, is slightly more aristocratic in its 
methods. It is the last stronghold of clericalism 
in France. Instruction is given by priests, and 
the sons of the nobility are generally sent to a iiBiTTANy boy. 

60 




I'liOto by Willard. 



474 



The Living Races of Mankind 



these schools. JNIore attention is paid to 
manners, and the pupils are more strictly 
looked after than in the lycSes. The rela- 
tions between the sexes are regulated with 
less freedom among the French than in 
most civilised countries. Girls and boys do 
not come much into contact with each 
other. Until she is married, the young 
girl is kept in strict seclusion. Marriages 
are arranged by the parents of the young 
couple, and are generally business trans- 
actions. When a young man wishes to 
marry, his parents look out for a suitable 
wife among their friends, and arrange the 
matter of the lady's dowry for him. Every 
girl is ex2)ected to bring something into 
the common stock of married life. Although 
it must not be supposed that these marriages 
turn out badly as a general rule, there can 
be no doubt that the system tends to 
make French women rather insipid. Until 
marriage their minds are almost a blank, 
and even after it their conversation, full 
of s])arkle and Celtic gaiety as it often is, 
lacks depth and character. 

The P'rench peasant must next occupy 
our attention. France is the largest wheat- 
producing country in Europe, and the land 
is held by a vast number of small pro- 
prietors, each farming a minute portion. 
This arises from the system of partage foi\L 
At the death of a proprietor his property 
is divided among his children, so that it 
is seldom possible to find large holdings 
anywhere. Even if a man by saving and 
diligence add to his small estate, the in- 
exorable laws of nature — and the Republic — 
soon reduce it to tiny projwrtions. The 
French peasant is industrious and frugal. 
He is, as a rule, intensely ignorant of every 
thing that goes on outside his little sphere 
of life, which is of tiie narrowest and most conventional type imaginable. Such intelligence 
as he has -and he is not without considerable native shrewdness— he concentrates entirely 
on his life-long struggle to win a scanty subsistence from the soil. His ownership of his little 
plot gives him a sturdy indejiendence which saves him from the degradation in which the 
agricultural classes of other countries are so often sunk. His dwelling is of the poorest 
descrijition— an unplastered hut of at most two rooms, bare and frequently far from clean. 
Meat lie seldom ta.stes. Life is chiefly supported on a soup made of vegetables and scraps 
of bacon, and on breml and milk. 

The blue blouse is the universal dress of the French lower classes, even in towns, where 
the i)08tman goes his rounds usually dressed almost exactly like the pea.sant in the fields. 
Education is doing much to rai.se the intellectual level of the peasants, and before very long 




A 0YP8Y OF ORANADA. 



[i>un<i«. 



Spain 



475 



the narrowness of their outlook may be expected to disappear. The brighter members of the 
family often become priests, and this tends to raise the standard of culture throughout the 
class. Like the bourgeois, the peasants form a very stable element of the community; and 
political changes, of which they are often entirely unaware, find no sympathy in them. They 
are conservative to the backbone ; and so long as they are left to go their way undisturbed, 
empires, monarchies, and republics may succeed each other without affecting the character of 
the people. It is only when their life is made absolutely intolerable by oppression and 
taxation that they stir themselves to political activity. What they are capable of when roused 
in this way, the Revolution of 1789 has shown the world. 

In religion the French are generally Roman Catholic, the peasants, especially in Brittany 
and Normandy, being devout and rather superstitious. The old noble families are Roman 




Wiolo 6y Valtntine <t Sons, Ltd.] 



A SPANISH " FANDANGO, " OEANADA. 



[Dundee. 



CathoUc ; but among the bourgeoisie, whose education is almost entirely secular, there is a 
good deal of indifference to religious forms, and free-thinking is common. In 1900 there were 
660,000 Protestants, and the Jews numbered 87,000. 



SPAIN. 

To the same extent and in the same manner as the French the Spaniards are a branch of 
the great I>iUin family of nations. The Roman concjuest gave to Spain her language and her 
institutions, without perceptibly modifying the physical attributes of the population. 

Spain occupies, with Portugal, the great peninsula south of the Pyrenees. The lion's 
share, at lea.st five-sixths of tiie whole tract, falls to the former country, with 17,550,216 
inhabitants, according to the estimate of 1887. 

Although it is now under one king and government, Sp;Vin formerly consisted of a 



476 



The Living Races of Mankind 



number of seiwirate kingdoms, and even at the present time the people of the different 
provinces have their distinctive dialect, customs, and national characteristics. Before glancing 
at these subdivisions, it will be well to give some account of the racial elements found in 
the country. 

According to a generally accepted theory, before the Aryan migration there existed in 
Europe at a period known as the Neolithic Age a race of small, but sinewy, dark-haired 
people. These were the Iberians. Wilhelm von Humboldt, who originated the theory, believed 
that they were scattered throughout Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Southern FVance, and the British 
Isles. Spain was the last stronghold of these people, who were conquered by and fused with 
the immigmnt Celts, and thus produced the Celtiberian race. The Basques, who are found 
principally in the north-west of Si)ain, although there are a few over the French side of the 
Pyrenean border, are considered to be the direct representatives of these Neolithic Iberians. 

Taking the ethnic basis at the time of the Roman invasion to be Celtiberian, we find 
that SjMiin has been influenced by considerable admixture with other races. Greece and 
Carthage both established colonies on her shores. Teutonic invaders gained a footing — 

Alani in Catalonia, Suevi in Galicia 
Vandals in Bsetica, and A'isigoths 
in Castile — though of course their 
influence must not be confined by 
too hard and fast a rule to particular 
localities. It is, however, in the 
long dominion of the floors that 
we find the most important modifica- 
tioii of Spanish characteristics. The 
Arabs and Berbers who crossed to 
Spain from Africa under the name 
of Moors (the Mauri of the Roman 
writers) intermarried with the people, 
and have left their traces on the art 
and rich architecture of the country. 
The ^Nloors were finally driven out, 
but their blood still shows itself in 
tlie people of certain districts. These 
are the descendants of the Morescoes, 
tiie Si>anish Moors who escaped the 
terrors of the Inquisition by adopting 
the creed of their Spanish mothers. 
The Gypsies have also contributed 
to the ethnical amalgam. 

The people of Andalusia in the 
south are muscular, but incorrigibly 
idle. They are good-natured, con- 
tented, clever, and distinguished for 
gallantry to the fair sex. The Cas- 
tilians may be taken as the repre- 
sentatives of the proud hidalgo of 
liistory and fiction. They are digni- 
fied and solemn, and the mainte- 
nance of an intense ceremoniousness 
may be taken as their most notable 
ri,oio by yaitniiM Jt soiu, uj.) {Dundtt. characteristic. Too proud to work, 

A OYP8V oPxiBANADA. they are imst-masters in the art of 











'.?^ 




/*/iO/o ty VaUntine d' Song, Ltd.] 



A hl'AMSH LADY. 
477 



[Dundee. 



478 



fhe Living Races of Mankind 




TWO l-|)ltl UliL K^K l!ll\> 



starving pompously. The Aragonese, being reserved and 
suspicious, are accounted hard to govern, though of a less 
revengeful nature than their Valencian neighbours. The 
Catalonians in the north-east are enlightened and energetic, 
and make good practical tillers of the soil. The con- 
siderable element of Teutonic blood in their composition 
may have made them more vigorous than some of their 
less industrious neighbours. The inhabitants of the Balearic 
Islands are of mixed origin, with a language like that of 
Catalonia, \'alencia, and Provence in France, being a 
branch of the I^ngue d'Oc. Their literature is rich, 
especially in poetry ; but the language is being gradually 
displaced by the Castilian dialect. They are remarkably 
honest, courteous, and hospitable. 

It is, however, in the north-western provinces of Spain 
that we find the most vigorous physically of the Spanish 
race, or rather races. The Asturian makes a good house- 
hold servant, is accommodating, and markedly honest. 
The Galician, who has been called tlie helot of the 
peninsula, is uncouth and unpolished, but always ready 
to undertake rougli work of any kind. As labourer, 
artisan, coachman, groom, or ])orter he is invaluable, being 
clean, sober, hard-working, and faithful to las employer. 
The Basques, who have already been mentioned as a 
probable pre-Aryan survival, are slim but wiry, and are 
a hardy mountaineering folk. In temperament they are lively and independent, but extremely 
hospitable and courteous. They make excellent farmers, and those who have settled in America, 
particularly in the Argentine Republic, have shown themselves good colonisers. The Basque 
women are even more handsome than the men, and possess, as a rule, attractive features 
and a graceful carriage. The language of the Basques is peculiar to themselves, and is 
unlike that spoken by any other people. The difficulty of learning it is increased by its great 
variety of forms. 

Allowing for the local variations, we may describe the physical type of the Sjjanish 
Ijeople as consisting for the most part of a medium-sized but compactly built frame, capable 
of more endurance than it would at first sight appear to possess. The hair is dark and the 
complexion olive or sallow. In dis))osition tiie Spaniards are brave, gay, and quick to anger. 
They are inclined to take life easily and generally ready to make the best of things. Their 
manners are pleasing and gmcious. Quarrelsome and ready with the knife as they often are, 
t heir wrath will generally subside if they are not goaded into ungovernable passion by a needless 
fanning of the fuel of contention. Perhaps the least attractive feature in their character is 
the cruelty displayed in the treatment of animals. As has been suggested in the case of the 
Italians, a narrow and bigoted view of their religious obligations may have much to do with this. 
Fanaticism and superstition pl'iy a mucii larger part than intelligence in the religion of 
the lower classes e8i)eciaUy. All classes, however, show their indiflference to animal suffering 
in the enthusiasm evoked by the national pastime of bull-figl>ting, in wliich bulls are worried 
to madness, horses disembowelled, and sometimes men killed, witliout any protest from the 
public opinion of the country. 

Sjianish ladies are kept in more seclusion than anywhere outside tlie Eastern countries. 
Bright eyes and pleasant voices are generally to be numbered among their cliarms. Their 
beauty, which comes early to maturity, is not so lasting as that of their northern sisters. 
Their lives lack variety, and a natural indolence, coupled witli a very suiH'rficial eduaition and 
much ignorance, makes prolonged pleasure in their conversatiim impossible. 



Portugal 



479 



The entrance of more vigorous nationalities into the arena of competition has ousted Spain 
from the great position she once held as an imperial power. The war with America in 1898 
may be said to have brought her colonial history to a close. Cuba, Puerto Kico, and the 
Philipjiine Islands were given up to America ; while in the following year the Ladrone, Caroline, 
and Pelew Islands were ceded by purchase to Germany. Her over-sea possessions now consist 
only of Fernando Po and Annaboiii in the Gulf of Guinea, the Canary Islands, a strip of 
territory on the west coast of the Sahara, and some settlements on the north coast of ]\lorocco. 
S]ianish influence will, however, long be felt all over the world. The language is spoken over 
a lai-ge portion of the earth's surface. Nearly the whole of Central and about half of South 
America are Spanish in speech, and to some extent in blood. The Spaniards have amalgamated 
freely with the black races with which they have come into contact, and it must be acknowledged 
the result has not, on the whole, made for the moral imjirovement of the human family. 

In their own country the Spaniards of the lower classes are sunk in jioverty and ignorance. 
Their methods of agriculture are antiquated, and their lot is made harder by burdensome 
taxation. The solution of economic and social problems is scarcely attempted by their rulers. 
The Spanish Parliament is filled with politicians who make speeches of extraordinary eloquence 
to one another. If a country could be governed by rhetoric, Spain would be among the most 
fortunate. Oratory is a gift in which the Spaniard is seldom wanting. He is by nature 
an incessant chatterer, and parliamentary life gives him an opportunity for developing the 
rhetorical art of which he gladly avails himself. It is not surprising, therefore, that the work 
of administration, with its prosaic details, should receive less than its due share of attention, 
amid all this clamour of fluent tongues. Bribery and corruption flourish in a country where 
the officials are j)oor and dejjend largely for their living on impartial robbing of the 
Government and the governed. If the country is backward, however, there are signs that 
the low-water mark has been reached and the tide is beginning to turn. The spread of 
railways has done much to quicken the trade of Spain, and foreign capital and foreign 
enterprise have been largely introduced of late years. 

France and Great Britain, and more recently Germany and a /• -. .^ 

America, have been thus instrumental in awakening the 
Spaniards from their economic slumber. The land is being 
brought more and more into cultivation ; and its mineral 
wealth — lead, copper, and iron — is being more actively 
developed. It is unlikely that the Spaniards will again 
take so prominent a place among the nations as they 
formerly held ; but with improved education and more 
intelligent development of their material resources there is 
no reason to suppose that "the decadence of the Latin 
races," which they are popularly held to typify, is so irre- 
trievable as it appears at first sight. 

PORTUGAL. 

The Portuguese occupy a narrow strip of land on the 
western side of the Iberian Peninsula, amounting only to 
about one- sixth of the whole territory which lies south 
of the Pyrenees. In 1890 they numbered 5,082,247, in- 
cluding the inhabitants of the Azores and Madeira. 

The division of the inhabitants of the peninsula into 
two nations, Si)anish and Portuguese, is historical and 
ixjlitical rather than etlmical. Much of wliat has been 
said of the former will apply to the latter people. As 
with the Spaniards, the basis of the Portuguese is Iberian, 




A POBTUOUESB WOMAN. 



48o 



The Living Races of Mankind 




A POBTUOnESB WOMAN. 



afterwards modified by fusion with the Celts into Celt^ 
iberian. The Greeks and Carthaginians doubtless formed 
s[)oradic settlements in the west as well as in the east of 
the peninsula. The Romans spread their institutions and 
language here as well as in Spain, and the Teutonic 
tribes mixed their blood with the Koraanised Celtiberians 
of Portujifal as well as with the Romanised Celtiberians of 
Spain. The Moors have influenced the Portuguese quite 
as much as they have the Spaniards, and many of the 
every-day phrases heard in Portugal are directly traceable 
to an Arab source. One element in the mixed comjjosition 
of this people deserves especial notice. In the days of 
her colonial activity Portugal had an extensive trade with 
Africa and India, and slaves were largely imported into 
the country. A pronounced Negro type has been frequently 
noticed among the Portuguese in certain districts, and 
this may be attributed to the readiness of the Portuguese, 
no less than the Spaniards, to mix with the inferior races 
with which they have come into contact. How far the 
Jews may be said to have influenced the physical charac- 
teristics of the race it is difficult to say, but travellers 
have remarked on the prevalence of the Jewish type of 
features in Portugal. In spite of mediaeval oppression 
the Jews have flourished amazingly in the peninsula, and 
at the present day the Spanish or Portuguese Hebrew is looked on as the aristocrat of his race. 
Physically the Portuguese cannot be said to be as handsome as the Spaniards. Their 
features are generally irregular and their frames ill-knit. Tiie com2)lexion is sallow and dull. 
In the north the peasants .are much darker than in the south, and their hair is often jet-black. 
On the other hand, many impartial observers are inclined to think that the women are more 
attractive than their Sjianish sisters. Their eyes are especially fine, being full and lustrous, 
while their dark hair and regular wliite teeth add much to their charm. 

In character, too, the Portuguese are in many respects the more pleasing of the two 
peoples. The former possess a kindlier temperament, which shows itself particularly in the 
treatment of animals. 

The Portuguese are of a bright and careless disposition, and are more talkative even than 
the Greeks or Italians. In this respect they are true sons of the South. The guitjvr is a great 
outlet for their exuberant feelings, and a good deal of spare time in country districts is whiled 
away by the soothing strains of this instrument. Frugality is a leading characteristic of the 
people, as indeed of all the southern races. Dried cod-fish forms one of the principal articles 
of diet among the peasantry, and the oUa-jjodrida may be said to be the national dish. This 
consists, as a rule, of pork or ham, olive oil, and onions or garlic, stewed into a savoury, if not 
altogether nutritious, mess. 

Agriculture forms the principal occupation of the people. They are, however, extremely 
Ijackward and unenterprising. The same metliods of husbandry are handed down from one 
generation to another ; and being for the most part ignorant and iminformed, the peasants 
have little notion of making the best use of their fertile soil. Education, however, is spreading 
and the Government are Ixjlieved to be alive to the nece-ssity of stiinul.-vting the people by 
general and technical instruction. The manufacturing industries, of which hardware is perhaps 
the most important, are steadily improving, and the foreign trade is increasing. Of this, about 
one-tiiird is in the hands of the British. There is a considemble demand for British goods in 
Portugal, so that we may claim to he more or less instrumental in the gradual awakening of 
the Portuguese to a more active industrial life. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

DENMARK, BELGIUM, HOLLAND, GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



DENMARK. 



Physically the Danes are a yellow-haired and fair-skinned people, belonging to the 

ith frames 



Scandinavian branch of the Germanic family 
and limbs well proportioned and strongly 
knit. 

Although an offshoot of the Germanic 
family of nations, the most characteristic 
intellectual traits of the Germans are so 
much modified in the Danes that they 
fail to be distinctivo. The Danes are as 
courageous, industrious, and persevering as 
any people in Europe. Judicious and 
practical in the general affairs of life, they 
are in science solid and earnest, thinkers. 
On the other hand, one finds a quick sus- 
ceptibility and a degree of vivacity seldom 
or never apparent in the ordinary phleg- 
matic Dutchman, who may be regarded as 
the typical representative of the racial stock. 
The celebrated geographer JSIalte-Brun, 
himself a Dane by birth, has sketched the 
character of his countrymen. He cannot 
be charged with attributing to them 
imaginary virtues or concealing their 
shortcomings in his picture. " It may be," 
he says, " that the humidity of the air and 
the quantity of flesh and fish they con- 
sume have contributed to make this nation 
heavy, patient, and difficult to move.* In 
former times insatiable conquerors, tliey are 
now brave, but peaceable ; little enter- 
prising, but plodding and persevering; 
modest and proud, but not over-assiduous. 
They are cheerful and frank among com- 
patriots, but somewhat cool and ceremonious 
towards foreigners. Imitators of other 
nations, we also find them discriminating 
observers. Constant, romantic, and careful 
of their cherished aims, they are capable of 
a rush of enthusiasm, but rarely of flashes 
of inspiration. Although bound by strong 



they aie of full medium height, wit 




rholo by Solvdff Lund, 



A DANISH nniDE. 



481 



61 



482 



The Living Races of Mankind 



ties to their native soil and to 
the interests of the fatherland, 
they are not jealous enough of the 
national glory ; and though accus- 
tomed to the calm of a monarchy, 
enemies of servitude and despotism. 
This is the portrait of the Danes." 
There is nothing which calls 
for special remark in the Danish 
costume. In the towns the people 
are always ready to follow the 
lead of Paris in the way of fashion. 
Consequently the apjiarel to be 
seen in a street of Copenhagen 
is, in make and material, very 
much the same as that which is 
generally displayed on the boule- 
vards of the French capital or in 
the streets of London. 

Denmark has made surprising 
l)rogress in the last thirty years. 
ILer loss of territory in the war 
with Germany has been compen- 
sated for by the development of 
her internal resources. Less than 
a century ago she was one of the 
poorest countries in Europe. In 
l)roportion to her size she is to-day 
iinong the richest, and can boast 
of possessing the most cultured, 
thrifty, and self-reliant peasantry 
in Europe. 

Denmark has justly been de- 
scribed as the paradise of peasant- 
proprietors. Nearly two-thirds of 
her population make their living 
from the land, about half being their own masters. A sixth of the whole area is owned by 
about 150,000 agricultmiJ labourers, some 35,000 being only small cottars. About a third is 
in the hands of small freeliolders. liandlords with farms of more than 275 acres possess a 
sixth. The remarkable success of Daiiisli agiiculture is chiefly due to the excellent system 
of general and technical education, and to co-operative enterprise. A brief sketch of the 
leading features of agricultural and educational institutions in Denmark may be of some interest. 
It will aflord an illustration of the way in which the energetic and jiractieal qualities of a 
nation may be brought out and turned to the best advantage. We have here a lesson much 
needed in England to-day. 

St-attered al)out throughout the country are butter-factories. Of these there are altogether 
more than 1,200. They are controlled liy large co-operative associations. The farmers who 
belong to these association.s act under uniform regulations. Kules, to which they must strictly 
adhere, are laid down for their guidance in the feeding and tending of their cows. The object 
aimed at is twofold. In the first place, it is sought to ensure excellence of quality in the 
products of the dairy — milk, cream, and butter; and, secondly, to facilitate the distribution of 
these articles in the most expeditious and economical manner. The farmers send their produce 




Fhitto by llanttn i Willtr) 



[Copenlioffen. 



A DANISH COUPLE. 



Denmark 



48: 



to the butter-factories and centres of distribution. The associations then undertake to send it 
to its destination. In this way the individual farmer is spared the waste of needless competition 
and the cost of transit to the markets, while he is assured of a ready sale for his wares. The 
expenses of distribution are borne entirely by the associations, which are naturally able to 
export butter in large quantities to other countries in a more remunerative manner than 
agriculturists acting independently. The profits are divided as a bonus among the farmers 
who belong to these associations. So well has the system been found to work that it has 
lately been introduced with no small success in Ireland. 

Education, on sound and sensible lines, supplements the work of the co-operative 
associations. The folkehojskoler, or people's high schools, play an important part in jireparing 
the Dane for a life of intelligent industry. They are a sort of continuation schools in which 
young people of both sexes who have passed through the elementary schools may receive 
instruction throughout part of the year. The sessions are so arranged as not to interfere with 
their wage-earning work. There are about eighty of these schools, attended by some 8,000 
pupils. These are drawn fi'om the lower 
classes, and their ages vary from eighteen to 
twenty-five and even more. History and 
geography, physics and mechanics, and other 
scientific subjects are taught in the high 
schools. Technical instruction is given, and 
every effort made to equip the scholar for the 
path he has chosen in life. He may, for 
example, learn much of the science of farming 
in the butter- factory attached to the school. 
Since the peasant does not, as a rule, seek 
to leave the class in which he is born, his 
education is a practical advantage, placing 
him in the front rank of European agri- 
culturists. The course of training undergone 
in these schools generally lasts for two sessions, 
at a total cost to the pupil of £24. This 
sum covers all his expenses of living as well 
as instruction. A small subsidy from the State 
enables these institutions to offer this educa- 
tion at such a moderate figure. 

Throughout the country education, even 
in the schools of the higher class, is remark- 
able for its cheapness no les.s than its efficiency. 
'Ihis is largely on account of the State aid 
which it receives. Beyond a few of the 
private institutions, the only schools which 
are without assistance from the Government 
are the frislcoler, or free schools. Tliese are 
so called because the parents are allowed to 
choose the subjeet.s and course of teaching 
the pupils are to have. The Danish nation 
is convinced of the value of good training 
for its youth. Every child, no matter what 
its social position may be, is thus given an 
opportunity of growing up to be an intelli- 
gent and capable member of its class, whether piwto by sotviig Lund. 
artisan, agricultural, or gentle. Taken in the 4 Danish fisher-gikl. 




484 



The Living Races of Mankind 



aggregate, the Danes may be lionourably distinguished as the best-instructed people in Europe. 
That amounts to saying broadly that they are the best-educated people in the world. It is 
exceedingly doubtful whether there can be found in the whole country an individual Dane, 
man or woman, in possession of the normal faculties, who is unable to read and write. 

Another attribute of these peojile is their natural j)ride. Each man estimates his own 
worth and his individual rights as high as those of any other member of the comniunity. Yet, 
though belief in the innate dignity and the natural equality of men is deeply rooted in their 
minds, they divide society into grades and r.anks. Each r<ink jwssesses rights and privileges, duties 
and exemptions, the absolute propriety of which is not challenged by members of the other 
classes. The first great distinction established is that between the nobles and the citizens. This 
severance of the people into two great classes is not dependent on the jwssession of wealth. 
The ownership of a million h'onev would not ennoble one man ; the lack of a single coin would 
not disrank another. No matter how wealthy a person may be whose family has not been 
graded with the titled class, he is regarded as distinctly inferior in rank, although the noble 
may be as \>oot as the proverbial churcli mouse. The citizen who owns money, merchandise, 
ships, enterprise, and skill may gain all kinds of honorary titles, from councillor-at-law to 
Privy Councillor; his breast may be covered with all the crosses, stars, ribands, and orders of 
the State, which, though rarely bestowed on commoners, are by no means impossible to attain : 
even so, he must not, with all these distinctions, entertain any hope of being raised into the ranks 
of the nobility. On the other hand, the nobility, comprising the two grades of count and baron, 
are very numerous. In by far the greatest number of cases they may be described as pitiably 




Fkoto if Niurdtin FrHu) 



A BELGIAN PEASANT WOMAN AXU HEH UKAUGHT-DOOS. 



Belgium 



485 



poor. Counts and barons in society are plentiful as 
pebbles in a brook. One reason for this is that 
every son in a noble's family bears his father's 
title, even if he do not inherit any of his property. 
The penniless inheritor of a barren title hands 
it on to his descendants. In the same way 
all the daughters are countesses and baronesses. 
Similarly the country gentleman, or better class of 
farmer, holds himself aloof from the peasant-pro- 
prietor ; and the people of the towns are also a class 
apart. These sharp social distinctions have at any 
rate their good side. Each man is contented with 
his lot in life, and does not seek to be anything 
but what he is. The State wisely fosters this spirit, 
by enabling him, as we ha\e seen, to take a pride 
in the intelligent performance of his work. 

At one time the Danish peasants were serfs. 
In 1788 serfdom was abolished, and provisions 
were made enabling the people to acquire for 
themselves the land on which they had up to 
that time worked in a condition little above that 
of slaves. 

Nearly all the Danes are in religion earnest 
Lutherans. Other creeds are tolerated to the 
fullest extent, but not 1 i)er cent, of the inhabi- 
tants belong to any other than the Danish 
Lutheran State Church. 

BELGIUM. 




Phoio by Payne Jenninffs] [Ashtead. 

A NATIVE OF THE AUDENNES. 



'I'he little kingdom of Belgium has an area of 
11,373 square miles, being about one-eighth of 
the size of Great Britain. It makes up for its 

small dimensions by being the most densely populated country in Europe. In 1898 the popu- 
lation was G,670,000. There is no such thing as a Belgian race of people, though there is a 
Belgian nation. In the days of Julius Ctesar the country was inhabited by the Belgse, and 
formed part of what was afterwards known as Gallia Belgica. The Belgse appear to have 
diflFered in dialect, institutions, and laws from the Celts of the other parts of Gaul. They 
are described by ancient writers as "fair" Celts. This epithet, as well as their distinctive 
attributes, would seem to point to considerable admixture with the Germans, if indeed they 
are not to be regarded as a Celtic-speaking German tribe. 

At the jiresent day the population of Belgium is partly of Celtic and partly of Teutonic 
origin. The Flemings are still as clearly Teutonic as they were a thousand years ago, while 
Celtic characteristics are as unmistakably apparent in the Walloons, who are descended from 
the ancient Belgfp. Both sections are members of the same Church, and have other interests 
in common. Yet, though subject to one king and governed by the same code of laws, they 
have not become so thoroughly blended as to produce a distinct national type. 

The men are of medium heiglit, muscular, and of ujjright bearing. The Walloons in the 
southern provinces are nearly as brisk in deportment and as polished in manners as their 
French neighbours. The Flemings, who inhabit the western and northern provinces, are 
endowed with greater vivacity than the Dutch, whose land borders theirs and who belong to 
the same race. 



486 



The Living Races of Mankind 




thoto ijf ta^tu Jeii/iitty*j 



lAiliUtiU. 



A BELGIAN MAJ< AKD HIS WIFE, ARDENNES. 



French is the official hinguage of the country. About 45 per cent, of the inhabitants 
speak Flemish, 41 per cent. P'rench. while 11 per cent, speak both French and Flemish. 

. There is nothing in the prevalent costume of the Belgians to distinguish it from that 
which may be seen in the streets of London or Paris. Apart from the capital, however, their 
cities still maintain characteristics which do not change with the caprice of fashion. The 
observer is forcibly convinced that they grew into existence in the romantic past, when the 
conditions of life were unlike those that prevail in the nineteenth century. What were held 
to be the most prominent cliaracteri.stics of six historic Belgian cities were mentioned in 
monkish verses composed many centuries ago. Those characteristics are said to remain to some 
e.\tent at the present time. The I^itin lines, translated, proclaim : Brussels rejoices in noble 
men ; Antwerp in money ; Ghent in hatters ; Bruges in pretty girls ; Louvain in learned men ; 
and .Malines in fools. Hatters were sjiid to be ciiaracteristic of Ghent because of the frequency 
with which the king found it necessary to humiliate some of the ever-turbulent citizens, by 
condemning them to traverse the streets under guard, with manacles on their wrists and heavy 
iron chains on their necks. The reason for distinguishing the people of Malines as " mostly 
fools" is the story that once, when they saw the moon shining through the cathedral tower, 
they thought the cherished building was on fire, sounded the alarm, roused up the watch, 
and did all they could to extinguish the conflagration by means of pumps, hose, and buckets 
of water. The Flemings, in what they considered an improved version of tiie poem, called 
the luxurious inhabitants of Brussels "chicken-eaters"; the citizens of Ghent "hat-bearers"; 
the i)eople of I.ouvain "cow-shoot ens," because they once fired uiwn a herd of cows, mistaking 
them for the enemy; and the citizens of JIalines " moon-extinguisliers," with reference to their 
action in saving their cathedral from supjKJsed fire. 

The history of the Belgians is thickly studded with episodes, each of which illustrates 
the bold, generous, freedom-loving spirit by which they were animated. The people are 



Belgium 



48; 



reasonably proud of their past. The bravery, intelligence, and energy by \yhich they won 
distinction when the sword was the arbiter of fortune are strong as ever in the Belgians, but 
are now exercised under conditions widely different from those of the past. They excel in the 
arts of peace, as formerly they were proficient in the arts of war. They now present an 
attractive picture of a prosperous, peaceable, rich, and thoroughly comfortable little nation. 
Belgium is essentially a manufacturing country. jMachinery, iron and steel, glass, cottons and 
linen, are some of its principal manufactures, while lace is, from its association with the name 
of the capital, perhaps its best -known product. The Socialists appear to be very numerous, 
and probably the social edifice is not very secure just now. 

The Belgians still practise at Ostend one of their ancient rites expressive of their 
appreciation of the sources which contribute to wealth and comfort. Ostend is the second 
port of Belgium, a railway terminus, and station for the Do\er mail-boats and London 
steamers. Several religious and popular festivals are held there in the summer months. The 
most interesting is the procession on St. Peter's Day, the 29th of June. It recalls the 
ancient ceremony of marriage with the sea at Venice. In presence of a vast concourse of 
fishermen and their families, and as many of the summer visitors as choose to witness the 
imposing ceremony, the sea is solemnly blessed. 

Education is as backward in Belgium as we have just seen that it is advanced in 
Denmark. In 189G it was estimated that nearly 27 per cent, of the population were unable 
to read. 

The religion of the country is Koman Catholic. Nearly all the inhabitants at least 
nominally profess this faith. 




Ikolu bil r. II. fiMlMin] 



[London, 



A FAMILY GHOUP OF MARKEN PEOPLF-. 




488 The Living Races of Mankind 

HOLLAND. 

The Dutch people are mainly descended from 

the Germanic br.anch of the gioat Emopean families 

of nations. Teutonic hordes overran the country at 

different times. The latest of these were the Franks 

and the Saxons, who became the dominant peoples 

about the third century. Holland has been the 

home of freedom from the earliest times to which 

historic records ascend, and the persecuted in other 

lands sought refuge there at different periods. 

A^' ^^^^^^ Portuguese and German Jews in great numbers found 

^^^Htf. ^1^^^^^^^^^ safety there. On many occasions also Britons, 

^^^H^^B^^^^j^^^^^^^ Scandinavians, and Frenchmen settled in the Nether- 

^^^^^^^^^^BC^^^^^^^P large numbers, and were finally absorbed 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H^ in tlie population. The result is that the original 

^^^^HHIP^P^^^ Dutch type of race has been so much modified 

that it is now difficult to trace the distinctive 
photoby s. J. M. suinmtu] [The Bagvt. physical traits of the Teuton among the Dutch. 

A DUTCH MARRIED WOMAN, NORTH HOLLAND. Holland Is a maritime country, containing 

12,648 square miles. The land is flat and low, 
intersected by numerous canals and connecting rivers. In the Middle Ages it formed part of 
the Low Countries, and jit the present day it has the alternative name of Netherlands. In 
1898 its jx)pulation was returned at .5,075,000, showing that, after Belgium and Saxony, it is 
the most densely peopled country in Europe. 

In character the Dutch are brave, stubborn, and honest. Taciturn and cold in their manner, 
they are particularly reserved towards strangers, and at the same time remarkably blunt and 
outspoken. They are as a rule hearty feeders. Even among the poorer classes starvation is 
less common than in any other civilised country. Salt herring is one of the most highly 
esteemed of their articles of diet. Smoked eels may also be mentioned as a favourite dish. 
They are usually sold from barrows in the street, with pickled cucumbers and hard-boiled 
eggs. Gin and tobacco are consumed freely, but their ill effects are counteracted by the 
open-air life of the people and the hard work they get through. It is chieHy at the kei'mis, 
or fairs, which play a large part in the life of the Dutch, that intemperance shows its 
usual signs. 

The well-known Dutchman of the caricaturist, the man with wide breeches and a build 
which requires all their amplitude, is nowadays seen more frequently in pictures than in the 
streets of Dutch towns, although he is far from being extinct. The town-dweller is rather 
spare of habit, but his wife generally makes up in her comfortable proportions for his lack 
of flesh. The Hollander is fond of his home. A farmer's house can generally boast of 
good funiiture, while the citizens frequently live in a luxurious style. 

The (iolden Age of Holland was the first half of the seventeenth century. At that time 
the carrying trade of the world was in the hands of the Dutch, while Amsterdam was regarded 
as the most imiwrtant commercial centre. In their long wars with Sjjain they gradually 
succeeded to the Portuguese possessions which had fallen to the S[}anish. In Croniwell'.-* time 
and in the earlier part of the reign of Charles II. the English were engaged in a protracted 
struggle to put down Dutch monoiwly. England in turn acquired the supremacy of the sea, 
and replaced Holland as mistress of a great colonial einjnre. The Dutch still retain considerable 
liossessions in the East Indies. 

With such a past history it is not surprising to find that the Dutchman is fond of 
travel, and takes a br<Kid interest in the doings of the outside world. He is consecpiently 
much less narrow and pedantic than his natural characteristics would lead one to suppose. 



Holland 



489 



The commanding position that Holland at one time held among the nations of the world 
surrounds the stolid Hollander of the present day with a halo of romance. Hallam has said 
of the Dutch : " A gi-eat jieople, a people fertile of men of various ability and erudition, 
a jjeople of scholars, philosophers, historians, and poets." When we remember the great 
names of Scaliger, Grotius, and Eembrandt, we cannot but feel that this encomium is deserved. 
The late Professor Thorold Eogers was not less enthusiastic in his eulogy. He claimed that 
the revolt of the Netherlands from the dominion of Spain and the success of Holland were the 
beginning of modern civilisation, the Dutch, in his opinion, having taught Europe everything 
which it knows, — surely a paradoxical statement ! 

Many of the old Dutch customs are no longer practised, yet the people still retain 
certain usages. For example, in several towns the birth of a child is made known by the 
exhibition of a placard (pink for a girl and blue for a boy), gaily decorated with silk and 
lace, outside the mother's dwelling. Then the friends of the family as they appear are 
entertained with mulled wine and cinnamon cakes. AH festivities in Holland are attended 
with a good deal of heavy feasting. 

A betrothal is an elaborate affair. Before the wedding comes off, printed circulars are 
sent to the friends of the bride and bridegroom, and receptions are held, at which the couple 
are seated on decorated chairs, on a platform under a canopy of evergreens. The parents and 
near relations sit on each side of them, so as to form a semicircle. The visitors, admitted 
one at a time to this audience, deliver set little speeches, with appropriate allusions to the 
coming event, and then retire to partake of the good things provided for their entertainment. 

As in other Teutonic countries, the different periods of married life are divided into the 
copper, the silver, and the golden stages. The first begins at twelve and the last after fifty 
years of wedlock. Each is celebrated in a jileasing way, by friends offering presents made 
of the metals from which these epochs are named. 

Dr. En^wn mentions several curious marriage customs prevailing among the peasants 
of North Holland. In Drenthe, he tells us, it was usual for the wedding guests to be 
summoned by two bachelors, who carried wands gaily decorated with ribands. On arriving at 
each house, they repeated a number of doggerel verses, the burden of which was generally the 
bill of fare at the coming feast. At one time no citizen was allowed to marry out of his 
native town, except on payment of a heavy fine. 

'• When a death occurs in a Dutch family," 
says the same authority, " aanspreken, a sort of 
' mutes,' dressed in black-tailed coats, black knee- 
breeches, silk stockings, shoes with silver buckles, 
white ties, and enormous cocked hats, with rosettes 
at the side, and two long pieces of ribbon hanging 
down their backs, go from house to house announcing 
the mournful news. At the funeral there is usually 
much feasting, and in the festive province of Drenthe 
HO freely were all comers regaled that the vagabonds 
collected from all parts of the country, until a deatli 
in a wealthy family was invariably followed by a 
drunken orgie. In some parts of Zeeland a quan- 
tity of straw used to be jjlaced on the doorstep of 
the house where the sad event had occurred, the 
size of the heap being regulated by tlie position of 
the deceased. After the interment the straw was 
burnt, this custom being, it has been suggested, a 
survival from earlier days, wIicti tlie dead were; 

cremated." PUolo by N. J. M. Stdmmts] [ru Iluyue 

The majority of the inhabitants of iloUand. a dutch man, volendam. 

62 





490 



The Living Races of Mankind 



nbout tlirot>-Hftlis. belong to the Dutcli 
Reformed Church ; the remainder are Roman 
Oatliolies and Jews, thrsc being centred 
princii).iny in the hirgc towns, such as 
Amsterdam, where there are 70,000. 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IREI.AND. 

KxiiLANn. 

The reader will hardly need to be told that 
many races have gone to the making of the 
Englishman as he is to-day. Much learned 
controversy has been expended on the question 
whether the Celtic or the Teutonic element 
predominates in his composition. The anthro- 
pological researches of the late Professor 
Huxley led him to the conclusion that the 
English are '"vastly less Teutonic than their 
speech." It will be sufKcient for the purpose 
of this work to give some account of the 
various peoples — Iberian, Celtic, Teutonic, and 
Scandinavian — which have left their mark 
attempting to make any contribution to what 





Fkda by X, J. M. .■-(<. .mufj] i'l'lu llmjui. 

A HAIb-OF-ALL-WORK, HOLLAND. 



Photo hit P. U. Fincham] [London, 

A DUTCH PEASANT WOMAN, SllOWIXR HEAD-DRESS. 

on the inhabitants of this country, without 

is a very complicated problem. 

It is generally conceded that when 
Julius Caesar landed in Britain lie found a 
Ijojjulation of Celtic origin and speech, who 
were supposed to have crossed from Belgic 
(iaul, and to have ab.sorbed a pre-existing 
race. This race was a remnant of the 
Neolitliio Iberians, a people cliaracterised bj' 
dark hair and short stature, of wliom the 
Basques in Spain and I'rance are rcijarded 
as the living representatives. Tlie Celts 
were, on the other hand, tall and fair. 
Professor Huxley accounted for tlie fair and 
dark types of the modern Knglishinnn by 
attributing the former to the Celtic and 
Teutonic races, and the latter to the jui- 
Celtic inhabitants. Tlie Celtic stratum of 
these islands may be divided into two 
sections — the Cynnie ant! the (iaelic. 
The Welsh and the Cornislunen belong 
to the Cymric branch, while the (iaels 
comprise the Krse of Ireland, the ]\Ianx. 
and of course the (iaels of the Iligldands 
of Scotland. 

It is from (':i>ai- that we e;cl the first 
authentic account of tliese ])rimitive iidiabi- 
tants. He describes the Cantii, the i>eoi>le 
of Kent, as being more civilised than the 
rest, from their constant intercourse with 
their brethren of Continental Uaul. He also 



England 



491 



describes the men as painting themselves with woad, wearing skins, and as having moustaches, 
but no beards. 

The Komans themselves apparently did not mix with the Eritons. Their position was 
that of a military garrison, somewhat similar to that of the Englisli in India and Egypt. 

Next in order come the Scandinavian and Teutonic elements. The constant harrying of 
our coast by northern pirates, Norsemen and Danes, and the recurring hordes of Angles, 
Saxons, and Jutes, brought fresh blood into the people among whom they formed settlements. 
The Norman Conquest added another layer of Celtic and Latin and Teutonic stock. From the 
reign of Stephen to that of Edward III. 
Flemings were introduced and settled 
here from time to time, while Dutch, 
French, and other refugees sought refuge 
in this land of freedom. When it is 
remembered that all these jjeoples have 
intermingled in the narrow compass of 
our shores, it will be admitted that it 
requires some courage to attempt to 
resolve the physical and mental charac- 
teristics of the Englishman into their 
original i-acial elements. It is a truism 
of science that chemical fusion of various 
substances results in a product which 
differs materially from its constituents. 
In the same way it may be said that 
this motley amalgam of races has pro- 
duced a type which has well-marked 
characteristics of its own. 

Physically the English are among 
the finest of the civilised races. Their 
tall stature they owe to the Saxon and 
Scandina\ian elements in their composi- 
tion. The fair complexion, blue eyes, 
and florid as2)ect so often seen among 
them are also inherited from the 
same sources. They are remarkable for 
vigour of body and power of endurance. 
Tiieir constitutional energy is probably 
greater than that of any other people, 
and shows itself in a fondness for out- 
door life. The national enthusiasm for 
sjx)rt and athletics is a combination of 
the Celtic love of amusement and the 
Scandinavian delight in bodily prowess. 

From the Celt the Englishman pi-obably derives some of his mental alertness, sociability, wit, 
and humour. Patience, reserve, love of adventure, and a certain coldness of manner must 
be ascribed to the Teutonic part of his ancestry. In fact, there are few^ of his mental 
characteristics wliicli cannot be traced to one or other of these great stocks. At the same 
time it must be admitted that the English temperament has moulded the leading qualities of 
the various races from which it is drawn into a type which is as markedly distinct as the 
English physique. 

Tlie Englisli character has been largely developed by its historical surroundings. In the 
days of the Plantagenels England was very far from being the centre of a great colonial 




Photo btj Mr. W. R. ISIn.idi 

A DEUBVSIIIKK VKO.MAN. 



[Dc;iy. 



492 



The Living Races of Mankind 




A LOWESTOFT SMACKSMAN. 



[AsUUmL 



empire. Her inamifiiftures were then in a 
state of infancy, if indeed they can be said 
to have existed at all. Her jirincipal source 
of revenue was the wool which she exported 
to Flanders. A writer of the fifteenth century 
describes the English as " being seldom 
fatigued with hard labour" and leading a 
spiritual and refined life. Indolent and con- 
templative, the Englishman of this ejwch is 
said to have been pre-eminent in urbanity 
and totally devoid of domestic affection. 
England first began to show a little more 
energy when the Flemish manufacturers 
transferred their industry to this country, 
after it had been ruined in the religious 
wars of the Low Countries with Spain. 
The discovery of the New World, the adven- 
tures of the Elizabethan Age, our long wars 
with Holland resulting in our acquisition 
(if the carrying trade of the world, must 
all be taken into account, when we e.xamine 
the mental characteristics of the race. 
^^'ithout these external influences it is prob- 
able that the Englisliinan of to-day would 
not have improved u^wn the prosaic person 
lie is desci-ibed to have been by the fifteenth- 
century writers. On the other hand, his 
Viking ance>tors no doubt supjilied him with the i)hysical energy to avail himself of the gi-eat 
oppoi-t unities which offered themselves. At the beginning of the sixteenth century he seems to 
liave already developed a trait which is regarded with disfavour l)y his critics and with a certain 
amount of complacency by him.self. In the year 1500 a Venetian traveller wrote : •' The English 
are great lovers of themselves and of everything belonging to them. They think that there 
are no other men than themselves and no other world but England ; and whenever they see 
a handsome foreigner, they say tliat he looks like an Englishman, and it is a great pity he 
should not lx> an Englishman ; and whenever they partake of any delicacy with a foreigner, 
tiiey iusk him whether sudi a thing is made in his country." It would appear from this that 
the indefinable trait in the national character which is aptly described as " insularity " is by 
no means a recent development. "To see ourselves as others see us" is often wholesome, but 
seldom i)lea.sjint. However, one great critic who made the English character his special study 
8iH>aks in terms of the highest enthusiasm. \{i\\\A\ Waldo Emerscm, the American writer, has 
summed \\\> the race as the best the world has seen. The English love of fair play, common 
sense, and jiractical ability are th<' features that he singled out for praise. "Pretension and 
vaiM>uring are once for all distasteful. They keep to the other extxeme of low tone in dress 
and manners. They avoid pretension and go right to the heart of the thing. They hate 
nonsense, sentimentalisin, and liigli-flown expression; they use a studied jilainness. Even 
Urummel their foj) was marked by the severest simplicity in dress. They pride themselves 
on tiie absence of everything theatrical in the public business, and on conciseness and going 
to the jMiint in private affairs. Hut it is in the deep traits of race th.at the fortunes of nations 
are written J and however derived — whether it was a more gifted tribe or mixture of tribes, the 
air, or wliat circumstance, that mixed for them the golden mean of temjierament — here exists 
the best stwk in the world, brtKid-fronted, broad-lv)ttomed, best for depth, ninge, and equability, 
men of aplomb and reserve, gieat nmgo and many moods, strong instincts, yet ajit for culture; 




PlMto by La/ayetUI 



[DiMin. 



A TYPE OF ENGLISH BEAUTY. 
493 



494 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 



wiir-chiss as well as clerks ; earls and trades- 
iiicii ; wise minority as well as f(X)lisli 
majority ; abysmal temperament, hiding wells 
of wratli, and glooms on which no sunshine 
settles; alternated with a common sense 
and humanity which hold them fast to every 
piece of cheerful duty ; making this tem- 
perament a sea to which all storms are 
superficial ; a race to which their fortunes 
flow, as if they alone had the elastic organi- 
sation j;t once fine and robust enoujjh for 
dominion; as if the bm-ly, inexpressive, now 
mute and contumacious, now fierce and sharji- 
tongued dragon, which once n)ade the island 
light with his fiery breath, had bequeathed 
his ferocity to his conqueror." Even in the 
national failing of " insularity " I'lmer.-on sees 
a blessing in disguise. '• But nature makes 
nothing in vain, and the little superfluity 
of self-regiird in the English brain is one 
of the secrets of their power and history. 
I'or it sets every man on being and doing 
what he really is and can. It takes away 
a dodging, skulking, secondary air, and 
encourages a frank and manly bearing, so 
that each man makes the most of himself, 
and loses no op2>ortunity for want of ^mshing. 
f)ersonal defects will commonly have with the rest of the world precisely that impor- 
lich they have to himself. If he makes light of them, so will other men." 




Photo by Payne Jenningf] 

AN EKCLISH UIKL. 



A man's 
tance wl 



Wakes. 

The iidiabitants of Wales lielong idniost wliolly to the Cymric branch of the Celtic race. The 
Welsh is a distinct nationality, with a language and literature of its own find a jKipiUation 
of 1,519,103. When the Saxon invaders of England drove the Celts inland from the eastern 
coasts, the latter entrenched themselves in the wilds of Cornwall and the mountain-fastnesses 
of Wales. The Norman conquest of England by no means involved that of Wales, which, 
from its natural formation, presented a series of impregnable fortresses to the primitive 
weapons of that time. William the Conqueror had to leave the task of its subjugation 
uncompleted to his successors. Henry II. and John met with very doubtful success in their 
repeated eflbrts to subdue the troublesome i>rovince. It was ^ot till the reign of Edward I 
that its independence was finally crushed by the defeat of its Prince, Llewellyn, in 1283. when 
the English monarch was aided by the internal dissensions into which the country was thrown. 
Edward created his son, who had l)een Iwrn at Carnarvon, Prince of Wales, and that title has 
ever since been borne by the eldest son of our sovereigns. 

Physically the Welsh are, on the average, of shorter stature than the other jieoples of 
the United Kingdom. Dark hair is almost universal with them. These two attributes go far 
to ]>rove the assertion that the Cymric Celt intermingled freely with the original Neolithic 
inhabitants of these islands. 

In their mental characteristics they jwssess all the liveliness, romance, anil ehxiuence of 
the Celtic temperament. The strong sense of nationality by which they have always In'en 
jwssessed has been kept alive and fostered by their sefMirate language and literature. Prizes 
are given at their annual nieetings — the Eissteddfod.-* — for original i>oems and comjiositions 



Scotland 



495 



which are recited on tliese occasions. Cymric is the every-day tongue of the people, and many 
of them can speak nothing else. ^lagazines and newsjiapers are published in the national 
language, and scholars and poets encourage the people to maintain it against the invidious 
encroachment of English. The Welsh are a musical people ; and the harp, on which they 
have from time to time produced excellent players, may perhaps be considered their national 
instrument. 

In costume tliey possess no particularly striking features, unless it be the quaint form of 
tall hat worn by women in country places. 

Large numbers of the people belong to the religious body known as Calvinist ]\Iethodists, 
but the Establishment is a br.anch of our own Church. Christianity was introduced into ^^'ales 
not later than the year 400, though the exact date is unknown. British Christians, driven 
from their homes, sought a refuge in the securitv of this mountainous coimtry, and at once 




I'holo bij Valtatinc <t- Hoiis, Ltd.] 



{Dundee. 



A OUOUP OF FISIIlin.MEX, DEVONSHIUE. 



divided it into ecclesiastical divisions. The four Welsh Sees of St. David, Llandat}', St. Asaph, 
and Bangor are thus of great antiquity. 



SCOTL-^ND. 

The inhabitants of Caledonia, to use the ancient name of this country, may be roughly divided 
into Highlanders and Ixnvlanders, with a joint population of 4,025,047. The former are Celts, 
while the latter are Saxons, being for the most part of the same race as tiie English on the other 
side of the liorder. Shetland and Orkney and a great part of the east coast are Scandinavian. 
It need hardly be remarked that at the present day a pure Teuton or a pure Celt — or, for that 
matter, a pure specimen of any of the great original races of mankind — is i>ractically unknown. 
The most that can be stated with certainty is that the various countries of the world have 
dearly defined characteristics, wliich entitle their inhabitants lo be regarded as representatives 



496 The Living Races of Mankind 

of one or other -of the great i-acial stocks, in si>ite of admixture with other peoples. With 
this limitation, the North of Scotland may be described as Celtic ; the South, as Teutonic and 
Scandinavian. In phy.sical and mental cliaraoterist ics tlie Lowlander lias all the attributes of 
the stock from whicli lie is descended. He is distinguished for prudence in business transactions, 
reserve, thrift; and steadiness. With all his admirable qualities he is, however, less interesting 
from the jwint of view of tlie ethnologist tiian his fellow-countryman in the Highlands. Almost 
pure specimens of the tiallic type, so far as appearance goes, are to be met with here and 
there even at the present day. According to ancient writers, the Gauls were tall of stature, 
very fair, and red-haired, or at least fair-haired. Ked hair is an almost universal character of 
the Scotchman of the extreme. North, and red- or yellow-haired men form the majority of the 
Ijopulation. At the same time people w^ith dark hair, grey eyes, and dark complexion are 
seen even in the most exclusively (Jaelic regions. This is to be explained partly by the 
absorption of the original Neolithic population, and partly by the intermixture that must of 
necessity have taken place with later immigrants. The Highlander has also the mental 
characteristics of the Celt, which declare themselves in liis romantic temperament, aristocratic 
tendencies, and fidelity to the head of his clan. Family pride is a pleasing weakness of the 
Scottish Celt, and he glories in being able to trace his descent from some great chieftain of 

historical or even mythical origin. Brand-new titles and great 
wealth unaccompanied by good birth have little or no glamour 
for him. On the other hand, he will never cease to reverence 
the head of his clan, however involved his finances may become. 
In his eyes a laird who cannot afford to live on the land of 
his fathers is a grander person than a mere millionaire. The 
pride of clan is fostered to a certain extent by the great annual 
;| gatherings which take i)lace in the autumn in different High- 
i land centres, when bag-pipes, reels, and games all testify to the 
I strength of national sentiment. Each of the great clans, too 
' — the Fraser, Stuart, Murray, Gordon, Cameron, and the rest- 
has its distinctive tartan. Many of the great noblemen wear 
the kilt, and their househohls and dependants follow, suit. The 
inesenl Duke of Atlioll may sometimes be seen on a Sunday 
morning marching to cluirch at the head of his retainers, wear- 
ing the red tartan of tiie ^Iiurav clan. There is doubtless 

PUotohi/J. 11. 1/ ; ' ', London. , .i . • .-r. • i • ii i- i t j. i.- ti ., 

much that is artificial in these national maniiestations. lliey 

A CUV WAIF. 1 1- 1 

are picturesque, however, and serve to keep alive a popular 
sentiment wliich has a strong and real basis. Of late years, we are sorry to say, the influence 
of rich Knglisiimen and Americans has become greater, and there is a grave fear lest the 
Highlanders now employed as gillies and mere dependants of rich sportsmen should lose some 
of their jiristine virtues. 

Tlie Gaelic tongue is spoken by about 10 per cent, of the Scottish population, but the 
Gaelic-speaking area is diminishing. The sprea^l of English education is gradually ousting 
tlie old language from its jilace. The Gaelic language has a stnnig similarity to the Celtic 
dialect of the Irisli. There are certain differences in the pronunciation, grammar, idioms, and 
voi-abulary ; but in all essential jioints the language of the Highlanders bears a closer 
resemblance to that spoken in Munster and Connaught than Low Dutch to High Dutch. 

Folk-lore, superstitions, and a belief in "second sight" are characteristic of tlie Scottish 
Celt. The peoiile are musical, and rejoice in the possession of many ballads. In the Hebrides, 
the islands off the west coast, ancient forms of land tenure are still extant. The crofters of 
these islands oc<u]iy the land on what is known there as the "run-rig" system. This term 
is (iaelic for "common-division.'' A "constable," elected by the people of the town-land, has 
the duty of looking after the whole community. He ai)poiiits the [wirish 8lie]iiierds and 
herdsmen; he controls the time and the amount of work done by the people; he looks after 





Photo by the photochrome Co.\ 



A WELSH WOMAN AT HEB SPINNING-WHEEL. 
407 



498 



The Living Races of Mankind 



the roads, and sees that each in- 
habitant keeps his part in repair ; 
he sees that the flocks .and herds 
are tended in the common pasture ; 
and is, in fact, the chief executive 
officer of the township. The crofter 
who is chosen for this important 
office removes his shoes and stock- 
ings, uncovers his head, and, taking 
some earth in his hand, swears in 
the presence of Heaven to he faithful 
to his trust. There are various modi- 
fications of this primitive system, 
but they are all based on a mode 
of land tenm-e — namely, agriculture 
in common — which still exists in 
some parts of Ireland, Wales, and 
even England, in the shape of com- 
monable rights of pasture, turbary, 
and the like. They go back to a 
time when the land was regarded, 
not as the absolute property of the 

r ■ ''^^^H^^^^^^I^MI^B^ilH^^^^^^^H <^''>i^f of the tribe or clan, but as 
«'=^'- - ^^^^^'^^^^^^■nllll^M^HZZI^^^^^H giving sustenance to all its members. 

Sir Henry Maine, in his work on 
ancient law, points out that in a 
patriarchally governed society the 
eldest son succeeds to the nominal 
proprietorship of its property, but 
has correlative duties not involved 
in the conception of proprietorship. 
Koman jurisprudence, like our own 
law, regarded the possession of 
property as equivalent to absolute 
ownershiji, and refused to take 
notice of the liabilities which it was 
formerly supposed to entail. 

Tlie I'resbyterian is the Estab- 
lished Church in Scotland, having 
superseded the Episcopal Church in 
that position at the Restoration in 1688. Its members are estimated at about half the 
whole i)opulation of Scotland. Another important religious body is the Free Cliurch, which 
split of!' from the Establishment in 1843. It is based on the spiritual independence of the 
Church, and claims the right of each congregation to elect its own minister. The Episcopal 
Church numbers over 44,000 comnuinicants. 

Ireland. 

In 1891 the population of Ireland was returned at 4,704,750. The numbers have been 
rapidly decreasing since the year 1845, when they were almost double of what they now are. 
Famine and consequent disease, and the great impulse given by stress at home to emigration, 
are accountable for the decrease. The inhabitants are in great measure of almost pure Celtic 
stock. The Teutonic element is represented by the English and Scottish settlers in Ulster, 




Phalo bf AUx. InglU) 



[Edinburgh. 



A MEWHAVEN FISHWIFE. 



Ireland 



499 



Leinster, and parts of Munster ; but as their introduction is comparatively recent in the history 
of nations, and confined to particular localities, they may for the purposes of ethnological 
classification be left out. The typical Irishman is a Celt, and possesses in a marked degree 
the physical and mental qualities of that race. Food, climate, and changed conditions of life 
account for the modifications of the racial character, wherever they are found. Many of the 
Irish of the present day have the red or yellow hair and tall stature which characterised 
the Celt in ancient times. The black hair seen especially in Western Ireland is generally 
explained by the persistence of Neolithic blood in the people, who have doubtless absorbed the 
pre-existing race. Dr. Brown sums up the average physical characteristics of the Celts. They 
are, he says, rather broad-headed, of great cranial capacity, middle-sized, generally vigorous 
in constitution, and rather short-sighted, large-chinned, round-faced, with great naso-frontal 
depression, fresh-coloured complexion, neck rather short, shoulders and chest broad, auburn 
hair, and eyes with grey iris — though these tyjjical eyes are not often seen — and with a dry, 
nervous temperament. ]\Iany of these attributes are seen in the Irish. 

As a race the people are noted for their lively imagination, enthusiasm, and quickness 
of intellect. They are warm-hearted, and easily roused to anger, but as easily pacified. Their 
worst enemies cannot deny their conspicuous valour on the battle-field. They are wanting in 
the capacity for jiatient effort and the steady determination of the Teutonic nations. Their 
mental qualities make rather for individuality of character than for national greatness. Ireland 
has had her full share in producing men of mark and distinction in all branches of public 
life. The question of the capacity of the Irish for self-government has divided English 
political parties of recent years. It is claimed, on the one hand, that they are incapable of 
sinking private differences in the common cause. On the other, it is urged that the national 
sentiment is strong enough to counteract this defect. 

The Irish, like the Scottish Celts-i-and, we might add, in a lesser degree the Welsh 




Pkoto by Valentint it Sons, Ltd.} 



l.V A SHETLAND CEOFTER'S HOME. 



[Dmtdei, 



50O 



The Living Races of Mankind 



and the Cornish — have spread into 
every land, and influenced the j)eople 
of every country among whom they 
have settled. In America, and 
especially in the United States, they 
run rivalry with the Teutons from Ger- 
many and Scandinavia in supplying 
the greatest number of immigrants. As 
yet they have not ceased to be a separate 
body in the nation, but in time they 
will amalgamate with the rest of the 
population, and thus form a superior 
race. To the sturdy good-sense, manly 
self-reliance, quiet resolution, natural 
aptitude for self-government and 
organisation, which characterise the 
one, are added the quick intellect, the 
vivid imagination, the warm feelings, 
the poetical susceptibilities, and the 
genuine refinement of manner which 
are rarely acquired by the Teuton, 
but come as a gift of Nature to 
the Celt. 

In our leading colonies, Canada 
and Australia especially, the Irishman 
has taken his place side by side with 
other rejjresentatives of the United 
JCingdom, and is often found in the 
legislature and cabinet. Colonial 
premiers have sprung as frequently 
from the Celtic as from the Teutonic 
stock. That the Irish should do so 
mucii better out of their country than 
at home is a fact which goes far to 
show that the admirable qualities of the race only need favourable conditions in whiclr to 
assert themselves. 

The Irish jieasant is for the most part unenterprising, improvident, and desirous of taking 
life easily. These traits are partly inherent in his temperament. Yet it must be remembered 
in his defence that until recent years very little has been done to encourage him to cultivate 
the soil in a more productive manner. His temperament is serene and cheerful under all 
diflSculties. Throughout Ireland a high standard prevails with regard to the treatment of 
women, and chastity is a feature of social life of which the Irish may be justly proud. 

The Erse tongue, which we have seen to liave much in common with the Gaelic of 
Scotland, is still spoken by a considerable number of the people. In parts of Connaught, 
Munster, and Donegal in the extreme north-west, as many as 38,000 of the people were unable 
to speak Knglisli in 181)1. 

'Xittlei*^ known of the history of Ireland before the fifth century, when it was converted 
to Christianity. Irish missionaries founded monasteries in the western islands of Scotland, 
lona is a monument of their religious activity during tiie four succeeding centuries after the 
conversion of Ireland. Politically the Irish Celts of this period seem to have been split up 
into tribes, headed by various jjetty princes, without any common leader. Their want of union 
made them an easy prey to the Scandinavian pirates who descended on their shores, and 




Photo by a. W. Wilton] 



[Aberdun. 



AN OLD SCOT SALT. 




Photo by Valentine dt Sons, Ltd.] 



[Dundee. 



TWO OLD MEN OP SKYE. 
501 



502 



The Living Races of Mankind 



finally to the English. . Even so, the conquest 
of Ireland, begun in. 1170, was not synony- 
mous with its pacification, and was not 
really completed till the surrender of Limerick 
in 1691. Since the abolition of the national 
parliament in 1800, the Irish members are 
returned to the Imperial Parliament at 
Westminster. 

In his diet the Irish peasant is remark- 
ably frugal. Under-feeding is general, and 
stirabout, or i)orridge, with potatoes and 
buttermilk, form the chief fare. Tea is drunk 
in enormous quantities, and of formidable 
strength. The visitor who enters a cabin 
in Donegal will generally see a pot of tea 
simmering on the smouldering peat fire, 
which never goes out, summer or winter, 
night or day. Tea is often the only ex- 
travagance which the poorer classes in the 
north allow themselves. They pay a very; 
high price for it, often four-and-sixpence: 
the pound. A good deal of the prevalent 
insanity is traced to excessive tea-drinking. 

If a young woman's fiance dies, it is 
a common practice among the peasantry for 
her to. solemnly "give back her promise." 
" We had given one another a hand-\iTomhe" 
said an old woman, speaking of her dead 
lover, "and I had to go, when he was dead, 
an' take him by the right hand, afore 
witness, to give back my promise." A belief 
in the fairies, once so prevalent, still lingered 
on in some parts of the country not long ago. 
As an example of this kind of folk-lore, we 
may mention here that the country people 
lased to say that if a man, at his marriage, 
unbuttoned one button of the right knee, the fairies could not harm him in any way. 

In some parts of Ireland— the "Mullet of Mayo," for instance — there is a strange survival, 
namely, the wedding dance with a straw mask, and in parts of I^eitrim with a straw petticoat. 
On this subject the writer consulted the Eev. W. S. Green, an authority on these matters, who 
writes from Dublin Castle as -follows: "The Wedding Masks to which you refer are used by 
the ' Strawboys ' (or Clagheras) at weddings. A gang of nine visits the home on the evening 
of the wedding. The ' captain ' dances with the bride, and the others with the other girls. 
They leave in a . short time, and another gang arrives. It is unlucky if their identity is 
recognised. In the west of this country it is still much in vogue, but dying out in other 
parts. I have heard that a similar custom exists in Wexford." 

The " wake " is a well-known institution in Ireland. When a death occurs, the relatives 
of the deceased abandon themselves to several days of extravagant grief, ending in an equally 
extravagant orgie, in which they are joined by their friends. 

The Irishman, like the Afridi, loves a fight for its own sake, quite apart from its cause, 
which is often forgotten. In this respect he differs materially from the I^tin races, which 
treasure up grievances until a fitting opportunity presents itself for revenge. 




Photo it R. watK\ 



[Htljait. 



A NATIVE OF MOUBNB 




/"••./.> •.,, ,~. ;.,-.,■/,, 



A.\ (iLU lUl.silwOMAN AT UEU SPINNIA-Q-WUEEL. 
503 



^Zurich, 



504 



The Living Races of Mankind 



The prevailing religion is Roman Catholic, 75 
per cent, of the population professing that faith. 
The Protestant Church of Ireland has over 600,000 
members. It was at one time the Stnte Church, 
but was disestablished and disendowed by an Act 
passed in 1869. Another influential religious body 
is the Presbyterian Oliurch, which numbers over 
444,000 members. 

The Isle of JIan. 

Before leaving the British Isles for America, we 
must briefly mention the ]\hinxmen, who are partly 
another Celtic survival, for they belong mainly 
to the Gaelic division of the race. There is also 
a Norwegian element, which has mixed with the 
original Celtic stock. The Isle of Man has an area 
of 145,325 acres and a population of 55,598. The 





r..,.;., ;.,, J. IV. McLellan] 

AN IBISU PEASAKT-GIBL. 



[Loiidon. 



Pklo if LnJayttU] 



[DvMin. 



L TYPK OF lUlSU BEAUTY. 



language, which is rapidly going 
out of use, is similar in many 
respects to the Gaelic spoken in 
Scotland and Ireland. Many of 
the old Celtic superstitions still 
survive, and a belief in the evil 
eye may still be found in the 
more remote parts of the island. 
Man has its own legislature, 
consisting of a Governor and 
Council and the House of Keys. 
The two houses are known as the 
Tynwald, which is the lineal 
descendant of the foUc-moot 
(people's parliament) which used 
to meet on the Tynwald Hill. 
After a Bill has passed the Legis- 
lature and received the Royal 
assent, it does not become law 
until it is promulgated in the 
Englisli and iSIanx languages on 
the Tynwald Hill. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

ARCTIC AMERICA AND GREENLAND. 



Previous to the great wave of immigration from Europe which set in soon after the Spanish 
discovery (for discovery it practically was) and conquest of America, the whole of the inhabited 
or habitable portions of the New World and Greenland were populated by aboriginal tribes 
more or less distinct from those found in other regions of the globe, and, for the most 
part, presenting a remarkable similarity in physical characters to one another. ^^'ith the 
exception of the Eskimo of Greenland and Arctic America, which, as is shown below, are 
markedly distinct from the other races of the New World, all these peoples were by the 
Spaniards called " Indians " ; and Indians, frequently with the distinctive prefix North or South 
American, they have ever since remained. Propei-ly of course they, and they alone, have an 
hereditary claim to be designated Americans ; but that title is now assumed by the white 
inhabitants of the United States, with whom, as with all other settlers of European descent, 
and also the African Negroes imported into many of the countries of the New World, we are 
not here concerned. 

That by far the greater portion of the aboriginal population of America was derived from 
Eastern Asia, and that the migration took place by way of Bering Strait, is now generally 
admitted by all capable of forming a trustworthy opinion ; the migration having taken place 
at a comparatively remote epoch, when there was probably still a land connection between the 
eastern e.xtremity of Asia and Alaska. Opinions are, however, still divided as to whether the 
Eskimo arrived by the same route ; an alternative idea being that their ancestors reached 
the present habitat of the race by a presumed land connection between Europe and Greenland 
by way of Iceland. If the 
latter be the true view, the 
Eskimo must of course have 
had a very different origin 
from the typical Indians of 
North America ; and it has 
been sought to trace their 
ancestry to the early inhabi- 
tants of North-western Europe. 
Sir William Flower is, how- 
ever, very strongly of opinion 
that the Eskimo form -'a 
branch of the typical North 
Asiatic Mongols, who, in their 
wanderings noitliwards and 
eastwards across the American 
Continent, isolated almost as 
j)erfectly as an island iwjjula- 
tion would be, hemmed in on 
one side by the eternal polar 
ice, and on the other by hostile 




Photo by l>r. W, T. Onr^tll, of the MisBion to Dup Sea FUhtrmen. 

OBKKNLAND KSKIMO IN THK SNOW. 



H4 



5o6 



The Living Races of Mankind 



tribes of American Indians, with which they rarely, if ever, intermingled, have gradually 
developed characters most of which are strongly expressed modifications of those seen in their 
allies, who still remain on the western side of Bering Strait." A very similar view is taken 
by B:iron Nordenskiold, who reg-ards the Chukehis and Koryaks of North-eastern Asia as the 
nearest relatives of the Eskimo ; remarking that the Koryak " race, settled on the primeval route 
between the Old and New Worlds, bears an unmistakable stamp of the Mongols of Asia and 
the Eskimo and Indians of North America." But the Danish investigator Dr. Kink, in regard- 
ing Alaska as the original home of the Eskimo, appears decidedly in favour of the western 
origin of the race. In this connection it may be mentioned that it is the Eskimo of Greenland 
who present the cliaracteristics of the race (especially the long head, whereby they differ from 
the round-headed Chukehis and Koryaks) in the most marked degree. And it is quite a 
legitimate inference that this long-headed character has been grmlually developed the farther 
and farther the race dejmrted from its presumed place of origin in the north-eastern pro- 
montory of Asia. On the other hand, those who maintain the European derivation of the 
Eskimo urge that it is precisely the long-headed conformation of the Greenlanders which lends 

such strong support to their views. 
This, however, is not the place 
in which to discuss in detail a 
question bristling with difficulties 
and perplexities ; and having thus 
laid before our readers in an im- 
partial manner the leading points 
of the two conflicting views, we 
pass on to the consideration of the 
people tliemselves. 

The name Eskimo is the 
modem Danish form of the older 
French Esquimaux ; the latter being 
derived from Wiyaskimiywok (raw- 
flesh-eaters), applied to these jieople 
by their neighbours the Cree Indians. 
Other forms of the same word occur 
in Abenaki, Ojibwa, and other 
Algonquian dialects. In Alaska 
and other parts of their western 
habitat the Eskimo call themselves 
Innuit (the people) ; the same name 
reappearing on the Asiatic side of Bering Strait, where a few Eskimo colonies exist, in the 
form of Yuit. In Greenland Karalit is the native name of the race. 

Exclusive of the Koryaks and the Chukehis (Tuskis), who were regarded by some authorities 
as an Asiatic branch of the race, the Eskimo have a wider geographical range than any 
other aborigines ; their habitat extending, discontinuously, from the eastern shores of Greenland 
to Bering Strait — a distance of over 5,000 miles. Northwards they extend to Grinnel-land, 
where Lieutenant Greely mentions having found traces of them at Cape Sabine; and similar 
evidence of a very northward extension has been met with on the east coast of Greenland. 

On the eastern side of America the Eskimo extend as far south as about 50° N. lat., 
in I^abrador; on the shores of Hudson Bay their southerly limits lie between 55° and 60', 
while on the Alaskan side of Bering Strait the latter parallel forms their approximate boundary. 
With the exception of two localities on the western side of Americfi, where some Indian tribes 
descend to the shore to fish, the Eskimo form the only aboriginal inhabitants throughout this 
vast extent of country. The Aleutian Islands, forming the continuation of the south-western 
peninsula of Alaska, are inhabited by a somewhat aberrant branch of Eskimo— the Aleuts. 




Pketo 6y Mr. W. Ravi) 

A PAKTV OF OBEENLAMD ESKIMO. 



[Phiiadtlpkia. 







PkoUu by M. Pierre Petil] 



[Paris. 



ESKIMO, WITH THEIR SLEIGHS AND KAYAK. 
607 



5o8 



The Living Races of Manl^ind 



Apart from the insular habitat of many of the Eskimo, and the complete separation of those 
of Greenland from those dwelling on the American mainland, the tribes inhabiting the 
continental areas are more or less completely isolated from each other. And this separation 
renders the striking general uniformity in the physical characters of the entire race only the 
more remarkable. By Dr. Kink the Eskimo have been subdivided into the following sections : 
(1) those of East Greenland; (2) those of West Greenland, who, as far as lat. 74° N., are the 
sulijects of Denmark, and are comparatively civilised ; (3) the Eskimo of Northern Greenland, 
who are the most uncultured of all ; (4) the I^abrador Eskimo, for the most part fairly 
civilised; (5) the Central Eskimo, ranging from Hudson Bay, some 2,000 miles, to beyond the 
outlet of the Mackenzie River; and (6) the Western Eskimo, from Barter Island to the extreme 
western limits of Alaska. 

At the time when this classification was 
made, the whole of the Eskimo were suj>- 
l)Osed to be dwellers in tracts situated within 
a comparatively short distance (fifty miles 
or so) of the shore, if not on the coast 
itself, and to subsist entirely by fishing. 
More recent explorations have, however, 
brousrht to li<jlit the existence of several 
inland tribes, who live by hunting, and, 
unlike the coast people, have more or less 
intercourse with the Indians, with some of 
whom they have indeed almost comi)letely 
amalgamated. To this intermingling is 
douKtless due the existence of at least three 
types of Eskimo in Alaska. 

As regards the present number of tiie 
Eskimo there are no sufficient data on whicli 
to form even an approximate estimate. Some 
years ago it was indeed roughly estimated 
that the total number did not exceed 50,U00 ; 
but it is very doubtful if even this can be 
regarded as a fair approximation to the real 
state of the case. When a census was 
made in 1870 of the population of that portion 
of West Greenland under the Danish Govern- 
ment, the number of Eskimo was recorded 
as 9,588 ; that of the Europeans being 
237. The population was then distributed 

among 176 different winter stations, of which only one had more than 300 inhabitants; 
while in fifty-eight the number did not exceed five-and-twenty. At that time the entire native 
population of Greenland was considered to be not more than about 10,000. Since the Danish 
occupation the native jwpulation is known to have diminished ; and as some years ago its 
numbers appeared to be nearly stationary, it is unlikely there has been any subsequent 
increase. In Ijibrador, where there were six Moravian missionary settlements at the time of 
writing, Dr. Packard states that the number of Eskimo in 1860 was about 1,400. In a letter 
to the same writer from I>ondon, dated 1887, it is stated that the number of Eskimo on the 
strip of coast from Hamilton Inlet to Ungava, in Labrador, was estimated at 1,500. " The 
race," says the writ<>r, "is comparatively pure, but there are some half-breeds, for the Hudson 
Bay Company's employes and other settlers have married Eskimo women. . . . Thirty years ago 
the number under charge of our missionaries was about 1,200, I expect purely Eskimo; now 
it is about the same, including settler families " It should be added that in the Danish 




Pholo by K. aUnther] 



[Bertin 



AN ESKIMO UAH. 



Arctic America and Greenland 



509 



settlements on the west coast of Greenland there are likewise a considerable proportion of 
half-breeds. 

In general aj)pearance and physiognomy, as well as in dress and the mode of doing the 
hair, the Eskimo are very like the Chukchis and Koryaks ; so much so, indeed, that a traveller 
visiting the Arctic regions for the first time would doubtless experience some difficulty in 
clearly distinguishing between them. All, when pure bred, jiossess the long, lank, jet-black 
hair distinctive of Mongoloid races in general ; while the cast of countenance is likewise 
distinctly jMongoloid. In stature the Eskimo are decidedly short ; although the appearance of 
shortness is somewhat enhanced by the nature of the dress. The late Dr. Robert Brown, in 
the article published in the ninth edition of the Encyclopcedia Britannica, was indeed 

inclined to believe that these people are taller 
than is generally supposed to be the case; 
stating that the height usually ranged 
between 5 feet 4 inches and 5 feet 10 
inches, while in rare instances it reached 
as much as 6 feet. This estimate appears, 
however, somewhat too high, and may have 
been partly based on the measurements of 
half-breeds or due to local peculiarities. For 
instance, in Science for July 29, 1887, Mr. 
W. A. Ashe gives measurements taken from 
sixty families (number of individuals not 
stated) of Eskimo living at North Bluff, on 
Hudson Strait ; the average of these working 
out to a mean height of 5 feet 3'9 inches 
for the men, and of ai)proximately 5 feet for 
the women. On the other hand, Norden- 
skiold speaks of the Eskimo of Port Clarence 
as of average height. In both sexes the feet 
and hands are unusually small; but the 
muscular development is strong, although 
the men frequently show an early tendency 
to put on fat. When cleansed from the 
grease and dirt with which it is generally 
begrimed, the skin, which has a peculiar oily 
feeling to the touch, not unlike that of fat 
bacon, is pale ochry brown in colour; a 
red tinge frequently showing through it on 
the cheeks of the children and younger 
but after marriage the women disregard 
appearances, soon becoming wrinkled, and, from their sedentary habits, bow-legged. In spite 
of the broadly oval shape of the flat face, with its fat cheeks, and the Mongoloid obliquity 
of the eyes (chiefly due to a peculiarity in the conformation of the upper eyelid), the 
physiognomy of the Eskimo is by no means displeasing, even to the European eye ; — more 
especially as the face is always ready to break into a laugh. After early maturity the men, 
owing to their active out-of-door life, are, however, decidedly better-looking than the women. 
The forehead, which is not high, and also somewhat retreating, is partially concealed by the 
hair; which, in the case of the men, is generally cut off straiglit across the forehead midway 
between the eyes and the crown, although in the females allowed to grow longer and hang 
down in irregular wisps. The remainder of the scalp-hair is permitted by both sexes to grow 
to its full length, and in the men hangs down to the shoulders. In the women this hair may, 
however, either be formed into a pair of long plaits hanging down each side of the head, after 




Photo by K. OunUur'i 



[Blrlin, 



AN ESKIMO WOMAN. 



women. The latter are always fresh-looking; 



510 



The Living Races of Mankind 



the Chukchi fashion, or, as in Greenland, may be gathered up into a large projecting knot at the 
back of the head. The latter fashion is well displayed in the bust of a female Eskimo from 
Frederikshaab, Greenland, exhibited in the Natural History Museum at South Kensington ; 
the bust of a male placed alongside showing the distinctive features of that sex. In the 
Greenland Eskimo the size of the back tuft of hair forms a subject of emulation among the 
fair sex ; but the constant strain to which the hair is exposed by this method of dressing 
causes it to fall oft' or become thin, especially on the sides of the head, at a comparatively early 
age. As in all members of the Mongoloid stock, the development of hair on the face is 
scant ; the men usually displaying only a very slight moustache, no whiskers, and frequently 
little or no traces of a beard. In the neighbourhood of Bering Strait Baron Nordenskiold 
states, however, that some of the men grew a scanty beard, while a few had attempted the 
American " goatee." 

As already mentioned, the Eskimo diSer from Chukchis and Koryaks by the greater length 
and narrowness of the head ; this feature, and likewise the imusual height of the head, 
attaining its greatest development in Greenland. Like all savage races who do not spoil 
them by filing or other ill treatment, the Eskimo have excellent teeth, which, however, owing 
to the nature of their food, are in old age worn down almost or completely to the edges 
of the gums. 

In regard to the half-breeds met with on the east coast of Greenland, Dr. Kink writes 
as follows : " On first arriving in Greenland, one is surprised at seeing kayak-men with light 
hair and perfectly European physiognomy and stature, while as to their language and habits 
they are as perfectly European. Others again, and indeed the greater part of the half-breeds, 
resemble South Europeans. ' Notwithstanding this intermixture, the Eskimo features are still 
by far the most prevalent, exhibited chiefly in a low stature, remarkably small hands and feet, 

and a brown complexion." 

The Eskimo are by no means long-lived 
folk. Dr. Packard states that at the time 
he visited the colony at Hopedale the oldest 
person was a woman of seventy ; — and she 
a picture of ugliness. Three only were of 
the age of sixty ; and, generally speaking, 
a man becomes prematurely old by the 
time he is five-and-forty, being at that age 
worn out by the hardships of the autumnal 
seal-fishing. 

Civilisation, too, or what goes for such, 
seems to induce an undue mortality, partly 
owing to a more indoor life. At Hopedale, 
for instance, the population in the summer 
of 1864 was about 200; but it was re}»rted 
that during the previous March no less than 
twenty-four had succumbed to cold. Since 
at Okkak twenty-one had died, and the same 
number at Nain, over a tenth pait of the 
native population of these stations fell 
victims to chest-diseases in the course of a 
single month. 

As regards dress, the leading feature is 
the great similarity existing between the 
costumes of the two sexes ; the women wear- 
ing trousers, and a jacket very similar to 
that of the men. It has been suggested 




Pktic »|r Dr. IK. T. OrtitftU, of Uu Uiuim to Dttp Sea Ifltltmnen. 
A PAIR or ESKIMO BOVa 



Arctic America and Greenland 



51' 



r- 




\ 




P/wto by Dr. W. T. OrenJeU, Q/' Ike Mi^iMii to JJup im luiU..r„Uii. 

HEADS OF THREE ESKIMO CHILDREN. 



that this similarity has been brought about by the narrowness of the entrance to the huts, 
which would not suffice to admit a woman clad in petticoats of a thickness suitable to 
a severe climate. Be this as it may, in the olden days the garments were made entirely 
of "shamoyed" skins, such as those of seals, reindeer, polar bear, dog, or Arctic fox, sewn 
together with sinew thread. In the Danish settlements in Greenland it has, however, become 
the fashion to furnish the jackets with a cotton covering, while coloured materials of 
European make are likewise used for other garments, especially in the case of the female 
sex. Men, too, frequently have their outer dress made of cotton fabrics, which in summer 
may be used also for trousers. Somewhat similar changes have also been made by the Eskimo 
dwelling at the Moravian missionary-stations in Labrador ; many of the women wearing an 
old calico skirt over the original dress. Nor is this all, for in the Greenland settlements 
fashion has tended to curtail the length of the jackets of the females, and to discard the 
flaps by which they were originally i)rolonged both in front and behind. And as there was 
always probably a certain amount of diflerence in this resj^ect between widely sundered tribes, 
it will be understood that the following account of the original Eskimo dress is more or 
less general. 

ITie outer garment is a jacket, usually longer in the case of the women than in that 
of the men ; it fits tightly to the body, and its only openings above are those for the head 
and hands. The men's jacket is furnished with a hood, used in cold weather to cover the 
head. On the other hand, the jacket of the women has a much more capacious hood — the 
amotyi— employed as a cradle for the child; while it has likewise a long pendent flap, 
or " tail," behind, which is usually tucked up. In Greenland this tail is comparatively 
short ; but it is much longer among the Labrador Eskimo ladies, where it formerly almost 
reached the ground. Ite trousers, which may be either tight-fitting or baggy, and in the case 



5'2 



The Living Races of Mankind 




Photo by H. 



IParit. 



ESKIMO AND SLEDGE. 



of the women reach only 
to the knees or a little 
below, are attached to 
neatly made boots of seal- 
skin ; these latter being 
so well suited to the 
climate that they are 
adopted by nearly all 
Europeans who visit the 
lilskimo. The trousers 
of the women may be 
decorated with the neck- 
skin of the eider-duck or 
with trimmings of em- 
broidered leather; while 
their boots, which in 
Greenland are generally 
dyed of various colours, 
reach above the knees, 
where they are sometimes 
cut very wide. During 
winter an Eskimo used to be provided with two suits of the above description, one of which 
had the fur inside, while in the other it was turned outwards. In the south of Danish 
Greenland fur jackets with the hairy side outwards have, according to Dr. Kink, long since 
disappeared, although they are still retained in the north, where they are also made of greater 
length. In addition to the above-mentioned garments, the Eskimo sometimes wear vests or 
shirts made of the skin and down of sea-birds, as well as socks made of reindeer-fawn leather. 
Occasionally, too, jackets are made of bird-skins, with tlie feathers outside ; the British Museum 
possessing a beautiful specimen from Port Clarence, Alaska, the material of which appears to 
be chiefl}' the wonderfully soft and warm breast-skin of the eider-duck. In this neighbourliood 
Baron Nordenskiold describes many of the natives as wearing European clothes ; while others 
were chui in trousers of seal- or reindeer-skin, and a light, soft, often beautifully ornamented 
pesk of suslik*-skin ; an overcoat made of pieces of gut sewn together being frequently worn 
over the latter in rainy weather. In all respects the Eskimo are neat workers, and their 
clothes form no exception to this rule. Formerly the sewing was always done with the afore- 
said sinew thread and a bone needle, but a steel implement now frequently replaces the latter. 
Except in the middle of summer, the boots require to be changed whenever they are 
wetted, else they would freeze as hard as a board. Among the poorer classes in Danish 
Greenland, who appear to be amongst the most wretched of the whole race, this precaution 
is, however, by no means always taken. These people, indeed, serve to show the extreme 
hardihood of the Eskimo, and their indifi'erence to intense cold, even when insufficiently 
clad. Dr. Kink, for instance, writes of them as follows: "How far they surjmss the European 
in hardiness and endurance is more clearly to be seen at the poorer stations when the winter 
is unusually severe, even in the opinion of the natives. Persons may be seen dressed more 
like poor people in Southern Europe than Eskimo. Cliildren are seen in rags which scarcely 
cover their nakedness ; their boots being frozen quite hard and stiff, on account of not being 
taken off for several weeks." 

As might be expected, the Eskimo are by no means remarkable for their attention to 
personal cleanliness, having an inbred horror of water as a cleansing agent. It is stated, 
however, that the babies are sometimes licked clean by their mothers before being put to bed 
into the bag of feathers which serves alike for mattress and blankets. As regards ornaments 

* Oommonly misc«Ued marmot. 



Arctic America and Greenland 



513 



and personal adornment, the women, as in the neighbourhood of Port Clarence, may have a 
few lines of tattooing on the chin. The Aleuts and some of the true Eskimo, to the southward 
of the Mackenzie River, insert a large disk of bone or other substance into the lower lij), after 
the fashion of their southerly neighbours, the Thlinkit Indians, from whom the custom was 
probably derived. Dr. Dall has, however, remarked that no hunter exposed to the icy blasts 
and cold winter of the northern districts of the Eskimo habitat could have possibly tolerated 
such an ornament ; since it would have rendered the strip of flesh above the incision liable to 
freeze, while it would have been an intolerable annoyance in other respects. Accordingly, we 
find in the more northern districts two small disks, one situated at each corner of the mouth 
on the line of the lower lip, replacing the large central Aleut plate. The holes in the lip 
among the Port Clarence Eskimo are about a quarter of an inch in length ; and the labrets 
consist of large pieces of bone, glass, or stone. " These ornaments," writes Baron Nordenskiold, 
" were often removed, and then the edges of the large holes closed so much that the face was 
not greatly disfigured. Many had in addition a similar hole forward in the lip. It struck 
me, however, that this strange custom was about to disappear completely, or at least to be 
Europeanised by the exchange of holes in the ears for holes in the mouth. An almost 
full-grown young woman had a large blue glass 
bead hanging from the nose, in whose partition 
a hole had been made for its susjiension ; but she 
was very much embarrassed, and hid her head in a 
fold of her mother's jpesk, when this piece of grandeur 
attracted general attention. All the women had 
long strings of beads in the ears. They wore 
bracelets of iron or copper, resembling those of the 
Chukchis." 

The coast Eskimo, who have been longest 
known to Europeans, are both hunters and fisher- 
men, obtaining the greater amount of their food- 
supply from the sea, and subsisting almost entirely 
on animal substances. Indeed, with the exception of 
a few roots, seaweed, and berries, the Eskimo in their 
original savage state used practically no vegetable 
food at all. In Danish Greenland, however, a certain 
amount of imported vegetable food, such as bread, 
barley, and peas, is consumed by the natives. And 
Dr. Rink estimates the average daily consumption 
of food per head in these settlements to comprise 
2 lbs. of flesh and blubber, 1| lb. of fish, together 
with a certain amount of shell-fish, berries, seaweed, 
and other indigenous vegetables, to which must be 
added about 2 ozs. of imported food. If this 
allowance was constant throughout the year, it 
would doubtless be amply sufficient ; but in the 
winter supplies are only too apt to run short, and 
it is a mistake to suppose that every individual 
obtains anything like this quantity daily throughout 
the year. When, however, food is to be had in 
abundance, an Eskimo has not the slightest hesita- 
tion in consuming at least 10 lbs. of meat and fat 
at a single sitting. Frozen flesh is usually devoured 
raw, but fresh meat is sometimes boiled. lilood, Pkotoby ur. w.T.urcnjdi,ojthe uiuwutoveepamiHsiurmen. 
as well as the half-digested nutriment taken from a oheenland eskimo guanomotueb. 

65 




514 



The Living Races of Mankind 





9c- ^^^HI^I^^H 




^^K^ -'-^ 


Mm 


^^F 


^^B 


' J^M 











Phato by M. Piem Petit] 

AN ESKIMO BELLE. 



[Paru. 



the stomach of the reindeer, likewise form items in 
the menu. It is a common belief that blubber 
constitutes an important article of diet ; but this 
is a mistake, as the substance in question is far 
too valuable to be thus disposed of, having to be 
stored up for use as fuel and lamp-oil during the 
dreary winter. 

On the other hand, the natives of the interior 
of Alaska, such as the Nushegagmuts of the 
Nushegak Basin, who are in constant communica- 
tion with the Athabascan Indian tribes, are to a 
great extent hunters of land game, although they 
also capture fresh-water fish. These inland Eskimo 
show in many districts unmistakable signs of crossing 
with their Athabascan neiglibours ; and Dr. Kink 
has been enabled to divide the Alaskan representa- 
tives of the race into the following three sections. 
Firstly, we have the tall, cadaverous-looking inhabi- 
tants of Kotzebue Sound, who have always a hungry 
appearance, and whose food includes fish, ptarmigan, 
and susliks. In marked contrast to these are the 
tall and well-built Nualoks of the inland high- 
grounds, who live on the flesh of the reindeer, the 
Alaskan big-horn sheep, and various birds, supple- 
mented to a certain extent by fish. lastly, there 
are the short, stumpy Eskimo of the Arctic coast, 
who probably represent the pure-bred race, whose food consists of whale, seal, and reindeer 
meat. In Greenland the musk-ox is largely hunted. 

In the course of the preceding paragraphs most of the animals which afford the food-supply 
of these hardy people have been already mentioned. It may be added that, wliile occasionally 
they feast on the stranded carcase of a right-whale, a rorqual, or a humji-backed wliale (locally 
known as kepolcak), their more usual cetacean prey comprises the white whale or beluga, 
conspicuous from its glistening cream-coloured hide, and the narwhal, both of which are 
hari)ooned from the kayak, or canoe. In addition to these they take several species of true 
seal, such as the Greenland, or harp-seal; while in the neighbourhood of Bering Strait they 
come in contact with the eared seals, or sea-bears and sea-lions, the slaughter of which is, 
however, placed under stringent restrictions at the present day. Whale-skin (matak) forms a 
favourite article of diet. 

Of all Eskimo inventions, the aforesaid kayak is perhaps the most peculiar and 
characteristic, and is absolutely essential to the very existence of the shore-dwelling tribes. 
Although differing locally to a certain extent in both size and construction, it is to be met 
with from Bering Sea to East Greenland, but only attains its highest development in the 
latter country. It may be described as a shuttle-shajied canoe, covered with hairless seal-skin 
tightly stretched over a framework of wood or whalebone, or both.* The kayak is decked 
over, after the manner of a Rob-Roy canoe, leaving only a space sufficient to admit the body 
of the kayaker, who, when settled in his frail craft, closes the interval between himself and 
the deck-cover so tightly, that the whole concern may turn over without admitting any water 
to the interior. One of these canoes in Greenland measures about 18 feet in length by 2 feet 
in breadth ; and since its weight is not more tiian half a hundredweight, a man on landing 
can take it in one hand and carry it up the beach with ease. In addition to the occuimnt, 

• The Britisli Museum baa two kayaks of which tlic framework is of wood lashed together with whalebone, which 
U employed like leather thong. The frame is, however, taid to be often made of whalebone alone. 




IJISTIllIiUTIO.V <)!■ KSKIMO AXU NOUTH A.MIUSICAN INDIANS. 

515 



Si6 



The Living Races of Mankind 




Photo by M. PUi-re Petit] 

AN ESKIMO TOUTH. 



[ParU. 



one of these canoes will carry a load of about 200 lbs. 
In Greenland the kayak may have its framework 
constructed of whalebone ; but in Labrador the 
material is spruce. In consequence of this difiFerence 
the Labrador vessel is of broader and clumsier build, 
although at the same time more stable. The kavaker 
propels his canoe with a double-bladed paddle, the 
ends of which are tipped with Iwne. To withstand 
the icy sea a special waterproof dress is necessary for 
kayaking ; this consisting of a jacket made of gut 
or skin, and furnished with mittens, so that onl}' 
tlie face of the wearer is ex^wsed to the elements. 
During still weather or in sheltered bays a half- 
jacket alone is often worn ; this sufficing to protect 
the occupant as far as the arm-pits when a wave 
dashes over his vessel. 

Although steel or iron has in recent years largely 
tended to sui)plant the use of bone or chipped stone 
for speai-- and harpoon-heads, it is probable that in 
most parts of Eskimoland the former were the 
original materials. Beautiful specimens of such stone 
and bone lance-heads, as well as those made of iron, 
are to be seen in the ethnological galleries of the 
British Museum ; and it is with such weapons that 
the kayaker kills his prey. Both in the case of 
the harpoon and the lance the head is detach.able 
by the first sideway pull, so as to remain fixed only to the line or cord with which it is 
provided. In the case of the lance the other end of the cord is attached to the shaft, so as 
to form a kind of hinge. But in the large hariwons the shaft becomes completely freed, so 
that the head is attached only to the line, the other end of which terminates in a large 
inflated bladder. This bladder marks the course of the whale or seal, and enables the kayaker 
to follow and dispatch his prey by lance-thrusts. 

But the kayak is by no means the only vessel which the ingenuity of these .adventurous 
people has succeeded in devising, as there is also the much stouter and more capacious umiak, 
or women's boat, largely employed in the movement of the tribes from one hunting or fishing 
station to another. These, which .are also co\ered with skin, are perfectly flat-bottomed, and 
vary from 25 to 37 feet in length, with a beam of about 5 and a depth of 2^ feet. In 
Greenl.and the larger vessels will carry a load of about 3 tons, wlule the much more numerous 
smaller kinds will take only about half that weight. Since the framework and thwarts alone 
are of wood, even the larger umiaks can be transjxirted overland without much difficulty by 
a juirty of eight or ten men. The flexibility of these boats enables them to withstand the 
shock of the waves remarkably well, although their owners are careful to avoid subjecting them 
to such strains as much as possible. Although liable to be cut through at once by the 
sharp edges of flo.iting ice, the natives are such adepts in steering that they will take the 
umiaks across arms of tlie sea in which scarcely any large spaces of open water are visible. 
When in use, the skin on the Ijottom of the umiak becomes almost transjMvrent, thus 
jKirmitting the motion of the water to be seen by the occupants. Although in tiie south the 
skin covering requires an annual renewal, in the north of Greenland it will last for at le.a.st 
a couple of years. 

Mention has already been made of harpoons and lances ; it must be added that the heads 
of ordinary-sized specimens of the latter, when made of the usual black stone, are about 
3 inches in length, and have beautifully chipjied edge.-'. In using the harpoon, the kayaker 



Arctic America and Greenland 



517 



is provided witli a "thrower," from which the weapon is discharged ; the bladder at the other 
end of the line being disengaged at the same moment. Usually the seal or whale to be 
captured is approached within about 25 feet. When struck, the animal immediately dives, 
drawing out the coiled-uji line with lightning speed ; should the line become fouled with the 
kayak, or should the bladder be not released in time, the paddler is capsized, with little or 
no hope of saving his life. If, however, all goes well, the bladder indicates the track of the 
wounded animal; and, following this, the kayaker, when within striking distance, hurls his 
lance from the "thrower^" This operation is generally repeated several times, the lance on 
each occasion becoming disengaged and floating on the water ; finally, when the victim has 
become thoroughly exhausted, it is approached and dispatched with the short stabbing-spear 
or hunting-knife. 

Other weapons are the bird-spears, which also have a bladder attached, and are likewise 
provided with additional points along the sides, whicli often prove effectual should the head 
happen to miss. There is also a small but effectual bow ; the stone arrow-heads for which 
are manufactured by taj)s from a hammer made of the hard, jade-like stone known as nei)hrite. 
Very noteworthy is the existence of a throwing-string, made of a number of sinews, weighted 
witli walrus-ivory knobs ; when these strike the bird at which they are hurled, they wind them- 
selves round its legs in the same fashion as the bolus of the Indians of the Pampas. Chipped 
flint scrapers, mounted in ivory or wooden handles, are used by the Eskimo for cleaning and 
dressing skins ; and they have likewise stone chisels. For catching salmon and other fish 
they use a kind of spinning-tackle, made in the shape of a beetle ; they also make double 
or treble hooks, with j)oints of either bone or wire, as well as a bone sinker, with fish- 
hooks. A fishing-rod, with a line and float, is likewise employed ; but to describe this and 
many other instruments in detail would far exceed the limits of our sj)ace. To protect their 
eyes from the glare of the snow in summer, the Eskimo employ wooden spectacles, or goggles, 
which are fastened to the head of the wearer by means of finely jilaited thongs of sinew. 
Basin-shaped lamps of soapstone, furnished with 
wicks of moss, and fed by a supply of whale- or 
seal-blubber, are indispensable articles in an Eskimo 
household ; without which, indeed, life would be 
absolutely impossible in these dreary regions, as they 
supply both light and heat. The age of these lamps 
must date from a very remote epoch, and must 
apparently have originated in more southern lands ; 
since, it has been very justly argued, without their 
aid the Eskimo could never by any possibility have 
reached his present home. 

But Eskimo ingenuity is by no means restricted 
to the production of purely utilitarian articles, these 
people also displaying remarkable skill in carving 
ornaments in bone and ivory. The favourite designs 
are the heads of animals, although at times the 
whole body may be portrayed ; and not only are 
these designs notable on account of their fidelity to 
nature, but likewise irom the beauty and finish of 
their execution. Such articles may be insi)ected 
in great numbers and variety by the visitor to the 
ethnological galleries in the British Museum; and 
a few of the more striking types are depicted in a 
plate in Baron Nordenskiold's " Voyage of the Ver/a." 
Among these are the buttons or clasps attached to 
their carrying-straps, which are carved in walrus- 




Photo liy M. Pierre Petit] 

AN KSKIMO GIRL AND CniLD, 



[Paru 



5i8 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 




Photo by Or. W. T. Urenj'eiif oj tfu Uttsion to Deep tiea Futiermen. 

A PAUTY OP ESKIMO, WITH THEIB TEST OF SEAL-SKIN AND BEAR-SKIN. 



ivory to represent the heads of polar bears and seals. Other carrying-straps (wliich, by the way, 
are made of hide, with a loop at one end, through which the button at tlie other is passed) 
have the button or handle made in the form of an entire seal. There are also carved ivory 
tiaras, or coronets, representing the heads of animals, for the ladies ; as well as combs of the 
same material. The glass and ivory buttons inserted into the lips have been already mentioned. 
Nowadays most of the coast Eskimo manage to secure a supply of matches (as many of them 
also do of European fire-arms), but formerly light was obtained by means of pyrites and flint, 
or by the lire-drili ; the bow of the latter, being frequently made of walrus-ivory, richly 
ornamented with figures of various kinds. 

Hitherto no mention has been made of the well-known Eskimo dogs and the sledges they 
draw ; but, in Greenland at any rate, these form a most imjiortant element in Eskimo life. 
The dogs are handsome, albeit decidedly wolfish-looking creatures, brutally treated by their 
masters, and generally subsisting on the refuse and ofial of the encampments. The runners of 
the sledge are made of a pair of boards about (i feet in length, held together by cross-bars 
forming the seats ; the structure being completed by two upright poles at the hinder end, 
used to mount by, and also to steer the sledge on occasions when the driver is following on 
foot. Elasticity, and consequent freedom from liability to destruction by bumping against 
rocks or hummocks, is afforded by the whole structure being bound together with thongs of 
reindeer-hide. For the material to build his sledge the Eskimo is indebted to the sea ; large 
quantities of drift-wood being cast up on the shores of the countries inhabited by the race, 
lught dogs will draw a load of about 500 lbs., at a pace averaging four or five miles an hour ; 
but on perfectly smooth ice as much as sixteen miles an hour may be covered by a team in 
good condition. 

As regards dwelling-places, the Eskimo enjoy the luxury of having summer habitations 
totally different, both in jjosition and in structure, from those of winter. The change is, 
however, not so much a matter of luxury as of urgent necessity ; the summer thaw rendering the 




From Prince HoUind BonaparWt ColUcUon, 



A NOBTH AMERICAN INDIAN IN FULL DRESS. 
619 



520 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 



filtli and refuse accumulated during winter absolutely insupportable when melted. Moreover, 
the necessity of fishing and hunting renders an easily movable dwelling-place most important 
anring the summer and autiunn. Although in certain parts of Eskimolaud huts built of snow, 
with sheets of ice for windows, are not uncommonly constructed for winter use, in Greenland 
these are known only by tradition, and a more permanent kind of building is in vogue. The 
winter huts, or iglus, of the Greenlanders are jiartially subterranean structures, wretched 
enougli according to European ideas, but by no means ill-adapted to the nature of the climate 
and the simple wants of their owners. "On account of their being formed of stones 
alternating with sods," writes Dr. Rink, "the walls are liable to subside; but then the roof, 
consisting of turf spread over driftwood, will follow them, and the whole, being cemented 
together by moisture and frost, will be perfectly impenetrable by wind. The windows, made 




irom frijut Jiotand Jtonapartt' OoUtction. 



A OBOCP OF KOBTB AMERICAK INDIAKS, 



out of seal-entrail, only admit a scanty portion of daylight ; but during the greater part of 
the winter-time the sun is absent, and when the days are lengthening daytime is mostly 
l)assed in the open air. The dwelling-room of the original houses had no chimney or fire- 
place at all, but the lamps served at once for lighting, heating, and cooking. A small kitchen 
is sometimes found as a side-room close by the door. Ventilation is aflbrded chiefly by the 
long and narrow doorway which afiords the entrance to the house. On first entering, one has 
to descend, while at the farther end a step upwards at once leads into the room itself. . . . 
By properly adapting the lengtli and widtli of the house-passage the necessary ventilation is 
attorded, there liaving been scarcely any door at all in the iiouse, only a loose skin curtain 
being occasionally used to close the entrance. A vent-hole was made in the roof; and the 
enormous difi'erence between the temperature outside and inside explains how so little as 



Arctic America and Greenland 



521 



» 



100 cubic feet of sjmce per inmate 
could suffice. In the only room in 
the house a bench or ledge runs 
along the wall opiiosite to the win- 
dows, and is divided by the help of 
low screens into separate stalls or 
recesses for the families. The walls 
are hung with skins, and the floor 
is paved with flat stones." To this 
excellent account it should be added 
that from the roof is suspended the 
lamp ; while on suitable supports 
from the same are hung the spare 
harj)oons, lances, etc. The heat of 
the interior prevents water freezing ; 
and the centre of the floor is con- 
sequently in most cases occupied by 
a more or less dirty and offensive 
pool. In the Danish settlements 
in Greenland, as well as in parts of 
Labrador, houses of a much superior 
description to the above are now 
frequently erected ; but as these are 
of European origin, they require no 
detailed mention in this place. 
Generally the dogs are allowed to 
shelter themselves in the entrance- 
tunnel ; but sometimes even this 
protection is denied them, and they 
are compelled to brave the terrors of 
an Arctic winter night. 

It has been incidentally men- 
tioned that an Eskimo house in Green- 
land is the abode of two or more families ; but this is a custom contined to that country, other 
Eskimo having a house for each family. Throughout the greater part of Eskimoland public 
buildings of any description are totally unknown ; but council-chambers have been said to exist 
in Labrador. With the return of the sun the winter-huts are everywhere discarded for the skin- 
tents in which the summer and autumn months are passed. These tents are single-poled, and 
of the familiar bell-shape ; but a very large open space is left at the entrance, which is framed 
with wood, upon which the covering is stretched. The cover is double, and formed of seal-skins, 
neatly sewn together. To exclude draughts and wet, the lower edge of the tent is afllxed to 
a raised ring of stones and turf. A curtain made of seal-gut closes the entrance to the tent ; 
this material being sufficiently translucent to afford a good supply of light to the inmates. 
A fireplace is constructed outside. 

The following summary of the yearly life ot the Labrador Eskimo is taken from an 
account given by a Moravian missionary. From May till December the various families are 
scattered along the coasts at their fishing-stations. When the men return in May from 
reindeer-hunting, they proceed to the islands near the shore for sealing; and here they 
remain till the end of June, when the coast ice has melted. Going back in their kayaks to 
their winter-quarters, the men then bring up their larger boats (now often sailing-vessels), in 
which they take their families for trout-fishing up the rivers; after which follows the great 
harvest of the cod-fishery. In autumn reindeer-liunting is resumed, while from November till 

66 




From Prince Jioland Jionnparte's Coilection. 

A NOETH AMERICAN BRAVE. 



522 



The Living Races of Mankind 



Christmas is the period ot the autumnal seal-fishery. At this time the men endeavour to 
capture the seals in their kayaks by driving through the thin ice, or to take them in nets. 
So soon as the bays and straits become blocked with ice, net-sealing is of course impossible ; 
and the Eskimo then turn their attention to those seals which have been shut up in the 
bays. By Christmas they are once more settled in their winter-houses, and it is at this time 
of the year that the missionaries obtain most access to these people. 

Sealing from the kayak has been already mentioned as fully as space permits, but no 
reference has yet been made to scaling on the ice. When the sea in autumn is frozen over 
during calm weather, the surface of the ice becomes quite smooth and unbroken, so that the 

seals below are quite cut ofif from the 
air. Consequently each seal has to 
keep open a small breathing-hole, the 
edges of which are gradually raised, 
while tlie surrounding ice is kept thin 
and assumes the form of an inverted 
bowl. Approaching the hole in boots 
with the hairy side outwards, the 
hunter has to steal up and stab his 
victim before it has time to become 
alarmed. This mode of capture is 
however, only })racticable in autumn 
on the rare occasions when perfectly 
smooth ice is formed ; and in winter 
sealing involves a weary waiting 
{maupok) in intense cold at the larger 
permanent breathing-places. The seal 
being certain to hear the least noise, 
the only plan is to take up a position 
at the hole, and there, it may be in 
a temperature of 20° below zero, await 
in perfect stillness its rising, which 
may not occur for hours. 

In regard to their general character 
most travellers who have visited them 
speak fairly well of the Eskimo. It 
is true that they have been charged 
with a proneness to lie and thieve; 
but such accusations Dr. Kink considers 
to be ill-founded, at any rate in Green- 
land. In Alaska Baron Nordenskiold 
describes them, after the disappearance 
of the first mistrust, as friendly and 
accommodating, honourable in their 
dealings, although given to begging and to much haggling in making a bargjiin. The position 
of the women ajiiioared in nowise inferior to that of the men ; and the children, in spite of 
having no bringing-up at all, would be described as well brought-up. The liking for spirits 
seemed less strong than among the Chukchis. In this particular instance all tiie njitives scimi were 
heathen, but in Labrador they have been to a great extent civilised and Christianised, and the 
majority are able to read, write, and cypher. Although their memory is remarkably good, it 
is in the latter accomplishment that they display the least readiness and proficiency. Tlicir 
love of music is very marked ; and in many of the Moravian stations in Labrador the harmonium 
or organ is played by a native, while the singing is rendered by an Eskimo choir. As might 




Fhoto by M. Pime Pttit] IParU. 

NORTH AHEBICAN INDIAN CHIEFS, WITH THEIB WIVES 
AND CHILDBEN. 





A CHIPPEWA INDIAN. 



MA-GI-GA-BOW (CHIEF). 





A CHIPPEWA CHIEF. "COT-NOSE," A HIOUX CBIMINAL. 

Photos by C. A. ZimiMrman, Minnesota, U.S.A^ 
523 



524 



The Living Races of Mankind 



have been expected from their cleverness in carving, they readily learn drawing, as well 
as map-making. 1'heir sense of the ludicrous and comic is very highly developed, so that 
they are prone to mimic personal peculiarities, as they are to imitate foreign customs and 
amusements, such as dances or games. Gambling, however, though carried on to a small 
extent, cannot be described as an Eskimo vice. When Nordenskiold arrived at Port Clarence, 
a number of Eskimo came on board prepared to sell or barter their property. "Anxious 
to procure as abundant material as possible for instituting a comparison between the house- 
hold articles of the Eskimo and the Chukchis," writes the Baron, "I examined carefully 
the skin bags which the natives had with them. In doing so, I picked out one thing after 
the other, while they did not object to my making an inventory. One of them, however, 
showed great unwillingness to allow me to get to the bottom of the sack, but this just 
made me the more curious to ascertain what precious thing was concealed there. I was 
urgent, and went through the bag half with violence, until at last, in the bottom, I got 
a solution of the riddle— a loaded revolver ! " In Greenland, at any rate, when the 
Eskimo offer an article for sale, they leave it to the purchaser to fix the price ; and they 
also show a marked aversion to bind themselves by a written contract. 

Although decorous and 
decent when in public, the 
morality of Eskimo in private 
life is not of a high order; 
and in this respect the women 
are said to be considerably 
worse than the men. It is, 
however, satisfactory to learn 
that in this and several other 
respects contact with civilised 
peoi)le appears to have led 
to the improvement of the 
native. 

No Eskimo possesses a 
large amount of personal 
property ; habit and the 
necessities of their mode of 
life comi^elling those who 
possess food to share it with 
those who are destit ute. This 
custom has conduced to the 
general stagnation of the 
race and the improvidence 
by which it is characterised. 
From these and other indica- 
tions many travellers have 
been led to conclude that 
perfect individual equality 
prevailed, and that there 
were no such things as grades 
in rank or chiefs. loiter 
researches have shown, how- 
ever, that, in some districts 
at any rate, this is a mistake ; 
i/nm PHnci jMand Bonaparut cotuctim. Dr. Kink remarking that 

A. KOBTH AMERICAN isDiAM (pbofilb). " each larger household com- 




Arctic America and Greenland 



525 



prising several families has a chief as 
conscientiously venerated and obeyed 
as are heads of communities or macfis- 
trates elsewhere." 

Like other native American 
languages, the Eskimo tongue is of 
what is termed the polysynthetic 
type, and preserves an extraordinary 
uniformity of pronunciation and 
structure throughout the habitat of 
the race. Judging from the follow- 
ing sample quoted by Dr. Eink, it 
does not appear by any means a 
desirable language to learn or to use : 
" Suerukame — autdlasassoq — tusara- 



miuk — tuningingmago- 



-iluaringilat " 




From Prince Roland Bonaparte's Collection, 
A NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN (FULL-PACE), WITH PIPE-TOMAHAWK. 



= " They did not approve that he 
(a) had omitted to give him (b) 
something, as he (a) heard that he 
(6) was going to depart on account 
of being destitute of everything." 
Happily such apimlling words are 
not in every-day use, but still they 
may and do occur. A considerable 
amount of literature has been printed 
in their own language for the Eskimo 
of both Greenland and Labrador ; 
and two Eskimo have distinguished 
themselves as authors. 

In comparison with the natives of 
other parts of America, the Eskimo 
have few customs and cei^emonies in connection with birth, marriage, and death. Indeed, in 
their original primitive condition birth and early childhood seem to have had no special 
ceremonies connected with them, although at the mission -stations the christening of a child 
is now generally followed by a party, while birthdays are likewise observed as occasions of 
rejoicing. Carnival meetings are also held to congratulate the boys on the capture of their 
first seal or other large game. 

In regard to marriage the bride was always taken by force from her father's family in 
the old days ; but as Christianity spread this custom passed more and more into disuse, until 
it is now comjiletely abandoned in all districts where civilisation has been introduced. 
Generally the marriages are now negotiated by the priests in the settled districts of Greenland, 
the suitor naming his sweetheart to his own priest. It appears to be the etiquette for the 
prospective bride to pretend complete indifference to the offer of her suitor, and she generally 
accepts him only under the plea of conforming to the wishes of her spiritual adviser. 
Naturally such a practice has put considerable power in the hands of the priesthood, but it 
is seldom that this power is abused. At all the missionary-stations marriages are now 
solemnised according to the rites of the Christian Church ; and there are no nuptial festivals 
of jjurely native origin to chronicle. 

Neither is there much to be said with regard to burial and funeral ceremonies. In the 
old days the bodies of deceased members of a tribe were carefully buried on the summits of 
low hills' beneath stone-heaps of considerable size. Mr. Holme, who discovered about seventy 
old Eskimo sepulchres on Eskimo Island, twelve miles west of Rigolet, in Labrador, describes 



526 



The Living Races of Mankind 



them as follows : " l"hese graves were much in the ordinary Eskimo custom, not being under- 
ground, although the soil was by no means deficient, but consisting of rough unhewn blocks 
of stone heaped together in an oblong form ; the inside measurements being 2 feet by 1| foot. 
Alany of them had been disturbed by bears or wolves, but in most of them a skull and bones 
were lying." Dr. Packard, too, speaks of finding at Hopedale, Labrador, in 1864, two ancient 
Eskimo tombs on the summit of a bare hill. The skeletons lay in what appeared to be a 
natural fissure in the rock, covered over with a few slabs of stone ; the site of the graves being 
indicated by a vertical pole inserted into the fissure. 

The missionaries seem to have regarded this 
ancient mode of sepulture as savouring of jiaganism, 
and accordingly took effectual measures to ensure its 
abolition. The new method of burial seems, howe\'er, 
to be by no means an improvement on the old plan. 
The soil being rocky and frozen, interments after the 
European custom are, especially in winter, very diffi- 
cult to carry out in a proper manner ; the consequence 
being that the burial-grounds are frequently in an 
extremely unsatisfactory condition. Before burial the 
bodies are either sewn up in skins or placed in rude 
wooden coffins ; after which they are merely covered 
^ if Ij^H^jl^f^t?''^*^^ over, frequently in an imjierfect manner, with sods 

J^ ~ ^^^I^MV^^'^ ~*^*'^s. ^"^^ stones. Originally it was the custom after a 

death for the members of the family to abstain for 
a period from labour of all kind, and at the same 
time to neglect their hair and dress. It was likewise 
a universal custom to avoid using the tools or weapons 
of the deceased, and also to refrain from wearing his 
or her clothes. The former customs are still more 
or less observed in Greenland, or at any rate were 
so a few years ago ; but in regard to the latter the 
imported institution of a sale by auction is considered 
fe IH^^^^k 1' ^ , , ■! ^^^^ to break the spell. 

r~ ^^^^^^V V^B^^ikTl^^^^ Like their language, the primitive religion of the 

^^^"^^^^^^ '^^^^^»7l_— . "* Eskimo exhibited a remarkable uniformity through- 
out the entire area inhabited by them. The leading 
idea is the government of the whole world by super- 
natural beings termed inuas, or owners. Apparently 
the soul was regarded as the inua of the body. The 
general scheme of the Eskimo religion and cosmogony 
has been tersely summarised by the late Dr. \\. Brown 
as follows : " The earth and the sea rest on pillars, 
and cover an under-world accessible by various 
mountain-clefts, or by various entrances from the sea. The sky is the floor of an upper-, 
world, to which some go after death ; while others — good or bad — have their futm-e home in 
the under-world. Here are the dwellings of the arsissut, the people who live in abundance. 
This upjier one, on the contrary, is cold and hungry ; here live the arssariut, or ball-i)Iayers, 
8o called from their playing at ball with a walrus-head, which gives rise to the aurora 
boraUis. ITie mediums between the inua and mankind are the angakoha, or wizards, who 
possess the peculiar gift of ungakuTwk — or the state of 'being angakok '-which they have 
acquired by the aid of guardian spirits called tomak, who again are ruled by turnasuk, 
the supreme deity or devil of all." A kind of witchcraft, termed kv^iunek or ilisinek, is 
believed to be the cause of sudden sickness or death. 




Jl NOUTH AMEBICAN CUIEF, WITH FEATHER 
HEAO-DBESS. 




Fi'om Prince HoiamlBonaparU' s Collection. 

A DAKOTA-SIOUAJf CHIEF, THIRTY EIGHT YEARS OF AGE WITH PIPE-TOMAHAWK 

527 



38 



The Living Races of Mankind 




The inferior beings of 
this theocmcy are far too 
numerous for mention in this 
place ; but it may be observed 
that divine rewards and 
punishments are considered 
to be meted out to a great 
extent in the present ; the 
concej)tion of the scheme of 
future prizes and penalties 
being but very imperfectly 
grasjjed. Under the influ- 
ence of Christianity all their 
old-world beliefs are, of 
course, rajjidly passing into 
oblivion, although some of 
the names have been cryst.al- 
lised by the missionaries 
transferring them to the 
Biblical powers of good and 
evil. 

Formerly the Eskimo of 
Greenland, as well as those 
of other countries, had their 
own national songs and 
dances, which were used at 
festivals ; but these, too, have 
been for the most part re- 
placed by European substi- 
tutes. From old sketches it 
appears that at these festivals 
a group was formed, in the 
centre of which stood the 
chief performer, who sang to 
the accompaniment of a 
drum, gesticulating and 
dancing simultaneously. On some occasions the song was intended merely for the amusement 
of the company, who probably moved round in a circle singing the refrain. On other occa- 
sions a satirical or "nith-song" was chanted against a second performer, who was ujjbraided 
for neglecting the kayak-hunt, or some other pursuit. 

Of other customs only a brief reference can be made to a few. Formerly the customary 
salutation when two people met was by rubbing noses together ; but in the Greenland 
settlements, except to caress children, this practice has been entirely abandoned, and there is 
now no national mode of salutation. Generally when a guest arrives at or leaves a house nothing 
whatever is said, although occasionally the salutation inuvdluaritze (live well) may be pronounced ; 
while a European may be wanied not to knock his head against the door\vay (apomiakinatit). 
Very curious is the reluctance of Greenlanders to pronounce their own names. When asked their 
name, they generally get a comrade to answer the question. Amulets and magic spells (jserratit) 
were and are still held in great estimation ; a curious circumstance being that the commonest 
Eurojiean articles, such as coffee-berries and scraps of newspajiers, are frequently regaided as 
the most effectual amulets or charms. 



r 




Fnnti Princt Roland Bonaj/arWi Collection. 

A KOBTH AUEBICAN DfDIAN CHIEF (PROFILE). 



CHAPTER XXIII 



NORTE AMERICA. 

Southwards of the Arctic tract occupied by the very distinct Eskimo tribes described in the 
preceding cliapter, the whole of the vast Continent of America, from British Columbia, 
Vancouver Island, and Newfoundland and the shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the north, 
to the extremity of Patagonia and the islfind of Tierra del Fuego in the south, was, up to 
the time of Columbus's arrival, peopled by American Indians, some of whom were then living 
as nomad savages, while others inhabited populous cities and had acquired many of the arts 
and habits of civilised communities. In one way or another the aborigines since that epoch 
have steadily tended to disappear or wane before the gradual advance of the white races, or 
to become lost as a pure type by more or less complete fusion with the latter. The manner 
in which the irresistible spread of the Caucasian 
races over the continent has been brought about, 
and the concomitant disappearance or fusion of the 
native tribes, have, however, varied greatly in different 
parts of America. The ancient Aztecs, Jlayas, and 
Peruvians were practically wiped out as distinct 
nations by the Spanish conquest ; while at an earlv 
date the aborigines of the West Indian islands dis- 
appeared, and were replaced by African Negroes. In 
many other parts of Central and South America the 
more civilised aborigines became more or less amalga- 
mated with the Spanish and Portuguese immigrants, 
thus giving rise to the present mixed races of the 
countries in question. On the other hand, in the 
greater portion of North America a very different 
state of things has occurred. For the most part 
the original inhabitants formed nomad tribes sparsely 
scattered over the open prairies ; and for a long 
period those in the interior were but little affected 
by the European settlements on the east coast, 
iloreover, with the exception of the French Canadians, 
the immigrants have mingled but little with the 
natives, so that a sharp line of demarcation has 
continued to divide the white races from the " Ked- 
skins." Gradually, however, the latter have been 
driven farther and farther back, till they are now 
mostly restricted to definite " reserves," where they 
are supported by the Governments of the United 
States and Canada. And here it may be men- 
tioned that of late years an important factor in the 
retirement of the Indians from large areas in the 

North-west has been the practical extermination of nuioiy Mr. w.Rau) [PhUadeiphm. 

the American bison, an animal upon which thousands a north amebicak Indian, showing mocassins. 

520 fi7 




530 



The Living Races of Mankind 



of the aborigines were dependent for their very existence. Unsuited to the restraints 
and trammels of civilised life, and displaying a marked inaptitude for agricultural pursuits, 
the " red man," even in these reserves, is steadily diminishing in numbers ; and there is 
every prospect of his ultimate disappearance. The late Kev. J. 0. Dorsay has, however, 
recorded the fact that in some districts of the Western States there has been a tendency for 
the red jwpulation to become absorbed in the white element. But this absorption has in 
all cases come to pass by the natives ceasing to be Indians and becoming members of civilised 
society. " In Minnesota," for instance, " all persons of mixed blood — that is, of white and Indian 
descent — are recognised as citizens. The same is true in other states ; and the privilege is 
extended to those who are not mixed bloods. Also, under present homestead laws, Indians are 
becoming citizens by going off their reserves." 

And here it is important to observe that, from the very remote e|X)ch when America 

received the ancestors of its aboriginal popula- 
tion (apart from the Eskimo) till the date of 
the Spanish conquest, no immigrations of any 
sort took place from the Old World. It is true 
that an occasional vessel, with its crew, may 
have been stranded at long intervals on the 
American shores ; but, in spite of all statements 
to the contrary, it is perfectly clear that such 
occasional handfuls of foreigners could have left 
no permanent trace on the aboriginal popula- 
tion of the New World. 

Accordingly, till the Spanish conquest, the 
natives of America were completely isolated 
from the rest of the world. As mentioned in 
the preceding chapter, one of the most striking 
features connected with the American aborigines 
is the extraordinary uniformity in physical 
characters and appearance presented by them 
from one extremity of their habitat to the other; 
so marked, indeed, that the different stocks of 
the northern half of the continent are to a 
great extent distinguish.ible by linguistic rather 
than by physical characters. Nor is this re- 
semblance by any means confined to physical 
characteristics ; it is equally noticeable in mental 
temperament and in speech. It is true, indeed, 
that the native American stock languages are 
wonderfully numerous, yet all these are but modifications of a single linguistic type, which is 
perfectly distinct from all the tongues of the Old World. In no other jiart of the world has 
a single physical and linguistic type anything approaching the vast distributional area which it 
possesses in America. 

Passing on to the consideration of the physical appearance and characteristic features of 
the American aborigines in general, we may first of all call attention to the striking similarity 
in the physiognomy of the two sexes; this being so great that strangers, on beholding for the 
first time the large series of photographs of Iieiids displayed in the anthroiwlogical series at 
the Natural History IVIuseum, are quite unable to distinguish between the men and the women 
without reading the labels. This is, no doubt, for the most part due to the fashion of wearing 
the hair long and pendent in both sexes, and to the absence of moustaches and beards in the 
men. The hair is, indeed, one of the characteristic features of the American Indians ; that on 
the scalp being black, lank, coarse, and frequently very long. In its coarseness, length, and 




Photo by Ur. W. Rau] [Phitadelpkia. 

AH AMERICAN INDIAN AND II IS WIFE. 



I 







531 



532 



The Living Races of Mankind 



absence of all trace of wave or oiiil, it may be compared, indeed, rather to tlie mane of 
a horse than to the locks of tlie Caucasian races ; its straightness being due to its almost 
perfectly circular (instead of more or less elliptical) cross-section. The face, like the body, is 
practically devoid of hair; such stray hairs as do make their appearance being artificially 
removed. As regards the colour of the skin, there is considerable local variation, but it may 
be described generally as coppery or yellowish brown, although in the natives of some of the 
tropical forest districts like those of Amazonia it is light brown, while in the dwellers of some 
of the high grounds it is dark brown. The lips and nose do not in general differ to any 
great extent from the European type ; the latter being generally large, with a well-marked 
bridge, and nearly straight, or even slightly aquiline in jirofile. 3Iore characteristic is the 
distinct lateral prominence of the cheek-bones, which are often also proportionately high ; but 
in some cases the formation of this part of the face does not differ essentially from the 
Caucasian type. The forehead is retreating, and marked by distinct brow-ridges, which attain 

their greatest de- 
velopment in certain 
skulls from Patagonia. 
The eyes, which are 
almost invariably 
black in colour, are 
small and rather deei> 
set, while in form 
they are round without 
distinct trace of obli- 
quity in their setting. 
The limbs present no 
distinctive differences 
from the Caucasian 
type. As a rule, 
American Indians are 
of tall stature, the 
average being given 
at from 5 feet 8 
inches to 5 feet 10 
inches ; but in some 
districts of both North 
and South America 
6 feet, or even more, 
is reached, while on 
the plateau of Peru, as well as in Alaska and Tierra del Fuego, the height sinks to less 
than 5J feet. The characters of the skull do not enter into the scheme of the present 
work, but it may be mentioned that both long-headed and rounded types of Americans are 
met with in both divisions of the continent. These have been taken to indicate different 
sources of origin from the Old World, but it may be questioned whether this view has sufficient 
evidence for its supjKjrt. 

Perhaps the best short definition that can be given of American Indians is that they are 
copper-coloured or yellowish brown, beardless jR-oplo, with lank black hair, and without the 
oblique eyes, broad and flat faces, or small and concave noses of the Mongols. Obviously they 
have no affinity with the Negroid branch of mankind ; while the character of the hair and the 
absence of a beard sejmrate them widely from the Caucasian brancli. On the other hand, in 
the character of the hair and their smooth faces they show a distinct appro.ximation to the 
Mongol type. From the typical Mongols they are, however, at once distinguished by the 
retreating forehead and the strongly developed brow-ridges, as well as by the general cast of 




A GUOUr OF KOBTU AMEUICAN IKDIAMS IH FULL DUESS. 



North America 



533 



feature, especially the usual 
absence of obliquity in the 
setting of the eyes, and bold 
development of the nose. As 
a rule the latter feature is of 
what is known as the busque 
shape — that is to say, its pro- 
file is formed by two straight 
lines diverging at an obtuse 
angle from the bridge. It 
should, however, be mentioned 
that occasionally American 
Indians are seen with more 
or less distinct traces of the 
characteristic " Mongol fold " 
above the eyes, which are 
themselves contracted and 
oblique. 

Clearly, then, it is with 
the jMongoloid branch that the 
aborigines of America display 
the most marked resemblance ; 
and this is just what might 
have been expected to occur 
from the geographical distribu- 
tion of the two gi-Qups. All 
persons most competent to give 
an opinion on the subject are 




NOBTH AlIEEICAN INDIANS DBESSING. 

practically in accord as to the existence of a relationship of some 

kind between the 
Asiatic JNIongols on 
the one hand and the 
American Indians on 
the other. But as 
to the degree of this 
relationship there is 
some diversity of 
opinion, one school 
regarding the latter 
as a branch of the 
Mongoloid stock, while 
another regards them 
as entitled to rank as 
a separate branch by 
themselves. Seeing, 
however, that some 
kind of JMongoloid 
relationship is ad- 
mitted by both, it is 
evident that the differ- 
ence of opinion is only 
as to the degree of 
such relationship; 




AN INDIAN CIIIKF AND HIS SQUAWS. 



534 



The Living Races of Mankind 




Plwlo by Mr. W. AauJ \_fhilwMplia. 

AN INDIAN HCNTER, WITH WAPITI SKULL. 



and, in any case, the whole question is not one 
with which we are here greatly concerned. 

Having said thus much as to American 
Indians in general (whose characteristic type of 
countenance should become familiar from a 
careful study of the portraits illustrating the 
present and adjacent chapters), attention must 
now be concentrated on those inhabiting the 
northern half of the continent which forms their 
home. And here a great difficulty presents 
itself at the very outset. The number of tribes 
is so great, and their physical differences are so 
slight (indeed, as already mentioned, the differ- 
ences are in most cases linguistic and cultural 
rather than physical), that it is impossible to 
describe them all within the limits at our disjwsal. 
Fortunately, however, these almost countless tribes 
may be grouped under a number of main linguistic 
stocks, or families, as they are indifferently 
called ; and as a few of these are of much larger 
size, and therefore of greater importarrce, than 
the rest, it is on certain of the former that atten- 
tion may be chiefly concentrated. Omitting, 
then, all mention of many of the minor stocks — 
which, by the way, are chiefly concentrated on a narrow strip of territory on the Pacific border 
of the continent — we have the following main stocks, with some of their more important tribal 
divisions, viz. : — 

1. Athabascan, or Athapascan, comprising the Kuchins, Chippewyans, Apaches, and 

Naviijos. 

2. Algonquian, including the Delawares, Abenakis, Chippewas or Ojibwas, Crces, Shawnees, 

Sac and P'oxes, Blackfeet, Cheyennes, and Arapahoes. 

3. Iroqnoian, represented by the Ilurons, Eries, Mohawks, Tuscaroras, Senecas, Cayugas, 
Oneidas, Onondagas, and Cherokis. 

4. Siouan, with the Dakotas, Asiniboins, Omahas, Crows, lowas, Osages, Catawbas, and 
Monakans. 

5. Shoshonean, comprising the Pawnees, Kiawas, Comanches, and Utas. 

(i. Muskhogean, represented by the Creeks, Choctaws, Chicasas, Seminolcs, and AjTalachis. 

7. Pueblo, including the Zuni, Tegua, .Teinez, and Hopi or Moki. 

To treat each of these seven main stocks with the same detail would obviously be waste 
of space, seeing that in many respects several of them have more or less the same 
customs and m.anners. Among the first six, the Siouan group is the one selected for special 
consideration, mainly on the ground that it has been the subject of an elaborate study by 
the officials of the United States Board of Ethnology. On the other hand, the Pueblo Indians, 
as displaying a totally distinct grade of culture, and being the only North American aborigines 
who build and inhabit houses, claim a special notice, which forms the concluding iwrtiou of 
the present chapter. 

Commencing with the Athabiiscan and Algonquian stocks, we find that the various tribes 
groujwd under these headings originally occupied considerably more than half the total area of 
North America, llie Athabascan territory extended across the country from Southern Alaska, 
across the lake and river from which it takes its name, nearly to Port Nelson, on the western 
shore of Hudson Bay ; its northern boundary thus impinging on the southern frontier of the 
Eskimo. From Port Nelson their southern boundary ran westwards to the Kocky Mountains, 




0- :^'* 



535 



536 



The Living Races of Mankind 



forming a curved line which reaches as far north as lat. 00° in the middle of its course, 
while farther west it falls as low as 50°. Along the western coast may be traced a few 
outliers of Athaljascans, which appear to indicate the line of migration followed by this 
people as they extended into Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, where the}' were formerly found 
in considerable numliers. So different are the predatory southern tribes, such as the Apaches, 
Navajos, and LijMins, from their northern kinsmen, the Kuchins, Chippewyans, Hare Indians, 
etc., that, were it not for their common speech, they would scarcely be recognised as members 
of the same stock. The northern tribes live a nomad life, jirotected by the Government of 
Canada, many of them acting as trappers and hunters for the Hudson Kay Comijany. Their 
numbers are estimated at only about 10,000, whereas the southern tribes, who now live in 
special reserves, were reckoned some years ago at 23,000. Mr. F. W. Hodge, who has specially 
studied the Ajmches and Navajos, states that the latter still retain traditions of their arrival 
from the north in their jiresent home, which probably took place before the close of the 
fourteenth century, at which epoch the Apaches were already settled in New Mexico. It was 
not, however, till alwut three centuries later that they became sufficiently powerful to harass 
their Pueblo neighbours. 

Even larger than the Athabascan territory is the area originally inhabited by the great 
Algonquian (or Alkonkin) stock, which included that portion of Labrador not occupied by 
the Eskimo, and thence stretched westward across the continent south of the Athabascan 
boundary to the Rockies. To the southward their distribution narrowed so as to form a 
truncated triangle, bounded on the west by the Mississippi and to the east by the Atlantic 
sea-board ; Southern Tennessee on the former side, and Cape Hatteras, in North Carolina, on 




Pkttlttb) il,. ir. AuuJ 



AN I.NDIAX TEKT IN WINTER, WITH 6QCAW CABBY INO "PAPOOSE" (CHILD). 



[PhUadtiphia. 



North America 



537 



the latter, forming 

their aj)proximate 

southern limits. It 

is true that in 

certain parts of this 

area there are 

isolated outliers occu- 
pied by Iroquoians, 

Siouans, etc. ; but 

these need not con- 
cern us here, except 

so far as to state 

that the Iroquoian 

colony, which occu- 
pied the area ex- 
tending from Lakes 

Ontario and Erie to 

Pennsylvania and 

Maryland, took an 

important part in 

the British and 

French conflicts in 

America. From the 

extent of their 

ten-itory it might 

naturally be con- 
cluded that the 

Algonquians were 

the most numerous 

of all the aboriginal 

stocks of North 

America ; and this, 

as a matter of fact, 

is the case. At the 

present time, when 

they are supposed 

to form about a 

fourth of the total Indian population, their numbers are estimated at fully 95,000, of which 

60,000 are subjects of the Dominion of Canada. 

In I^abrador this stock is represented by the so-called Montaignais (Mountaineer) Indians 
of the French Canadians. The true Algonquians, forming the tribe from which the whole 
stock takes its name, are now found in Ontario and Quebec, and are stated not to exceed 
5,000 in number. On the other hand, the Chippewas, or Ojibwas, whose home is the region 
of the great lakes, have survived in much greater numbers, being estimated at over 30,000 
individuals. The next tribe in point of numbers is that of the Crees, who are situated 
more to the north-west, occupying Manitoba and the tract between Lake Winnipeg and 
Hudson Bay. The Crees have been recently put down as numbering 17,000 individuals. 
Among the central tribes may be mentioned the Abenakis, IVIohigans, Delawares, and 
Xaticokes, who originally occupied the area between the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Chesa- 
peake B.ay. The most celebrated of these are the Delawares, who, together with the Sac 
and Foxes and the Shawnees, are now gathered on reservations in New York State and 
Indian Territorv, where they collectively muster not much over 4,000. Many other tribes, 

G8 




Photo by Rodocker^ 



iKansaa. 



A WOMAN OF KIAWA. 



538 



The Living Races of Mankind 



among whom it must suffice to mention the Powhatans, formerly inhabiting the east coast, 
have long since been completely exterminated. It may be added that it was with tlie 
Delawares, or Lenni-Lenape, who were then subject to the Iroquois, that William Penn 
made his celebrated treaty. 

Passing on to the Iroquoians, we find them occupying a prominent position in history as 
the deadly foes of the Algonquians, whom, in spite of their smaller numbers, they would 
probably have succeeded in conquering, had it not been for white intervention. In the region 
of the St. Lawrence, which seems to have formed their original home, the northern Iroquoians 
were divided into two hostile divisions, of which the western was formed by the Hurons and 
Eries or Wyandots, and the eastern by the true Iroquois. These constituted the celebrated 
"confederation of the five nations," comprising the Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondagas, 
and Senecas, — a union which was strengthened by the admission in 1712 of the Tuscaroras 
from North Carolina. Either by wars or by the introduction of European diseases, many of 

these tribes have been swept away ; the Hurons 
and Eries being kept in remembrance only 
by the lakes of the same name. In Virginia 
and the Carolinas the Iroquois were represented 
by the Cherokis, forming a southern division 
of the stock ; these people have, however, now 
been transported to Indian Territory, where, 
together with the Choctaws, they are estimated 
to number something like 27,000. A miserable 
remnant of 20,000 now alone represents the rest 
of the once powerful Iroquoians, who were of 
a decidedly higher type than their Algonquian 
neighbours. 

We now come to the important group of 
the Siosans, whose territory was inferior in 
extent only to that of the Athabascans and 
Algonquians. The name Sioux, from which the 
adjective Siouan is derived, appears to have been 
originally a term of contemi)t applied by the 
forest-dwelling Algonquians to their brethren of 
the plains. " The Indians of the Siouan stock," 
writes Mr. W. J. McGee, "occupied the central 
portion of the continent. They were pre- 
eminently plains Indians, ranging from Lake 
Michigan to the Kocky Mountains, and from 
the Arkansas to the Saskatchewan, while an 
outlying body stretched to the shores of the 
Atlantic. They were typical American barbarians, headed by hunters and warriors, and 
groujxid in shifting tribes, led by the chase or driven by battle from jilace to place over their 
vast and naturally rich domain, though a crude agriculture sprang up whenever a tribe tarried 
long in one si)ot. No native stock is more interesting than the great Siouan group, and none 
save the Algonquian and Iroquoian approach it in wealth of literary and historical records; for 
since the advent of white men the Siouan Indians have played striking roles oa the stage of 
human development, and have caught the eye of every thoughtful observer." 

In former times they were represented as far south as the coast of the Gulf of Mexico by 
the Biloxi trilie. To mention all the numerous tribal subdivisions would be merely wearisome, 
and the reader must accordingly be content with the following main gioups. Best known of 
all are the Dakotas (Kriendlies), celebrated in I»ngfellow"s "Hiawatha," who before their 
isolation in Indian Territory and other districts of the States, occupied a large area in the 




Pholo bf M. nam feliti [Parit. 

A N'OBTU AMERICAM INDIAN SMOKINO 
TOMAHAWK-PIPE. 




IXUIAN SQUAW AND "PAPOOSE" (CHILD). 



540 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 



heart of the continent, and 
have more than once dared 
to try the issue of war with 
the American Government 
during the last fifty years. 
The Asiniboins (People-who- 
cook-with-stones), although 
hostile to the Dakotas, are 
included by Mr. McGee in 
the same group with the latter. 
Next come the Omahas (Uj)- 
stream-people), with whom are 
included the Osages; these 
being followed by the lowas, 
and these latter by the 
Winnebagos. Following these 
are the ISIandans, who have 
gained an evil recantation 
through Catlin's account of 
the atrocious cruelty of their 
ceremonies ; in 1 804, accord- 
ing to Lewis and Clark, this 
tribe was reduced to three 
villages in the Fort Berthold 
reservation in North Dakota. 
The Hidatsa are best known 
by their near relatives the 
Crows, now restricted to the 
Ci'ow reservation in Montana. 
The above-mentioned Biloxi, 
of the Gulf coast, have been 
transported from the original territory, and survive partly in Louisiana and partly in Indian 
Territory, where they are mixed with Choctaws. 

Very brief mention must be made of the Shoshonean (Snake) stock, which includes the 
well-known Pawnees, who in Catlin's time formed a powerful and warlike tribe numbering 
some 10,000 or 12,000, and living on the Platte Kiver about 100 miles from its junction with 
the Missouri. The Kiawa tribe dwelt more to the south-west, on the flanks of the Kockies. 
To the same stock belong the Comanche and Uta tribes, rude nomad peojtles, formerly 
inhabiting the states of Montana, Idaho, Oregon, and thence southwards to Utah, California, 
and Texas. Possibly it was Shoshonean hordes who, about the sixth century of our era, 
overthrew the comparatively civilised tribes of the Mexican Plateau. 

Lastly, we have the Muskhogean stock, whose typical representatives the Muskhogis are 
better known as Creeks ; this name being derived from the numerous inlets penetrating 
their territory on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. This stock also included the Chicasas and 
Choctaws (i)roiK'rly Chatas = Flat Heads), who formerly iTo])ulated most of the country on the 
Mississippi nearly to its confluence with the Ohio. The Apalachis form another tribal division 
of this stock. More distinct are the Seminoles (properly Isty-Semole; that is, Wild Men), who 
occupied Floridii, whence they exjielled a now extinct tribe. 

Doubtless this enumeration, brief and imperfect as it necessarily is, of the leading divisions 
and tribes of North American Indians will be found somewhat wearisome to the reader ; 
nevertheless, without this the subject could not properly be treated. We now proceed to the 
more interesting subjects of the physical appearance, clothing, ornaments, food, occupations. 




[Philadelphia. 



A.N AUED 1>D1A>; WOilAX. 



North America 



541 



dwellings, and the moral and intellectual characters of the foregoing groups of North American 
Indians ; after which allusion may be made to some of their customs and feasts. And here a 
great difficulty i^resents itself, our space being so limited and the number of tribes so great. 
Under these circumstances the only course is to restrict our observations to a few tribes, 
whose mode of life must be taken as more or less typical of that of the rest. It may be 
well to premise that previous to the Spanish discovery (the word is used advisedly) of the 
New World the aborigines were totally unacquainted with the sheep, the ox, and the horse ; 
the only large animals serviceable to man (exclusive of the numerous species killed for the 
sake of their fur) being deer of various kinds, the bison, and, in the south, the pronghorn, or, 
as it is commonly called, antelope. When once introduced, the horse aj^pears to have spread 
with remarkable rapidity ; so rapidly, indeed, that our chief acquaintance with most tribes is 
subsequent to its introduction. And since these wild people, as soon as they acquired this 
valuable animal, became essentially equestrian in their mode of life, it is obvious that Indians 
as we know them must have differed i:irofoundly in their general mode of life from their 
forefathers of the pre-equine days. 

As regards dress and dwellings, we cannot do better than quote in extenso the excellent 
account given by Lewis and Clark (1804-6) of the Teton Okandandas, a small tribe of the 
Siouan stock then inhabiting both banks of the Missouri between the Cheyenne and Teton 
affluents. After mentioning that the men shave their heads, with the exception of a tuft on 
the crown, which is allowed to grow to its full length (a custom peculiar to this and certain 
other tribes), the authors write as follows : " In full dress the men of consideration wear a hawk's 




ratm during tU ScUnti/lc S^pediliOH of 1ST2-6. I'uUMed by Iloi-ahurgh d: Son, EduiOmyh. Uovmment Copyrifht, 

A GROUP OF MIC-MAC INDIANS. 



542 



The Living Races of Manlcind 




Photo bf Ur. W. tSav.) 



[Philaitlphia. 



A DAKOTA-SIOUAN SQUAW. 



feather or calumet feather, worked witn porcupine- 
quills, and fastened to the top of the he<ad, from 
which it falls back. The face and body are 
generally painted with a mixture of giease and 
coal. Over the shoulders is a loose robe or 
mantle of buffalo [i.e. bison] skin dressed white, 
adorned with porcupine-quills loosely fixed so as 
to make a jingling noise when in motion, and 
painted with various uncouth figures, unintelli- 
gible to us, but to them emblematic of military 
exploits or some other incident. The hair of 
the robe is worn next to the skin in fair weather, 
but when it rains the hair is put outside, and 
the robe is either thrown over the arm or 
wrapped round the body, all of which it may 
co\er. Under this in the winter season they 
wear a kind of a shirt resembling ours, made of 
either skin or cloth, and covering the arms and 
body. Round the middle is fixed a girdle of 
cloth or dressed elk [wapiti] skin, about an inch 
in width, closely tied to the body ; to this is 
attached a piece of cloth or blanket or skin, 
about a foot wide, which passes between the legs, 
and is tucked under the girdle both before and 
behind. From the hip to the ankle he is 
covered by leggings of dressed antelope-skins, 
with seams at the sides 2 inches in width, ornamented by little tufts of hair, the produce of 
the scalps taken in war, which are scattered down the leg. The winter mocassins [i.e. boots] 
are of dressed buffalo-skins, the hair being worn inwards, and soled with thick elk-skin parch- 
ment ; those for summer are of deer- or elk-skin, dressed without the hair, and with soles of 
elk-skin. On great occasions, or whenever they are in full dress, the young men drag after 
them the entire skin of a polecat fixed to the heel of the mocassin. Another skin of the 
same animal, either tucked into the girdle or carried in the hand, serves as a pouch for 
their tobacco, or what the French traders call hois rouU. This is the inner bark of a 
species of red willow, which, being dried in the sun or over the fire, is rubbed between 
the hands and broken into small pieces, and used alone or mixed with tobacco. The 
pipe is generally of red earth, the stem made of ash, about 3 or 4 feet long, and highly 
decorated with feathers, hair, and porcupine-quills. ITie hair of the women is suffered to grow 
long, and is parted from the forehead across the head, at the back of which it is either 
collected into a kind of bag or hangs down over the shoulders. Their mocassins are like 
those of the men, as are also the leggings, which do not, however, reach below the knee, 
where they are met by a long loose shirt which reaches nearly to the ankles; this is fastened 
over the shoulders by a string, and has no sleeves, but a few pieces of the skin hang a short 
distance down the arms. Sometimes a girdle fastens this skin around the waist, and over 
all is thrown a robe like that worn by the men. Their lodges [wigwams, or houses] are very 
neatly constructed ; they consist of about 100 cabins, made of white buffalo-hide dressed, with a 
larger one in the centre for holding carnivals and dances. They are built round, with poles 
about 15 or 20 feet high, covered with white skins. These lodges may be taken to pieces, 
jacked up, and carried with the natives wherever they go by dogs, which bear great burdens." 

Naturally the dress described above varies to a certain extent with the tribe. Among 
(he chiefs of certain tribes the feather head-dress, which is generally made from eagles' 
feathers, attains an inordinate development, forming a kind of " tail," hanging down the back 



North America 



545 



from the head to the heels, with the line of feathers forming a crest down the back. In a 
remarkably fine specimen exhibited in the ethnological galleries of the British INIuseum, the 
front of the head-piece is ornamented with a pair of slender horns cut from those of a bison, 
while over the forehead is a tiara of the claws of the gi"izzly bear. Such head-dresses are 
known to have been used by the Mandans, Sioux, and Asiniboins. The ordinary members 
of a tribe had of course garments of a simpler type, commonly comprising a loin-cloth, 
mocassins, leggings, and robe, which were for the most part made of skins, although several 
of the tribes had acquired the art of making simple fabrics of bast, rushes, and other vegetable 
substances. As intercourse with Europeans increased, cotton and woollen fabrics were gradually 
introduced ; and now, with the extermination of the bison, blankets replace the robe of 
bison-hide. Not the least noteworthy feature connected with the Indians of the North-west is 




Photo 111 Mr. ir. Bau] [Philadtlpkia. 

A OEODP OP NOItTH AMEEICAN INDIANS. ONE OF THE CENTRAL FIGURES SHOWS THE LONG FEATHER 

HEAD-DRESS MENTIONED ON PAGE 5-12. 



their capacity for withstanding the most intense cold with a very scanty supply of clothing, 
many of them going about half naked even in mid-winter. An old Indian, when questioned as 
to the reason of this capacity for withstanding cold, replied that, as the faces of iMiropeans 
were capable of bearing exposure to all weathers, his own people could go about in a half-clad 
condition because their persons were "all face." 

For bedding robes of fur and mats of rushes were chiefly used ; some tribes e\en using 
rude bedsteads. Among the Siouans the habitations of the forest-dwelling tribes were usually 
of the above-described tent-like type, covered with bark, rush-mats, skins, or even bushes. 
On the other hand, the tribes wandering on the open prairie made earth-covered lodges for 
winter, and bison-skin tents, or tipia, for summer use. Simple as were all these types of 
dwelling, a regular routine plan was followed in their construction ; special importance being 
attached to the employment of thirteen supporting-poles. 



544 



The Living Races of Mankind 




Photo by Mr. W. Raw] [Pkiladtlpkia. 

A MAMDAN INDIAN IN EUROPEAN DBESS. 



As regards personal adornment and orna- 
ments, the practice of painting the face has 
been already mentioned ; this painting of the 
face and body being to a large extent symbolical. 
The various forms of this type of decoration 
may be best realised by inspecting the plates* 
in Catlin's well-known volumes on the North 
American Indians ; in which work may also be 
seen the different kinds of head-dress and other 
ornamental garbs assumed during the war-dances 
and other ceremonials. In addition to painting, 
tattooing was fairly common among the western 
Siouans and certain other tribes. The employ- 
ment of human scalps as articles of adornment 
was to proclaim the prowess of the wearer i» 
battle, while the claws of the grizzly bear indi- 
cated his success in the chase. Frequently 
bangles and earrings, and more rarely nose-rings, 
were worn ; while bone or shell liii-ornaments 
were in use among some of the tribes of the 
North-west Pacific coast. Special attention must 
be called to the use of the shell-beads forming 
the celebrated icampuni, which were used both 
as articles of personal adornment and as a 
medium of exchange. These were generally 
made from clam-shells, and took the form of 
elongated or cigar-shaped beads, sometimes of considerable size; they might be employed 
either of their naturiil colour or stained of various colours, and were threaded on strings and 
worn as necklaces or belts ; a wampum belt being a badge of friendship. Wampum was little 
used by the Missouri Siouans, and not at all by the tribes of the North-west. Pearls too — for 
the most part obtained from the fresh-water mussels which swarm in many of the North 
American rivers — were largely employed as articles of personal adornment; vast quantities of 
them having been discovered in the ancient mounds of the Ohio Valley. 

Originally most of these implements and weapons were made of stone, wood, bone, 
buckshorn, or horn ; but native copper seems to have been used at an early period in the 
neighbourhood of I^ke Superior, and in recent times metal has more or less completely 
rejilaced the more primitive material. ^'ery characteristic of American aborigines is the 
tobacco-pipe, which as the calumet, or pipe-of-peace, played an important part in the settlement 
of tribal disputes, and was never smoked except on occasions of ceremony. Among the Siouan. 
tribes pipes were carved from a special sacred stone (catlinite), quarried in the central districts- 
of the habitat of the family. They were frequently carved in the form of the tomahawk or axe, 
thus symbolising both i)eace and war. In modern times pipe-tomahawks, manufactured in Kurope, 
came into vogue, and could be used either as an axe or as a pipe; the blade of the former 
making one extremity of the head, nnd the bowl of the latter the other, the perfonited 
handle serving as the stem. Hut by far the most complex pipes were those formerly, and 
to some extent still, manufactured of black slate by the Haida tribe of Queen Charlotte- 
Islands, on the North-west Pacific coiist. They were cut out of a solid slab of stone, and 
carved into the images of various animals in such an elaborate and complicated manner that 
it is often difficult to discover the course of the tube, into one aperture of which was probably 
inserted a movable bowl and into the other a reed. As already indicated, a mixture of tobacco, 
bark, leaves, etc., known as kinni-kinic, was the material smoked. 

As regards implements of war and the chase, the bow and arrow were to the Nortb 






m 




545 



69 



546 



The Living Races of Mankind 



American Indians what the blow-pipe is to his distant cousin of Guianii, or the bolas to the 
native of the Argentine pampas. Among the tribes of the prairies the bow is a feeble- 
looking instrument, remarkable for its shortness, though capable of driving an arrow well 
through the massive hide of the bison at close quarters. Stone tomaliawks were the ori^'ina) 
type of axe, but even in Catlin's time these were replaced by metal weaj)ons made in 
Sheffield ; and the same is true of the war-club, which was originally of wood with a spike 
of bone or iron, but was subsequently exchanged for a brass-studded European article. 
Similarly Sheffield steel seal ping-knives, with ornamental sheaths, were substituted for the 
primitive stone-bladed implements. A lance or spear was also frequently used. Boomerangs 
from New Alexico are shown in the British Museum. Long pointed snow-shoes were used in 
winter by the Chippewyans and Siouans. 

Among the tribes dwelling on the coast or large rivers, the canoe (which, by the way, is 
another native term) was the characteristic aboriginal vessel, which, however, varied considerably 
in construction in different districts. The best known, and at the same time the most 
graceful, is the birch-bark canoe of the Chipjiewyans and other northern tribes. But among 
many of the Siouans, as well as the Sac and Foxes among the Algonquians, the canoe was 
dug out from a log, although so thinned down as to be very light. Again, among the Siouans 
the Dakota squaws (women) made broad coracles of bison-hide, in which they transported 
themselves, their families, and their goods. These vessels were, however, despised by the men, 
who preferred to make their journeys by land. 

Of the picture-writing practised by the North American Indians, limits of s[)ace allow 
merely tlie bare mention, but it was once largely used. In addition to this there was a 
"sign-language," by means of which information was conveyed through pantomimic gesture; 
some of the Siouans displaying extraordinary iiroficiency in this mode of communication. Mats 
and baskets of remarkably neat maimfacture were made by the women of all the tribes, the 
Vancouver Islanders excelling in this respect ; while embroidery with quills and beads on 

buckskin or bark was also a fan)i]iar art, as 
was the making of wooden bowls. On 
journeys water was, however, generally carried 
in bags made from the stomachs of deer 
and other animals. 

Although the Indians of tiie country 
eastwards of the Mississippi grew maize, 
beans, pumpkins, melons, gourds, tobacco, 
and sunflowers, agriculture was not practised 
at all by the majority of the tribes, who 
obtained such vegetable food as tiiey re(iuired 
from wild plants and trees, and devoted their 
energies to the pursuits of hunting and fish- 
ing. Previous to the introduction of the 
horse the dog was the sole domestic animal 
possessed by the aborigines of the districts 
under consideration; in addition to being 
used as a beast of burden and draught, dogs 
were also eaten as food, although by the 
time of Lewis and Clark, to whom it was 
offered, such meat aj)])ears to have been used 
only on special occasions of ceremony. But 
the great food-supjily of numy tribes, espe- 
cially tiiose of the Siouan stock, was the 
bison, some depending entirely uiwn this 
animal alike for food, clot lung, and the other 




riiolobjf Wm. Itiiu} [r/ulitdrlphia. 

GUA.NAJUATO WATEB-CARBIEB8, MKXICO. 



North America 



547 



necessaries of life. In the census of 1880 the 
number of Indians depending upon the bison in 
the territories under the United States Govern- 
ment was given as 74,758, of which 30,561 were 
Sioux. But this enumeration took no account 
of many thousands of Indians settled in the 
Indian Territory and other districts of the south- 
west, who drew a large supply of meat and robes 
from the chase of the buffalo, notwithstanding 
the fact that they luad been induced by Govern- 
ment to take extensively to agriculture. Within 
the territories of the Dominion Government 
there were likewise hosts of natives depending 
upon that animal; and in the winter of 1886-87 
many of these suffered severe pri\ation, owing to 
the unexpected cutting off of their sui^plies by 
the bison's extermination. 

For more than half a century the chase of 
the bison by the Indians of the prairies was con- 
ducted on horseback ; the slaughter of the former 
animal being accomjjlished at first by bows and 
arrows, but in later years with firearms. In 1766 
Carver describes some of the Indians hunting- the 
bison, but makes no mention of the employment 
of horses, although these were already in the 
possession of some of the tribes. Lewis and 
dark refer to the Teton Sioux as being well- 
known horse-stealers in 1804, and it was about 
this date that some of the Algonquians acquired 
this animal, which was in common use among 
the Siouans in 1832. It is noteworthy that the 
Dakota name for the horse is the equivalent of dog, with an affix indicating size, sacredness, 
or mystery. 

While tlie men were in the field hunting or fighting, the squaws remained at home to 
do the work of the camp, such as cooking, dressing hides, making clothes and baskets, 
preparing dried meat (pemmican), or building coracles. Among those tribes who cultivated 
maize and vegetables, this work also fell to the women's share. 

To the moral and intellectual character of the North American Indians space .admits of 
only the briefest reference. A reserved and moody temperament is highly characteristic of 
the tyi)iciil North American Indian, who on all occasions endeavours to preserve an impassive 
external demeanour, which is often maintained even while undergoing intense bodily agony. 
It is considered, however, that this outward show of dignity is in most cases due rather to 
ostentation and vanity than to innate pride. It must not, however, be supposed that Indi.ans 
■never laugh ; when among their own family, they do so heartily. Cruelty of disposition to 
their enemies is also a distinctive trait, although this was much more noted among the tribes 
to the east of the Mississij)pi than in those beyond. Towards one another, and especially 
towards the women and children, a kindly and affectionate disposition was displayed by the 
members of a tribe, although never in a demonstrative manner. Intellectually the North 
American Indian may be ranked below his Mongol cousin ; the development of his intellect 
seeming to become arrested after childhood. They appreciate music, the usual instruments 
being the rattle, flute, and drum ; the latter among the Siouans being a skin bottle or bag 
of water. It ajjpears that the North American Indians invented a flageolet of hard wood or 




£y permution of the Field VviwnOian Aluacum, Chicago. 
A HOPI BRIDE. 



548 



The Living Races of Mankind 



cane before they had any knowledge of the European instrument. Good specimens from the 
Cocopa, Sioux, Creek, Aj)ache, and other tribes are found in the U.S. National Museum. 
Si)orts, such as racing and dancing, were freely entered into, while games of chance were also 
appreciated, plum-stones serving as dice among some of the prairie tribes. Apache playing- 
cards made of skin are exhibited in the British Museum. The cruel rites by which the youths 
of many tribes were admitted to the rank of warriors need only bare mention. 

The tribal system was maintained in great perfection; each tribe being governed by a 
paramount chief, under wliom were minor chieftains. A very complex social system was also 
developed, into the details of which it is imi)ossible to enter here. It may be ob.«!erved, 
however, that, in the opinion of American anthropologists, the clan system — that is to say, the 
calculation of descent from the mother's side — was just being merged in the gens, or system 
of Internal descent, about the time that the natives came under European influence. " Every 
clan in a tribe," writes Mr. J. W. Powell, " receives a special name, which has come to be 
known as its totem. Thus in a tribe there may be a buffalo clan, a cloud clan, a wind clan, 
an eagle clan, and a parrot clan, with others. Sometimes the elan name is the common name 
for all persons in the clan, but more often there is a group of names signifying some real or 




i'ftoUt Oy tt'Ufnd Mmtry'] 



UVATUSO WOMEN A1<U CHILD, CU»TA KICA. 



[UrondiitbHry. 



North America 



549 




Photo by Wm. Jiauj 



IPiiUadelphia. 



A CARIB WOMAN OF DUTCH GDIANA, 
WITH LEO-BANDS. 



mythological characteristic of the animal or object 

taken as the totem. For example, in the butialo 

clan there may be a name signifying ' sitting 

bull,' another ' standing bull,' still another ' mad 

buffalo ' ; and names taken from the mythology 

of the buffalo may be used. The clan name, 

or totem, is used to distinguish the members of 

one clan from the members of another. It is 

never used in the first and second persons, but 

always in the third person. In direct address the 

kinship name expressing relative age must always 

be used. Uncles in the clan are addressed as 

fathers, cousins in the clan as brothers and sisters." 
The so-called taboo and sucli-like prohibitions 

lire used chiefly in connection with marriage ; 

marriage among members of the same clan or 

gens being prohibited. Very curious is the prohi- 
bition of communication between children-in-law 
and parents-in-law. The names of the wife's 

parents, for instance, are never uttered by the 

husband ; while the husband and the father-in-law 
alwa\'s avoid entering the same lodge, so far as 
possible, and never even look on each other if 
they can help it. Similarly the wife never addresses 
her father-in-law. The adoption of these customs 
in European society might be conducive to family 
peace and quietness ! 

A plurality of wives is clearly of advantage to a good hunter, since, if he possess but one 
squaw, her whole time must be devoted to household work, so that she is unable to dress 
furs and such-like, whereby her husband cannot accumulate property. Such may be one 
reason which has conduced to the general existence of polygamy among North American 
tribes ; another, perhaps, being the superabundance of women, owing to the frequency of inter- 
tribal wars. Marriage is almost universally arranged by the purchase of the bride, with or 
without her own consent, from the father. In the case of an unwilling bride marriage by 
capture may have to be resorted to. Young people may, however, form mutual attachments 
which are stronger than tribal law ; in such cases their only course is to abscond and live 
together in solitude as man and wife. If they maintain themselves there till the birth of a 
cliild, the marriage becomes ipso facto legalised ; and it is in this way alone that a " love 
match " can be effected. 

As regards the dead, corpses among the Mandans were exjjosed on scaffolds, where they 
were left till the bones were clean and dry ; these latter being collected and buried, while 
the skulls were arranged in large circles on the open prairie, each placed on a Ininch of wild 
sage. During the exposure of the bodies the scaffolds were frequently visited by the weejiing 
relatives. The dead, too, were supplied with food ; while in the case of a murdered man the 
corpse was often provided with a rope with which to bind his murderer in the next world. In 
curious contrast to this attention to tlie dead was the practice of exposing the aged and feeble 
(even when they were chiefs) to death by starvation, which formerly prevailed among the 
.Missouri Siouans. 

Another curious jiractice prevalent in Catlin's time on the lower parts of tlie Columbia, 
and much earlier among the Choctaws and Chicasas, was that of flattening the heads of infants. 
The unfortunate children were laid in a narrow wooden cradl<', at the upper end of which 
was a lid working on a hinge, this being pressed down upon the forehead and there fixed. 



550 



The Living Races of Manl<ind 





\ 



photo by Dr. Blirmrtich] 



(Berlin. 



With regard to the prevalence of witch- 
craft, all that space allows us to say is that 
there was a body of men, and sometimes 
women also, who were known as medicine- 
men, shamans, or priests, whose province it 
was to control all religious ceremonies and 
to act as diviners. Under their control lay 
all ceremonies connected with war, hunting, 
fishing, and gathering the fruits of the earth ; 
while it w.as likewise a part of their duty to 
regulate the climate and to control the good 
and evil destinies of the people under their 
charge. The chief shamans are men ; but 
all the people are bonded together under 
shamanistic societies. 

Unfortunately, space allows of only the 
most cursory allusion to the so-called "ghost- 
dance religion," which sjjread over the Western 
Unit«d States between 1889 and 1892, and 
was closely connected w^ith the great Siouan 
rebelli(m of that time. In the devotees of 
this cult the normal mental processes were 
suspended and the ordinary bodily functions 
dominated for hours or days. Indians usually 
docile and contented suddenly became morose 
and bloodthirsty, while peaceful tribes on an 
instant broke into rebellion against the para- 
mount power. The peculiar mode of thought 
characteristic of Indians generally, their habitual appeal to the unknown for the exi)]aiiation 
of simple facts, together with their habit of peopling their natural surroundings with ghostly 
imaginations, doubtless, as ISIr. J. Mooney well remarks, rendered them jieculiarly susceptible 
to the advance of the new cult. In the curious and numerous ceremonies connected with 
the ghost-dance hypnotism played no inconsiderable part. Between thirty and thirty-five 
different tribes, numbering about ()5,000 individuals, ai)pear to have come under the influence 
of this strange cult, which died out as suddenly as it ai)peared. 

Turning to the religious belief of the tribes under consideration, it will be a shock to 
many of our readers to learn that the belief in an all-powerful " Great Spirit " is an utter 
fallacy, due to a misapprehension on the part of the early students of Indian mythology. 
Among the Siouan tribes the creation and control of the world and its inhabitants were 
a.scribed to wakanda, just as among the Algonquians it was attributed to manito — the mighty. 
"Yet," writes Mr. McGee, "inrpiiry shows that wakanda assumes various forms, and is nit her a 
quantity than a definite entity. Thus, among many of the tribes, the sun is wakfinda — not the 
wakanda or a wakanda, but simply wakanda ; and among the same tribes the moon is wakanda. 
and so is thunder, lightning, the stars, the winds, the cedar, and various other things ; even a 
man, especially a shaman, might be wakanda or a wakanda. In iiddition, the term was api)lied 
to mythic monsters of the earth, air, and waters ; according to some of the sages the ground 
or earth, the mythic under-world, the ideal upper-world, darkness, etc., were wakanda or 
wakandas. So, too, the fetishes and the ceremonial objects and decorations were wakanda among 
different tribes. Among some of the groups various animals and other trees besides the 
siK'cially wakanda cedar were regarded as wakandas ; as already noted, the horse among the 
jtniirie triljes was the wakanda dog. In like manner many natuml objects and places of .striking 
character were considered wakanda. Thus the term was applied to all sorts of entities and 



A CABIB OU ACKAWOI WOMAN (PKOFILE), WITH 
SPIKES IN LOWEB LIP AND EARS. 



North America 



551 



ideas, and was used indiscriminately as substantive and adjective, and with slight modification 
as verb and adverb. jMaiiifestly a term so protean is not suscej/tible of translation into the 
more highly differentiated languages of civilisation. Manifestly, too. the ide^a expressed by the 
term is indefinite, and cannot justly be rendered into spint, much less into Great Spirit." 
Thus ends a myth crystallised into the English language by the poem "Hiawatha"! 

The so-called Pueblo ( = Village) Indians of the flat table-lands {mesas) of Arizona and New 
Mexico differ so remarkably in their culture, habitations, and general mode of life from all the 
tribes hitherto considered that they must be noticed separately. It is not that they form a 
single linguistic or ethnical stock-grouj), like those above mentioned, because the Hopi, who 
inhabit seven villages in North-eastern Arizona (Tusaya), are undoubtedly a branch of the 
great nomad Shoshonean stock of the prairies, who have taken to a settled life. The reason 
for the association of all the Pueblo tribes is to be found rather in the general similarity of 
their customs, ceremonies, culture, traditions, and dwellings; in all of which respects they 
stand on a much higher platform than do their northern and eastern neighbours. In these 
respects, indeed, they appear to constitute in some degree a connecting-link between the latter 
and the still more cultured tribes of Mexico and Peru. It has further been sucrsested that 
a more or less intimate connection exists between the Pueblo Indians and the Algonquian 
mound-builders of the Ohio Valley. But this is not accepted by other writers, who regard 
the mounds, the Pueblo structures, and the Maya-Aztec monuments as of independent 
local origin. 

Be this as it may, it is evident that the so-called cliff"-dwellers of the Canyon de Chelly, 
in Arizona, form only one development of Pueblo culture. In addition to the Tusayan Hopi, 
already mentioned, who are commonly designated (by a vile term of abuse) Moki by their 
neighbours, the Pueblo Indians are divided 
into three groups, severally known as the 
Tanoan, Keresan, and Zunian. Each of these 
speaks a different stock-language ; and the 
whole of them number about 10,300, and 
occupy about thirty distinct villages, or 
pueblos. With the exception of the Zuni, 
who inhabit a single pueblo in New Mexico, 
each of these stocks is subdivided into 
numerous tribes. And although as a matter 
of convenience all the Pueblo Indians have 
been brigaded in a single group in the 
table given on page 534, it will be numifest 
that the subdivisions of these groups really 
correspond to the stock-groups of the less 
cultured tribes. 

All the Pueblo tribes dwell, or rather 
dwelt, as regards some of them, in jjermanent 
buildings, some of which were remarkable 
for their size and complexity. A writer 
in Scfihner's Magazine, when describing 
the clifF-dwellings of the Canyon de Chelly, 
says that the " mysterious mound-builders 
fade into comparative insignificance before 
the grander and more ancient cliflf- 
dwelier.s, whose castles lift their towers 
amid the sands of Arizona and crown the 
terraced slopes of the Rio Mancos and the 
Hovenweaj). ... In size and graiidctn- of 




Photo by Dr. Ehrenreicli] 



[Berlin. 



A OABIB Olt ACKAWOI WO.MAN (FULL-FACE), WITH 
.SPIKES IN LOWKIl LIP AND EARS. 



552 



The Living Races of Mankind 



conception they equal any of 
the present buildings of the 
United States, if we except 
the Capitol at Washington, 
and may without discredit 
be compared to the Pantheon 
and the Coliseum of the Old 
World." 

Another writer, Mr. 
Mindeleff, says that "the 
whole Pueblo country is 
covered with the remains in 
single rooms and groups of 
rooms, put up to meet some 
immediate necessity. Some 
of these may have been built 
centuries ago, some are only 
a few years or a few months 
old, yet the structures do not 
differ from one another ; nor, 
on the otlier hand, does the 
similarity imply that the 
builder of the oldest example 
knew less or more than his 
descendants of to-day— both 
utilised the material at hand, 
and each accomplished his 
purpose in the easiest way." 
Some of these fortresses, or 
casas grandee, as they are 
locally called, were capacious 
enouffh to contain the whole 
tribe who built them. But 
the object of this book is to describe living men and their customs rather than the buildings 
of past ages. 

The Pueblo Indians themselves, as shown by three life-like busts in the Natural History 
Museum, are decidedly good-looking people, some being lighter-coloured th.in others, and 
grey hair not uncommon among the elders. Like American Indians in general, they never 
become bald. In both sexes the hair is confined by a fillet of red cloth across the forehead, 
jiassing round the head; while the body is envelojjed in a blanket gracefully draped over 
the shoulders. 




B^ pertHutuM ^ Uu Pritjutor qJ Anlkropologyt Natural ilUiory Altuium, rturU. 
A CARIB MAN. 



Thb two photographs of Peruvian Indians were kindly supplied by Mr. J. 0. Reld, of Lima. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 




CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA (INCLUDING MEXICO). 

Previous to the extermination, or reduction in numbers, of many tribes by the Spanish 
conquest, there appears to have been a continuous transition from the natives of North America 
to those inhabiting the southern half of the New World ; some of the tribes of Central 
America being nearly related to certain North American stocks, while others came closer to 
those of South America. And even at the present day, when many of the links have been 
snapped, the South American natives are, in regard to physical characters, very similar to their 
northern kinsmen ; so much 
so, indeed, that the distinc- 
tions between them are due 
more to differences in customs, 
culture, a"il language (which 
latter is, however, essentially 
of the same general type) than 
to variation in physical char- 
acters. The general physical 
similarity of all the Central 
and South American tribes is 
the more remarkable when 
the great physical differences 
presented by different parts of 
the immense country they 
inhabit are taken into con- 
sideration. From the tropical 
forests of Brazil to the snow- 
clad peaks of the Andes, and 
from these, again, to the open 
pampas of Argentina, the wilds 
of Patagonia, and the hail- 
swept shores of Tierra del 
Fuego, the aboriginal inhabi- 
tants present a singularly 
slight degree of divergence 
from one common type. 

As we have seen in the 
last chapter, the North Ameri- 
can aborigines, with the 
marked excej)tion of the Pueblo 
Indians, present a great general 
similarity in their common 
mode of life and degree of 

culture ; none of them, in their ^j, permUtion of tUe Projeuor oj Anlhropology, Natural Ihtlory Myji/um, Farit. 

original state, having advanced a cabib woman. 

ftM 70 




554 



The Living Races of Mankind 



beyond a condition of semi-bar- 
barism. In Central and South 
America, on the other hand, a 
very different state of things 
occurs; some of the native tribes, 
Hke the Aztecs iind Incas, having 
reached a comparatively high 
grade of civilisation; while others 
were plunged in the lowest depths 
of savagery. Cannibalism, for in- 
stance, was much more prevalent 
in the south than in the northern 
half of the New World ; and seems, 
moreover, to have come more 
naturally to the people, being 
practised when other diet was 
available, whereas in the north 
it wiis generally resorted to only 
under the pressure of dire necessity. 
Inequality of cult ureal development 
may accordingly be considered as 
very characteristic of the aborigines 
of Central and South America. 
And here it may be noticed that 
it was the more cultured nations 
that fell the easiest prey to the 
Spanish conquerors; many of them 
being in such an artificial condi- 
tion of society that their organi- 
sation seemed to crumble to pieces 
of its own accord at the first 
shock of invasion. On the other 
hand, the less cultured races have 
tended to persist, either in their 
original condition or by a more or less complete blending with their contjuerors, in a manner 
which forms a gratifying contrast to the fate of the majority of the tribes of North America. 
A further cause of satisfaction is afforded by the spread of Christianity among the South 
American natives. TTiis is exemplified very strikingly in a table published about fifty years 
ago, in which the total number of Christianised natives was estimated at more than 1,500,000, 
while those remaining in original barbarism were set down at less than 100,000. 

The numljer of tribes in Central and South America being so great, little good would 
be gained by attempting to enumerate them all ; and attention will accordingly be concentrated 
on some of the more important or interesting groups, which must serve as samples of the 
whole assemblage. 




P),oto by iltrr C. Krothlcr. 

A PERDVIAM INDIAN, WITH ORNAMENTS IN THE LOBES 
OP THE EAB8. 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



Under this name may be included the states of l/ower California and Mexico, together with 
^'ucatan, British Honduras, Guatemala, Honduras, San Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and 
I'anama. The West Indies, too, may be affiliated to Central America ; but as their aboriginal 
jjopulation has been swept away, they need claim no special attention hero. 

By far the most interesting of the Central American jiopulations are those groups 



Central America 



555 



respectively known as the Nahuatlan and the Huaxtecan ; the former comprising the Aztecs 
and the Pipils, and the latter the Mayas, Quiches, and Pocomans. The Nahuatlan group may 
be regarded as characteristic of the Plateau of Mexico, or Anahuac, as it used to be called, 
whereas the Huaxtecan stock attains its main development in Yucatan and Guatemala. Curiously 
enough, however, the typical Huaxtecs are a IMexican people dwelling in the states of Vera 
Cruz and Tamaulipas, while the Nahuatlan Pipils occur as far south as Nicaragua. 

Since it is the object of the present work to describe existing rather than exterminated 
l^eojiles, our mention of the Nahuatlan Aztecs must be very brief. As the result of modern 
researches, it appears that the Nahuatlan stock was an offshoot of the southern Shoshoneans 
of North America, and that the Aztecs established their famous empire, whose capital was 
Tenochtitlan (the modern city of Mexico), about the fifteenth century by the overthrow of the 
earlier Chichimecs, who also belonged to the same stock. The fall of the Aztec Plmpire before 
the Spanish conquerors in 1520 is a well-known historical fact ; and it only remains to mention 
that during its brief existence this empire was infamous for the hideous cruelty of its so-called 
religious rites, in the celebration of which thousands of victims are said to have been 
immolated at a time. Their religion, such as it was, appears to have been borrowed from the 
Mayas ; but, in accordance with the fierce Aztec nature, the gentle Maya deities became 
transformed into the incarnation of demons. 

Passing by still earlier tribes with the bare mention that the splendid ruins of Mitla attest 
the high degree of civilisation of the pre-Aztec Zapotecs, another Mexican tribe, reference must 
be made to the Seri Indians of the Sonora district of North-western Mexico, on account of their 
being more savage than other tribes to the northward of the Isthmus of Panama. Mr. McGee, 
who visited them in 1895, states that "most of their food is eaten raw, they have no domestic 
animals save dogs, they are totally without agriculture, and their industrial arts are few and 
rude." A greater contrast to the Aztec and Maya civilisations could scarcely be imagined ! 

Although the Aztecs and their language have largely disappeared from the modern 
representative of their ancient capital, the city of Merida, in Northern Yucatan, which stands 




NATIVES OF I'KKU. 



556 



The Living Races of Mankind 



on the site of Ti-hoo, the ancient Mava capital, is at the present day to a great extent 
Mayan still. Even the old style of building is retained, the houses in the suburbs being built 
at an elevation of a yard or so above the level of the roadway, while the different streets are 
indicated by images of various birds representing the old Mayan minor deities. The Mayas 
are a people of delicate and almost feminine physiognomy, and of equally gentle disposition. 
Nevertheless, they held out stubboridy against the Spanish conquerors ; and in a narrow strip 
of country between Yucatan and British Honduras a remnant of the Mayas has survived all 
the wars which have convulsed this part of the American Continent. There seems, indeed, a 
tendency for the Spanish settlers and half-breeds to become absorbed in the native stock ; 
while, with the excei)tion of the Campeachy district, the old Maya-Quiche dialects are tending 
to regain the ascendency in Yucatan and Guatemala. Even nominal Christians retain many 
of the old Maya rites ; the descendants of the national astrologers still practising the ancient 

divinations, forecasting the future, and predicting good or 
bad harvests by the stars. The old tutelary deities have, 
however, assumed the names of Christian saints, although 
their attributes have become more or less modified ; and the 
doctrine of the transmigration of souls still holds its position, 
as is exemplified by the jjractice of chalking the road from 
the house to the grave of a recently deceased i)erson, in 
order that the soul may be able to find its way at the 
proper time to enter the body of a new-born child. 

liut the chief interest connected with the Maya-Quich6 
civilisation centres on the system of reckoning time ; and 
in this connection we cannot do better than cjuote from the 
report of the Director of the U.S. Bureau of Ethnology : 
" Most of the American tribes had advanced to the stage 
of graphic symbolism, and were thus on the threshold of 
writing when the New World was discovered by Columbus. 
Among many of the tribes the art was rudimentary, and 
liiiiited to crude pictography. The pictogra2)hs were painted 
or sculptured on cliff-faces, boulders, the walls of caverns, and 
other rock-surfaces, and even more frequentl}', although less 
permanently, on trees, as well as on skins, bark, and various 
artificial objects. . . . Among certain Mexican tribes, also, 
autographic records were in use, and some of them were 
much better difl'erentiated than any within the present area 
of the United States. The records were not only painted 
and sculptured on stone and moulded in stucco, but were 
inscribed in books or codices of native parchment and paper. 
Among the plains Indians the calendars are simple, consisting 
commonly of a record of winters and of notable events occurring either during the winter or 
during some other season of the year; while the shorter divisions are reckoned by 'nights' 
(days), 'dead moons' (lunations), and seasons of leafing, flowering, or fruiting of plants, migrating 
of animals, etc. ; so that there is no definite system of reducing days to lunations or lunations 
to years. Among the Pueblo Indians calendric records are inconspicuous or absent, though 
there is a much more definite calendric system, which is fixed and perpetuated by religious 
ceremonies; while among some of the Mexican tribes there are el.aborate calendric systems 
combined with complete calendric records. The i)erfection of the calendar among the 
Maya and Nahua Indians is indicated by the fact that not only were 3C5 days reckoned 
as a year, but the bis>extile (leap year) was recognised — indeed, some astronomers have 
regarded the calendar of ancient Mexico as even more accurate than the Julian calendar of 
early Christendom." 




Photo by M. Pierre rail] [Parit. 

A OAOCHO or LA PLATA. 



!«>:->>» I District where Tupi prevail 
^^^^ " •• Ges 




20 



JIAl' SIIOWI.NG UISTlUIiUTION OF SOUIU AMKUICAN INDIANS. 

557 



558 



The Living Races of Mankind 




I'LuLu bji JJ. Sxn Martin. 



A OBOUP OP SANAPANA MEN OF THE PARAGUAYAN CHACO. 



With this quotation we must reluctantly leave Mexico and Central America proper to 
on to — 

THE GUIANAS AND VENEZUELA. 

The extermination of nearly all the aborigines of the West Indies has made a break in what 
was once a complete connection between the natives of the northern and southern halves 
of the New World. The Cebunys of Cuba, the West Indian Caribs, and the Lucayans of 
the Bahamas were some of the links between the more northern tribes and the C-iiribs 
of the Guianas and the Arawakan group of Venezuela and the neighbouring districts. The 
Indians of British Guiana and adjacent territories having been treated in great detail by Mr. im 
Thum, somewhat more space may be devoted to them than to their neighbours. Venezuela 
and the Guianas, it is scarcely necessary to say, occupy the north-eastern extremity of South 
America, and are forest-clad or savanna tropical countries. The aborigines found in tliese 
territories are divisible into three great groups, or branches, respectively named Warrauan, 
Arawakan, and Caribean. ITie first of these comprises only the Warrau tribe ; the second 
embraces the Arawak, Atorai, Maypure, Wapiana, Vaura, Mahinacu, and Layana tribes; while 
the third includes the true Caribs, Bjikairis, Naliuquas, Pamellas, Galil)is, Calinas, Arecunas, 
Macusis, and Ackawois. Although distinguished by language, the members of these groups 
and tribes present but slight physical differences from one another, so that it requires a long 
residence among them before sucli points of distinction become recognisjible. The Warraus 
are the shortest and weakest of all, their bodies being long in proportion to their limbs, their 
expression of countenance gloomy and morose, and their colour apparently very dark ; the 
latter feature is, however, chiefly due to the amount of dirt with which the skin is covered. 
The memljers of the Arawakan group are t^iUer and better-projwrtioned, the Aniwaks themselvea 
being only slightly sujK^rior in height to the Warraus, whereas the VVapianas are unusually 
tall for Indians, their bodies being slightly and well built, and their features regular and 



The Guianas and Venezuela 



559 



fine. In all Arawakans the skin is much lighter than in the Warraus, partly owing to 
its natural colour, and partly to the cleanly habits of these people. The tribes of the 
Caribean group are all characterised by the darkness of the skin, the degree varying in the 
different tribes. The true Caribs are rather taller than the Arawaks, with well-knit frames, 
and coarser, although distinctly powerful features. The Ackawois are shorter and slighter in 
body; their general ajipearance, perhaps owing to their habits, being decidedly wretched. The 
Maeusis are still darker than the true Caribs and Ackawois, but taller, slighter, and better- 
made ; while their features are more regular, and their expression, although timid, is bright 
and intelligent. Darkest of all are the Arecunas, who in build and feature are very like the 
Maeusis, although they are more powerful and fierce. 

The Warraus, who are timid people of filthy habits, originally dwelt in houses built 
on poles in swamps and on the seashore, and are the great canoe-builders for their inland 
neighbours. The Arawaks are the cleanest and most civilised of all, many of them sjjeaking 
English, wearing European clothes, and being Christians. Although their original habits have 
been much modified, they still dwell in houses of the primitive type, and still maintain their 
hereditary hatred of the Caribs. The Wapianas, Atorais, and kindred tribes are the great 
middlemen or traders of the districts they inhabit, and are likewise the canoe-builders for the 
coast tribes. Unlike their neighbours, they eat the cassava, which is the staple vegetable 
food of all the tribes, in the form of rough meal (farine), rather than of bread or cakes; 
in this respect they resemble the Brazilian natives. Although all the members of the Caribean 
stock are fiercer and more warlike than their neighbours, these attributes attain the maximum 




/■l,ol<j bi/ M. .Su/t JJii.U, 



A GBOUP OP 8ANAPA.VA WO.MKN OF THE PARAGUAYAN CIIACO. 



56o 



The Living Races of Mankind 




Photo by A.de S. Ctyma. 



A PARTY OF BOTOCUDOS. 



development among the 
true Caribs. The Cariba 
are further peculiar in 
that they are often found 
scattered irregularly 
among the other tribes ; 
they are the great pottery- 
makers of the country, 
although this manufac- 
ture is shared to a small 
degree by the Ackawois, 
who, indeed, supply all 
their own needs, and are 
thus independent of the 
other tribes. Although 
very similar in customs 
and language, the gentle 
Alacusis stand in awe of 
their bolder neighbours 
the Ai'ecunas. 

As regards physical 
features, Guiana may be 
divided into the coast 
region, next the forest region, and farther inland still the savanna districts, which pass south- 
wards into the great savannas of Briizil. The northern coast region, in the neighbourhood 
of the sources of the Orinoco and nearest the West Indies, is inhabited by the W'arraus, 
next to whom come the Arawaks. The forest region is almost exclusively pojjulated by the 
Ackawois, although a few single settlements of true Caribs (who are more abundant elsewhere) 
are found here also. In the siivanna region the Arecunas, Macusis, and Wapianas (with whom 
dwell the Atorais) are found to the north in the neighbourhood of the Orinoco, while farther 
south their i)lace is taken by other tribes. With the exception of the Atorais and a few 
others who live among their neighbours, each tribe inhabits a distinct although ill-defined 
tract of territory. Naturally, the "forest" and "savanna Indians" difl'er more or less markedly 
from one another in their mode of life. It is further important to notice that, .where.as the 
Warnuian and Arawakan stocks appear to be truly indigenous to the country, the Qiribeans 
are to be regarded in the light of immigmnts ; their original home, according to the latesit 
invest igiitions, being the highlands of Matto Grosso, in the interior of Brazil. 

A very curious ditference between the. native and immigrant stocks is that the former 
make their hammocks (which, by the way, are very characteristic of South American Indians) 
from the fibres of a jjalm, whereas the immigrants employ cotton for this purjKj-se. 

As regards physique, the Indians under consideration are characterised by their sleekness 
and their tendency to run to fat at an early age; this being due to their cassava diet. The 
features are often more Mongoloid than is the case with the tribes of North America ; the 
expression is mostly gentle, and the eyes are habitually downcast. Although capable, at a 
l»inch, of imdergoing a long spell of protmcted lalwur, the Indians of Guiana are a physiavUy 
weak race, and require to recu|)erate after unusual toil by a rest of several days in their 
hammocks. In their original condition most of them — the Ackawois, for example — are 
characterised by the practical absence of dress, the women wearing a fringed ajjron, and the 
men a strip of cloth between the legs. Even when Euroitean clothes have been adopted, 
these iu-e found irksome, and are often doffed when away from the settlements. Kotii sexes 
wear the hair long and parted in the middle ; they never become bald, and light yellow hair, 
which in these Indians represents the grey locks of Europe, is of rare occurrence. Indeed, 



The Guianas and Venezuela 



561 



they are a short-lived people, becoming aged at forty, and but rarely surviving till sixty. 
Cleanliness is a pleasing feature of the majority ; this being due to the frequent baths, which 
are always taken just after a meal. In swimming the legs are scarcely bent out, but are 
drawn straight under the body, and then shot backwards. 

Flattening the head of infants, which formerly prevailed among the Caribs, is still 
practised by a little-kno-i^Ti tribe on the Essequibo. "Among the true Caribs," wri^tes IMr. im 
Thum, "a two-inch-broad belt of cotton is knitted round each ankle and just below each 
knee of very young female children ; and this band is never throughout life removed, or if 
removed is immediately replaced. The consequence is that the muscles of the calf swell out 
to an abnormal degree between these bands, while those parts of the leg which are actually 
constricted remain hardly thicker than the bone. . . . The arms are more rarely constricted in 
the same way. Of the other Carib tribes, the INIacusi and Arecuna women have one such con- 
striction above each ankle, but not the second below the knee. . . . The true Carib and Ackawoi 
women, and more rarely those of other tribes, pierce one or more holes in their lower lips, 
through each of which they pass, point outward, a pin or sharpened piece of wood. What 
the object of this may be I do not know, as kissing is unknown among Indians ; but the 
effect is that the lips are protected by a dangerous-looking row of spikes. Similarly the men 
pierce one hole just under the middle of their lower lips, through which they pass the loop 
of a string, fastening it inside the mouth, to which is attached a bell-shaped ornament, 
hanging down over the chin; and they pierce the cartilage of the septum of their noses, 
from which they suspend a half-moon-shaped ornament. The ears, too, of men, and sometimes 
of women, are pierced, and pieces of stick or straw passed through the oiienings." 




J}y permiMion of the South American M'tisioiuiry Societi/. 

WAU INDIA.NS Ol' THE LENGUA TBIBE. 



71 



562 



The Living Races of Manl^ind 



BM.%^i% 








"iifiMifiiiiTfti 




Bj/ pei-uussiva ul fAt isuailL A'l 



LENGUAS OP THE PABAGUAYAN CUACO. 



Sandals, cut from the leaf-stalk of a palm, are occasionally worn ; and although speedily 
destroyed by use, can be quickly rej)laced. As regards ornamental dress, this is worn by some 
tribes habitually, and by others only on special occasions. Painting is frequently employed, 
and often so extensively and in such a tasteful manner as to convey the impression that the 
person so adorned is fully clothed. Tattooing is, however, rare, and chiefly confined to the 
production of small tribal marks at the comers of the mouth or on the arms. It is true that 
the bodies of most Indians are scored with straight scars, but these have been produced for 
surgical purposes. Necklaces of peccari (pig) tusks and a pair of armlets are worn by most 
of the men, who also often twist strings of coloured seeds or beads round their ankles and 
wrists. Of the nose-pieces, those of a crescent or cheese-knife shape are jieculiar to the Carib 
stock, and the circular to the Wapianas. Sjiecimens of Macusi and other feather head-dressea 
may be seen in the British Museum. Regarding these Mr. im Thum writes as follows : 
" Beautiful crowns of feathers, of two shapes, the colours varying with the tribe to which each 
Indian belongs, are worn on the head. Several strings of cotton hang from the back of these 
down to the heels, where they are finished oflf with skins of toucans, fire-birds, cocks-of-the- 
rock, and other such bright-coloured birds, or with tassels made of iridescent beetles' wings, 
which tinkle like tiny bells at each movement of the bearer. . . . Huff's made of the long 
tail-feathers of macaws are fastened on to the shoulders so as to stand out almost at right 
angles to the body. Very short mantles of woven cotton, from which hang long cotton cords, 
ornamented at frequent intervals with tufts of white down, are occasionally worn ; but the art 
of making these is said to have been lost. Collars made of white heron [egret] feathers, or 
the black featliers of the curassow bird, are sometimes worn, especially by those engaged in 
races." Such decorations are, however, mainly confined to the male sex, the women seldom 
wearing either feathers or teeth, except tusks of agoutis, although they load themselves with 
ropes of seeds and beads. Children, on the other hand, are decorated much like their elders, 
although special kinds of seeds are used for their necklaces, while in tlie case of teeth-necklaces 
these are made from the tusks of the jaguar. 

Unlike the natives of Argentina, tlie Indians of the Guianas and Venezuela travel either 
on foot or in canoes. In hunting, which forms the chief occui«ition of the men, dogs are 
employed ; these being stated to be cross-breeds between two fox-like wild species. Fish are 
caught by jwisoning the water, by shooting witli arrows, by nets, traps, or hook aiid line. Very 
beautiful are the fish-arrows, which are shot from a bow, the head frequently Incoming 



The Guianas and Venezuela 



563 



detached from the shaft, but remaining fixed to a line, at the other end of which is a float. 
A very heavy type of arrow is employed for shooting the river-tortoises, whose eggs form such 
an important item in the diet of the Indians of the Orinoco ; while yet other descriptions 
are respectively used for big game and birds. Very characteristic are the deadly arrows 
tipped with ourali poison. The points of these arrows, which are more or less jagged, 
are in the form of long, narrow strips of wood ; these are carried separately in a bamboo quiver, 
and only insei'ted in the reed shaft immediately before use. The blow-pipe, which in Guiana 
is restricted to the savanna tribes, is a very characteristic South American implement, consisting 
of a bamboo tube from 12 to 16 or more feet in length, through which is blown a small dart. 
The darts consist of splinters of wood, tipped with ourali, 5 or 6 inches in length, and are 
carried in a quiver, together with the jaw of a small fish (perai) and a basket of cotton 
or other fibre. "When game is seen," to quote once more from Mr. im Thurn, "one 
of the darts is placed between two of the sharp teeth of the perai, and twisted sharply 
round in such a way that a very small portion of the point is almost but not quite severed 
from the main part ; this is in order that the point may break off in the body of the animal, 
that the dart may again be used. A little of the fibre is then wound round the other end 
of the dart — i.e. the dart is 'feathered' — care being taken not to destroy the balance. The 
dart is then inserted in the blow-pipe, aim is taken, the dart is blown, and the bird almost 
invariably falls. The certainty with which an Indian can take aim with these hugely long 
weapons, even when sup2:)orted by only one hand, is really wonderful. The range of the 
weapon is as much as from 40 to 50 feet." The men are the hunters and fishers, and spend 
the daj's on which they are at home lying idle in their hammocks, smoking cigarettes and 
talking. All the house-work, tilling the ground, sowing and reaping the crops, grinding the 
cassava, etc., falls to the share of the women. 

As regards dwellings, the Warraus, as already mentioned, used to build houses supported 
on poles on the low and swampy coast-lands ; but, under the security afforded by good 
government, these have fallen to a great extent into disuse, although a few are still constructed. 
The Arawaks, Ackawois, and true Caribs of the forest districts, where there is shelter from cold 
winds, build houses consisting merely of a roof with suitable supports. On the other hand, 
the Macusis, Arecunas, and Wapianas of the open savannas construct substantial dwellings 
with thick walls of clay, and a thatch of palm-leaves. Space does not allow of reference to 
'the interior economy of these houses, but it may be mentioned that the inhabitants always 




JSt/ jMnnUaioit of Ihe South Aiiuricnii MUsionaiy Sockiy, 

AS K.VCAMPMEST QV LE.NOUA INDIANS. 



564 



The Living Races of Mankind 




lis t„. 



A GROUP OP LENG0A CHILDREN, PARAGtTAYAN CHACtt 



sleep with a fire so close beneath their hammocks that the flames seem to lick their bare 
bodies. 

Like all American aborigines, the Guiana Indians are prone to self-torture ; and no man 
can receive full rights of tribalship till he has undergone some hard ordeal. These tortures are 
also submitted to in order to ensure success in hunting and fishing ; and are inflicted not 
only on the hunters themselves, but likewise on their dogs. A brush of fibres attached to a 
long string is, for example, pulled through the nose into the mouth ; irritating hairy cater- 
pillars are rubbed into the limbs till a painful rash ensues ; or the victim may be tormented 
in various ways by the bites of venomous ants, or with red pepper. 

The clan system is, or was, strictly followed among the Arawak tribes, the descent being 
exclusively in the female line, and no intermarriage with relations on the maternal side 
permitted. Accordingly, a person may take a husband or a wife from his or her father's 
family, or from any other family save that of the mother. And when an Arawak takes a 
wife, he forthwith domiciles himself with his father-in-law, for whom he works ; thus 
absolutely identifying himself with the family of his bride. There are, however, still some 
traces in Guiana of marriage by capture. Boys and girls are betrothed at an early age, 
but the nature of the bargain for a wife is still obscure; and, in general, marriage ceremonies 
are dispen.sed with. That curious custom of tlie couvade, according to which it is the husband 
who, on the birth of a child, takes to his hammock, where he is carefully tended by the 
relatives and fed on a special diet, is vmiversally prevalent. Although Arawaks when old and 
useless are allowed to take to their hammocks, where they are somewhat gprudgingly served 
with food, tliey receive little else in the way of attention. Wlien death comes, the relatives 
usually exhibit slight evidences of grief, but will sometimes indulge in loud lamentation and 
cut their hair. Usually the body of the deceased is wrapped in his own hammock, and 
interred in a palm-leaf-lined grave dug in the middle of the house. Properly the corpse 
should be placed in a sitting ixjsture, or, among the Ackawois, in the standing jx)sition ; but 







>• .v** 




J'Aofoj Uy M. J'lerre fetitl 



ARAUCANIAKK AND THEIR CHILDREN. 

565 



{Parit, 



566 



The Living Races of Mankind 



nowadays it is seldom that the grave is dug of sufficient depth to admit of this. Certain 
possessions are also buried with the body. On the completion of the interment a fire is 
lighted over the grave, the praises of the deceased are chanted, with dancing, singing, and 
drinking ; and the 'house is then finally deserted. Dancing and feasting are, moreover, indulged 
in on many occasions, when a large quantity of the national beverage (pahvari) is always 
consumed. Invitations to these paiwari feasts are sent to the neighbouring tribes ; and the 
performance may take the shape of either wrestling or dancing, the dancers carrying specially 
decorated sticks. Formerly the whip-dance, in which each performer was armed with a 
macquarie, or fibre whip, with which at stated intervals he slashed his partner's legs, was 
a favourite diversion. 




BRAZIL, PARAGUAY, ETC. 

^Many of the tribes mentioned in the preceding 
section extend southwards into Brazil, the interior 
of which, as already mentioned, appears to have 
been the birthplace of the Caribs. It remains, 
however, to state that the Arawakan stock has a 
still greater southern extension, reaching to the 
head-waters of the Paraguay River in lat. 20° S. 
A totally distinct Brazilian stock is the Gesan, 
in which are included the Camacans and the 
notorious Botocudos; the latter resembling the Eskimo 
in the long and narrow shape of their heads. 

In the Goyaz district, lying due west of Bahia, 
are a large number of Gesan tribes, sometimes 
collectively known as Tapuyans. They comprise 
the Kayapos or Suyas, of the district between the 
Araguaya and Xingu rivers, and likewise the Akuas 
or Cherentes, of the Upper Tocantins. The Boto- 
cudos, on the other hand, inhabit the Serra dos 
Ai mores, on the coast, whence they are frequently 
known by the name of Aimores. Although of late 
years considerably improved by missionary exertions, 
they were formerly among the lowest of the American 
peoples — so low, indeed, that they had not even 
reached the level of a stone age, all their imple- 
ments, weapons, and household utensils being nuide 
of wood or bone. They wandered naked through the 
primeval forests of their native home, without dwellings of any kind, and sleeping on the 
bare ground or among the ashes of their last cami>fires. In addition to the flesh of 
such hu-ger animals as they could manage to kill, their food consisted of grubs, frogs, 
snakes, honey, roots, berries, and fruits; these being frequently consumed raw, but sometimes 
c(X)ked in large bamlxx) vessels. Feuds were consUint between the different tribes, and the 
bodies of the slain were always devoured by the victors, while their heads were set on stakes 
and employed as targets in archery practice. Among their most prized ornaments were collars 
and necklaces made of the teeth of those whom they had devoured in their cannibal feasts. 
Even among such degraded creatures as tiiese the sacredness of the marriage tie — for the period 
the union lasted— was, however, strictly observed. In other respects the women had but a jwor 
time, Ix'ing frequently belalmured with heavy clubs or slashed witli bamboo knives by their 
lords and ma.sters. As to their religion, if such it could be called, the sun was regarded as 
the source of all things good, and the moon of all evil. Demons, which could be frightened 



Photo lif it. Piem Petit) 



[Paril. 



AN ARAUCANIAN MAN. 



Brazil, Paraguay, etc. 



567 



away by shooting arrows, were supposed to be the cause of storms and eclipses; and fires were 
kept burning over newly made graves to scare evil spirits. 

Another Brazilian stock-group is that of the Guaranian, or Tupi-Guaranian, as it is often 
termed ; the Tupi tribes occupying a very large portion of Eastern Brazil, while Guarani peoples 
are found about the head-waters of the main stream of the Amazons and its tributary the 
Madeira, as well as in Paraguay and Uruguay. Both languages are near akin ; but as the Tupi 
tongue was chosen by the missionaries as the lingua franca for a large tract of countries, 
it has been adopted by some tribes not properly belonging to the section. Among the Tupi 
tribes one of the most remarkable was that of the Omaguas, or Flat-heads, who were found 
on the left bank of the Amazons as far as Peru and Ecuador. Originally they extended all 
over the country between the Putumayo and Tunguragua or Upper iSIarafion rivers ; and they 
are still well represented on the head-waters of the Japura, in P'cuador and Colombia. Their 
near neighbours are the Tacunas and Tacanas, with the former of whom they were constantly 
at feud. The Tacanas occupy the country bordering the INIadre-de-Dios and Beni, head- 
tributaries of the ^ladeira in Northern Bolivia. Still farther south on the last-named river we 
enter the country of the Naquiuoueis, or 
Chiquitos (Dwarfs), as they are called by 
the Spaniards ; the latter name being de- 
rived from the extremely small size of the 
entrances to their houses, which, when found 
abandoned, were supposed by the conquerors 
to be the abodes of pygmies. Like certain 
South American tribes, the Tacunas believe 
in the existence of good and evil principles, 
which are for ever striving one against the 
other for the joossession of the souls of men. 
Curiously enough, the Chiquitos are said to 
have no numerals above one ; yet they are 
an industrious people, cultivating cotton, 
indigo, and sugar, and manufacturing cojjper 
boilers for refining the latter. Farther 
south, in the Gran Chaco country, lying 
well within the Parana Watershed, the 
Chiquitos are replaced by the savage Tobas, 
between the Pilcomayo and Vermejo rivers, 
and by the ^latacos, or Alataguayos, on the 
latter. The Tobas are said to present a 
distinctly European cast of countenance, 
but are specially distinguished by their 
relatively short limbs and strongly developed 
chest. 

Of the Southern Guarani, who form the 
substratum of the Paraguayan nation, some 
still wander in a more or less aboriginal 
condition through the forests of the Parana, 
while others have adopted Christianity. Some 
years ago the Christianised Guarani inhabited 
thirty-two large towns on the banks of the 
Parana, Paraguay, and Uruguay rivers ; 
while among the uncivilised tribes were 

reckoned the ChirigUanOS, TobatingUa.1, and By pemUtlon oj llu south American MUlionar!/ Soeielf. 

Paytaguas. a witcii-doctou op araucanta. 




568 The Living Races of Mankind '■ 

1 THE NORTHKHN ANDES. 

Before taking into con- 
sideration the tribes to the 
south of the Kio de la Phita, 
a few words must be said in 
regard to those of the northern 
portion of the chain of the 
Andes, extending from 
Colombia, through Ecuador, 
Peru, and Bolivia, to Chili. 
Since, however, our knowledge 
of many of these tribes is 
now solely supplied by his- 
tory, the mention of them 
will be very short. Through- 
out this area the natives at 
tlie time of the Spanish con- 
quest had attained a high 
degree of civilisation, which 
was in some respects on a 
le\el with that of Central 
America at the same period, 
nit hough in others markedly 
iiferior. Hence the whole 
area has been not inaptly 
termed by Professor Keane 
" the cultural zone." On the 
plateau of Bogota, in Colombia, 
the cultured peoples were 
rejiresented by the Muyscas, 
or Chibchas, who had de- 
veloped a well-organised 
system of government and 
other institutions. The cul- 
tured area was, however, but 
limited, as in the immediate 
neighbourhood were other members of the Muyscan stock, commonly known as Panches, still 
living in primitive barbarism, being without government, we.'uing no clothes, and practising, it is 
said, cr.nnibalism. The IMuyscan Empire — in which the high priest occupied a very pi'oininent 
jwsition — was a highly artificial and unstable state of society, which crumbled to pieces at the 
first shock of invasion. 

Some distance to the south of the Muyscan Empire was the still more important Quechuan, 
or Inca, dominion, which comprised nearly the whole of the Andes proper, extending from the 
equator in the neighbourhood of Quito to the Rio Maule in Central Chili. The total 
length of the territory was about 2,500 miles, and its average breadth some 400 miles ; the 
area thus being about 1,000,000 square miles, with a population of 10,000,000. The Quechuas, 
or Iiicas, were the dominant race ; and although their language has been superseded by 
Siianish in the seajwrt and other large towns, it still maintjiins its hold in the country 
districts. Nearly allied are the Quitus and the Chinchas; but the Bolivian Aymaras were 
more distinct. These latter were the builders of the stupendous ruins of Tiahuanaco, on the 
southern shove of I*ike 'liticaca, situated on the confines of Peru and Bolivia. Titicaca was 




By pertnUtion of Uu Houlh American Miuionary Hocuty. 

CIVILISED AKAUCANIANS. 



Southern Chili and Argentina. 



569 



subsequently incorporated in the Inca dominion, with the result that the Aymaran divinities, 
ritual, and traditions were likewise assimilated by the Quechuan Incas. In their elevated 
borne the Incas succeeded in breeding from the wild guanaco two domesticated varieties — 
namely, the alpaca and the llama; the former being raised for its wool and flesh, while the 
latter was used for carrying burdens. Gold, silver, copper, and lead were worked in the Potosi 
mines, although iron was unknown. On the highlands they cultivated the potato, and on the 
lower grounds maize ; and their cloth of aljiaca wool was of excellent quality. With the 
remark that both Quechuas and Aymaras differed considerably in physical features from their 
Guaranian neighbours, we must pass on to mention that the Antisian group occupied the true 
Antis, or Andes, which forms the third chain of the Cordillera of Peru and Bolivia. Reference 
must also be made to the pre-Inca Chimus, the presumed builders of the great Temple of the 
Sun at Chimu, the modern Truxillo, on the coast of Northern Peru. The Ivaro, or .livaran 
Indians of Kcuador, are in the habit of removing the skull and contracting the head-skin of 
their deceased relatives until it becomes scarcely larger than the fist, the form of the features 
being retained. 

With these too brief remarks on the inhabitants of the "cultural zone," we proceed to 
the consideration of the tribes inhabiting — 

SOUTHERN CHILI AND ARGENTINA. 

The effete civilisations abo\e mentioned were limited to the southward by the Rio JNIaule, which 
enters the sea below the city of Talca, in Central Chili ; and as we have also seen that the 
Guaranian tribes extended on the opposite side of the continent to the Rio de la Plata, tbere 
remain for consideration those inhabiting that portion of America lying south of these points, 
together with those of part of Northern Argentina. 




By permisiioA of the South Amtrican Mimonaty Sockl". 

A CHILIAN NATIVK AND HIS WIVES. 



72 



570 



The Living Races of Mankind 



South of the Rio Maijle the aborigines called themselves Moluche, or " warrior-people," 
the affix che in the Araucanian language denoting "people." They are, however, more 
generally known by their Spanish title of Araucanians (rebels), a name due to their independence 
and intolerance of foreign dominion. In Chili, however, the Araucanians, although retaining a 
modicum of freedom, are fast allies of the republic. As to the exact sense in which the term 
Moluche, or Araucani.in, is employed, there is, however, some difference of usage. Properly 
speaking, the sections known as Picunche, Pehuenche, Huilliche, and Puelche, respectively 
meaning North, Central (from the Pehuen district). South, and East tribes, are but divisions of 
the ]\Ioluche. Of these, the term Puelche rightly includes those Moluches which extend 
eastwards of the Cordillera into Argentine territory as far as Mendoza, but it has also been 
extended to embrace the Pampas Indians of Buenos Aires, and thus all the aborigines as far 
south as the Kio Negro. The Araucanians have not only no central government, but no tribal 

chiefs ; the head of each family being the chief of 
all his descendants. Custom seems, indeed, to be 
the only force which impels the members of the 
various tribes to collect together for mutual self- 
defence or other purposes ; after which they rapidly 
disjjerse to their scattered dwellings. The spirits 
of departed ISIoluche are supposed to dwell in the 
JNlilky Way, whence they watch o\er their kindred 
below ; this ancestral supervision being apparently 
the main bond of union between the tribes. Most 
Araucanians are of a distinctly lighter shade of com- 
plexion than the Peruvian tribes. From the greater 
IKirt of the Pampas of Buenos Aires the Indians 
have been swept away by European colonisation ; 
their places being at first taken by the Gauchos, or 
half-breeds, who are themselves fast disappearing 
before the tide of foreign immigration. Both 
Gauchos and Indians are essentially horsemen, the 
introduction of the horse having profoundly modi- 
fied the original mode of life of the latter, of 
which little is really known. So ingrained is the 
habit of riding among both peoples, that it is a 
common saying in Argentina that an Indian or 
Gaucho will walk a mile to catch a horse in order 
to ride a quarter of a mile. Both are well clothed ; 
the jjoncho, or blanket with a hole cut in the centre, 
through which the head is thrust, being the garment 
donned over others in bad weather. Both are experts 
in the use of the lasso and boUts ; the former being 
a rope with a running n(X)se at one end, and the 
latter either two or three balls fastened together by 
strings and hurled at animals. After mentioning 
that the union between man and horse is less 
. 1^ ^ marked in the Gaucho than in the Pampas Indian, 

I W ^ ^BSiMtfJ^pl ^^^' ^^' '^' ^^'^^^^'^ observes that the savage nature 

I . \ \^^^^^SBBM ^^ *-''^ latter brings him nearer to the level of the 

animal he rides. " The Indian horse is more docile, 
ISJm^SmSSBtl^^B^^^t^M ^^ understands his master better ; the slightest touch 

BtptrmiMticn nr Ou Smu/i Amerimn itUiionary Society. of the llaud On his neck, wllich SeemS to have 

AN ABAUCANIAN BKAnxY. developed a marvellous sensitiveness, is sufficient 





571 



572 



The Living Races of Mankind 



to guide him. ITie Gaucho 
labours to give his horse 
' a silken mouth,' as he aptly 
calls it : the Indian's horse 
h.as it from birth. Occa- 
sionally the Gaucho sleeps 
in the saddle : the Indian 
can die on his horse." It 
should be added that Gauchos 
are for the most part of 
Spanish origin on the paternal 
and Indian on the maternal 
side ; being half-breeds, they 
demand no further notice 
here. Pampas Indians, like 
the Patagonians, confine their 
long hair by a fillet passing, 
across the forehead, round 
the head. 

To the south of the Eio 
Negro we enter the country 
of the Patagonians, or 
Teliuelehes (Chuelches), as 
they are called by their 
Araucanian neighbours ; a 
people celebrated for their 
tall stature, and, in former 
days, for the fierceness and 
cruelty of their disposition. 
There are various tribal 
groups of these people, into 
the consideration of which 
it will be unnecessary to 
enter here ; but it may be 
mentioned that originally they were divided into the Northern Tehuelches, who ranged some 
distance south of the Chubut Kiver, and the Southern Tehuelches, who inhabited all the country 
south of the Kio Chico, and thence extended into Tierra del Fuego. Of late years, however, 
these divisions have been swept away by the migrations of these wandering people. It is 
suggested by Keane that the Tehuelches are descended from a numerous nation of gigantic 
aborigines, who inhabit the Brazilian states of Matto Grosso and Goyaz, and have long been 
known to the Portuguese settlers as Bororos. The Tehuelche language is perfectly distinct from 
both the Araucanian and the Puelchean of the Pampas Indians. 

Writing of the Tehuelches, Darwin says that "their height appears greater than it reidly 
is, from their large guanaco [skin] mantles, their long flowing hair, and general figure ; on 
an average their height is about 6 feet, with some men taller and only a few shorter ; and 
the women are also tall; altogether they are certainly the tallest race which we anywhere 
saw. In features they strikingly resemble the more northern Indians wlioin I saw with 
Kosas, but they have a wilder and more formidable appearance ; their faces were much painted 
with red and black, and one man was ringed and clothed with white like a Fuegian." On 
the other hand. Captain Musters, who made a long journey through the heart of Patagonia, 
puts the average height at not more than 5 feet 10 inches. Individual men of 6 feet 4 
and 6 feet 10 inches have been measured. In general physique the Tehuelches accord with 




By ptrmitsion q/ the South. American Hisaionari/ Societi/. 

UAPUCUE NATIVES OF ARAUCAKIA. 



Southern Chili and Argentina 



573 



their height; the muscular development of the arms and chest being extraordinary, while 
as a rule they are well pro^Jortioned throughout. Captain Musters especially notices the high 
instep ; a feature so developed that a Tehuelche with whom he had arranged to barter a 
pair of London-made boots was quite unable to get them on. Their powers of walking and 
of abstaining from food for long periods are remarkable ; a party of them on one occasion 
walking a distance of over forty miles within twelve hours without once touching food. Their 
features are decidedly pleasing, the eyes being bright, and the nose aquiline and well 
formed. Very characteristic are the prominent ridges over the eyebrows ; above which the 
forehead is somewhat retreating. When cleaned from paint and dirt, the comialexion of 
the men is reddish brown, and has been compared to the colour of Devon cattle. All hairs 
on the face — sometimes including even the eyebrows — are carefully eradicated with tweezers ; 
and the long flowing hair of the scalp, which is confined by a cloth fillet, is carefully 
dressed. Grey hair is rare, although the occurrence of snow-white locks has been recorded. 
The hair of the women scarcely equals in length that of their lords, and is plaited into a pair 
of long tails ; these, 
among the unmarried, 
being lengthened on 
festive occasions with 
horse-hair ornamented 
with blue beads and 
terminating in silver 
pendants. Although 
not ageing prema- 
turely, when old the 
women become really 
hideous. Unlike the 
men, they never walk, 
but perform all their 
journeys on horseback. 
" The dress of the 
men," writes Captain 
Musters, consists of a 
chin-pu, or under- 
garment, round the 
loins, made of a poncho, 
a piece of cloth, or 
even of a guanaco 
mantle. . . . All other 
garments are supplied 
by the capacious and 
warm skin - mantle, 
which, worn with the 
fur inside and the 
painted side out, will 
keep the wearer dry 
for a considerable time 
in the wettest weather. 
This is often dispensed 
with in the chase ; but 
if worn when riding, is 

secured at the waist by PUoto by Dr. Paul nyada, from the •• Mutton Scicnti/lque du Cap Horn." 

a belt of hide, or leather a fukoian man. 




574 



The Living Races of Mankind 



if it can be obtained. . . . 
When sitting by the fireside, 
or even when walking about, 
the furred part of the mantle 
is generally kept over the 
mouth — as the Tehuelches 
aver that the cold wind causes 
sore gums — a habit which 
assists in rendering their 
guttural and at all times rather 
unintelligible language more 
difficult of com])rehension to 
the novice. Their potro boots, 
or buskins, are made from 
the skin of a horse's hock, 
and occasionally from the 
leg of a large puma, drawn 
on up to the knee and 
fastened round the foot. It 
is thus worn for a day or 
two until the boots have taken 
the shape of the foot, when 
the leather is cut at the toes 
the sole is worn, or in very 
and sewn up to fit. When 
wet or snowy weather, hide 
overshoes are worn besides, 
and the footprints thus made 
are really large enough to 
carry the idea of giants' feet, 
and partly explain the term 
' Patagon,' or large feet, 
applied to these Indians by 
their Spanish discoverers." 
In riding, the boots are 
secured with garters, which 
are ordinarily made of bright- 
coloured woven bands, but in the case of chiefs are of hide ornamented with large silver 
buckles. In addition to the fillet binding the liair, hats are worn when procurable. 

The mantle of the women is fastened at the throat by a large broad-headed silver 
pin, by a nail, or by a thorn, according to the circumstances of the wearer; beneath this 
being a kind of loose shirt, made of some calico stuff, and reaching from the shoulders 
to the ankles. A broad belt, ornamented with the favourite blue beads and bosses of silver 
or brass, serves to confine the mantle when travelling. The boots are like those of the men, 
with the exception tliat the hair is left on the hide of which they are made. In spite 
of the severity of the climate the children are generally suffered to run about in a state 
of nudity till' between six and eight years of iige, and always prefer to be barefoot. Never- 
theless, they are provided with small mantles, as well as with boots made of soft shamoyed 
leather from the fore-legs of the guanaeo. Both sexes are fond of ornaments, and smear 
their faces with paint; the latter substance being more rarely applied also to the body, 
and being said to prevent the skin chapping. The ornaments of the women take the 
form of necklaces of blue beads or silver, as well as of large square earrings fastened, 




PhoU> by K. Oiinther] 



IJkrlin. 



A TEHUELCHE MAM. 



Southern Chili and Argentina 



575 



to small rings passed through the lobes of the ears. By the men silver is used, when 
circumstances permit, to adorn their pipes, knife-hilts and sheaths, belts, and horse-trappings ; 
silver spurs and stirrups being added by those who can afford such 'luxuries. Although the 
beads are imported, the silver ornaments are hammered out of the dollars taken in commercial 
transactions. 

During their frequent joumeyings the babies are carried in wicker and hide-thong cradles, 
made to fit on their mothers' saddles ; these cradles, in the case of affluent families, being 
ornamented with brass bells or silver plates. The paint used for the face and body on ordinary 
occasions is made of ochre and black earth mixed with guanaco marrow ; but on special occa- 
sions white paint and powdered gypsum are employed. In their ceremonial dances the men, 
who are clothed in nothing but a loin-cloth, decorate their heads with the plumes of the 
rhea, or South American ostrich, and wear a belt, to which are affixed brass bells, across one 
shoulder. Bathing forms a regular part of the morning toilet ; notwithstanding which Tehuelche 
garments swarm with vermin. Any hairs that may be brushed out during the toilet, as well 
as all nail-parings, are scrupulously burnt. 

The Tehuelches dwell in capacious tents made of guanaco-hide ; but as to describe these 
would exceed the limits of our space, our readers may be referred to one of the plates illustrating 
Lady Florence Dixie's " Across Patagonia." The opening of the toldo, as the tent is called, 
is directed away from the prevailing wind, and a fire lighted just in the entrance. The 
furniture comprises a few bolsters, made out of old ponchos, and one or two horse-hides to 
serve as curtains. An iron spit forms the most impoitant cooking utensil, but some times 
an iron pot may be added ; while armadillo-shells or wooden platters, in which to hold 
broth, may also form a part of the equipment. In the old days, at least, the flesh of the 
rhea formed the favourite food, guanaco-flesh, as well as that of the pampas deer, being 
less esteemed. Blood is on all occasions 
drunk eagerly ; and marrow and fat, 
in the absence of farinaceous food, form 
essential articles of diet. Horse-flesh seems 
to be chiefly eaten at dances and other 
ceremonies. The chief weapons used in 
hunting are the bolas and the lasso ; of 
the former there are two types, one, the 
chume, fitted with two balls and employed 
in rhea-hunting, and the other, called 
yachiko, furnished with three balls and used 
for taking the guanaco. Formerly the balls 
were made of stone, the most ancient type 
being distinguished by having a deep 
groove chiselled round it ; but other sub- 
stances are now employed. Guanaco and 
rhea are caught by being struck round the 
neck, although cattle and horses are balled 
round the hind-legs. Flint arrow-heads are 
met with in many parts of Patagonia. 



TIERKA DEL FUEGO. 

Leaving the continent of South America, 
our brief remaining space must be devoted to 
the inhabitants of the desolate and storm- 
swept island to the south of the Strait of 
Magelhaen . The typical Fuegians are properly 




Photo by M. Pierre Petit] 

A FUKOIAN WOMAN. 



[ParU. 



576 



The Living Races of iVlanI<ind 




PItoto by Dr. Paul Bj/ade»,/rom tkc " Muttion Scicnt\/iq%u dv. Cap Horn. 
FUEOIANS. 



known as Yahgans, and speak a dialect dis- 
tinct from all the continental tongues ; in 
addition to this there is a second dialect 
known as Alakaluf, which may be distantly 
related to the Araucanian, and also a third 
— the Ona — which seems nearer to Pata- 
gonian. Great differences are observable in 
the accounts given of the Fuegians by different 
observers — as, for instance, Fitzroy and Darwin 
on the one hand, and more recent travellers, 
like Dr. P. Hyades, of the French expedition 
to Cape Horn, on the other. It has been 
suggested that such discrei)ancies are in great 
part due to the alteration in the manners of 
the natives by the English missionaries ; and as 
the older accounts are more likely to portray 
the original liabits of the people, the following 
notes are culled from Darwin's narrative. 

In stature the Ivistem Fuegians are compared by the last-named writer to the Patagonians ; 
the three young men seen by him being about 6 feet in height. Their skin is of a dirty 
coppery-red colour ; and at the time of Darwin's visit the only garment of the men on the 
east coast was a mantle of guanaco-skin, with the hair outside, loosely thrown over the 
shoulders. An old man forming the fourth of the party had a fillet of white feathers bound 
round his head, partly confining his long and tangled black hair. Across his face ra« two 
broad bars of paint — namely, a red one reaching from ear to ear and including the uj)per lip, 
and a second of chalky white running above and jiarallel to the first, so as to include the 
eyelids. The rest of the party were ornamented with streaks of charcoal powder. According 
to the figures jjublished by Dr. Hyades, two of which we have been permitted to reproduce, 
white and red are now the colours most in vogue. Their language has been comimred to a 
man clearing his throat ; but even in this manner few Europeans could produce such hoarse, 
clicking, and guttural sounds as are uttered by Fuegians. 

These people formerly subsisted almost exclusively upon shell-fish, and consequently were 
compelled frequently to shift their place of abode. Nevertheless, the large dimensions of 
the shell-heaps, which often amount to many tons in weight, indicate that they returned at 
intervals to the same spots. Unlike the Patagonians, they dwell in huts, or wigwams, which, 
although used only for a few days, require some trouble to build. These huts consist of 
some broken boughs stuck in the ground, and roughly thatched on one side with a few bundles 
of grass and rushes. Even such wretched shelter against the inclemency of a severe climate 
was not, however, always available, Darwin mentioning an instance where three naked Fuegians 
spent the night on the ground. It has been already mentioned that the tribes on the east 
coast wear a guanaco-skin mantle ; among those of the west coast the place of this is taken 
by seal-skins, while some of the central tribes wear an otter-skin, or some other small covering, 
which is barely sufficient to cover the back as far down as the loins, being laced across the 
chest by strings, and shifted from side to side according to the direction i of the wind. 



IMkM ty FauU, WmUm, * Tituy, Id., londm and Aylmiimf. 



INDEX 



Ababdeh, 401 

Abunda, 330 

Abyssinian and Ethiopio. orroups, 3G9, 374 

Abyasinians, 265 

Achenese, 84 

Adjar (or veil), 405 

Admiralty Islands, 34 

Aetas {see Negritos) 

Afar (see Danakil), 371 

A fghanistan and Afghans, 212 — 216 

Africa, 265—408 

Afridis, 213 

Agau, 376 

Agriculture (see Cultivation) 

Aimores, 566 

Ainu (see Hairy Ainu) 

Ajawa, 313 

Akhdaras, 245 

Akka, 272 

Albanians (also known as Arnauts and 
Skipetar), 436 

Alemanni, 402 

Aleuts, 506 

Algerians and Moors, 403 — 408 

AIo-Alo (the Tongan weather-god), 13 

Ama-Xosa, or Ama-Kosa (see Kaffir), 29'J, 
302 

Amazons of Dahomey, 366 

Amhara, 370, 382 

Amusements of the : — Australian natives, 
59; Chins, 112 ; Germans, 462 ; Italians, 
470 ; Japanese, 148 ; Java Malays, 83 
Maoris, 10 ; Philippine Islanders, 86 
Polynesians, 10; Siamese, 101; Spanish, 
478 

Anam, 104 

Andalusians, 476 

Andaman Islands, 16!) 

Andes, Northern, 568 

Andriana (Hovas), 283 

Angkor Vaht (ruins of), 108 

Angola dwarfs, 272 

Angola tribes, 330 

Angoni, 309 

Animism, 10, 11, 200 

Anklets (see Ornaments) 

Ansariebs, 248 

Antaimenna (Hova), 283 

Anti-Mana tribe, 286 

Aoba, 40 

Apaches, 536 

Apingi, 337, 339, .340 

Apono, 337, 3.39 

Apparel (see Dress) 

Appearance of the : — Ababdeh, 401, 402 ; 
Admiralty Islanders, 34 ; Afghans, 
212; Akka, 274; Albanians, 4.36; 
Amazons of Dahomey, 366 ; Amharans 
(Abyasinians), 376; Anamitee, 104; 



Andaman Islanders, 169 ; Apingi, 339 ; 
Arabians, 241 ; Arauoanians, 570 ; 
Armenians, 200 ; Australians, 49 — 07 ; 
Bakongo, 331 ; Bakwando, 270 ; 
Balempa, 309 ; Bantu, 332 ; Batw.i, 
275; Bayansi of Bolobo, 330; Bech- 
iianas, 302 ; Belgians, 485 ; Berbers, 
403; Berikimo, 281; Betsileo, 284; 
Bhils, 184 ; Bongo, 352 ; Bosnians, 449; 
Bulgarians, 440 ; Buriats, 224 ; Bur- 
mese, 110; Bushmen of South Africa, 
268; Chinese, 122, 124; Chins, 112; 
Circassians, 420 ; Croats, 454 ; Daho- 
meyans, 364 ; Danakil, 371 ; Danes, 
481 ; Dinka, STyl ; Doko, 280 ; Druses, 
248; Dyas, 78; Dyur, 352; Egba, 
.368 ; English, 491 ; Equatorial pygmie", 
277 ; Eskimo, 509, 510 ; Falashas, 332 ; 
Fans, 348 ; Eanti, 363 ; Eellahin, 307 ; 
Eijians, 1 ; Finns, 422 ; French, 472 ; 
Fuegians, 576; Fulah, 391; Gallas, 
.370 ; Georgians, 419, 420; Giliaks, 232; 
Gonds, 186; Greeks, 258, 433, 434; 
Guianas, 558, 560 ; Guinea Negroes, 
363 ; Gypsies, 456 ; Hairy Ainu, 153 ; 
Hainrans, 400 ; Hebrews, 250 ; Hereros, 
298 ; Herzegovinans, 452 ; Hill people 
of India, 179 ; Hottentots, 295 ; Hova, 
2a3; Icelanders, 432; Irish, 499; 
Ishogo, 3:58 ; Italians, 409 ; .Japanese, 
14G; Kachins, 112; Kaffirs, 2<)9 ; 
Kafiristans, 216; Kalmuks, 224; Ka- 
nuri, .394 ; Kashmiris, 196 ; Khasis, 
196; Kikuyu, 343; Kiighiz-KMaks, 
218; Kols, 184; Kotas, 189; Kurds, 
2.3S; Kurumbivs, 190; Lapps, 424, 426; 
Latuka, lio3 ; Ijetto-Lithuanic people, 
4,58 ; Liu-kiu, IGO ; Magyars, 4.55 ; 
Malays, 26, 73 ; Mandingo, 361 ; Maoris, 
42 ; M.isai, 356 ; Matabili, 306 ; Mon- 
buttu, .328; Mongols, 141; Monte- 
negrins, 447 ; Negritos, 87 ; Negroes, 
289 ; New Caledonians, 41 ; New 
Guinea people, or Papuans, 26 ; New 
Ireland people, 32 ; Niam-niam, 344, 
.345 ; Njempsians, 358 ; North American 
Indians, 530, .533; Norwegians, 428; 
Nyasaland natives, 310; Obongo, 271; 
Ostiaks, 230; Ovampo, 299; Pata- 
gonians, 572, .573 ; Persians, 2:«; ; Plii- 
lippine Islanders, 84; Polynesians, 
10; Portuguese, 480; Rajputs, 192; 
Rumanians, 441 ; Russians, 409 ; 
S,-veter8dal people, 4.30; Sakais, 88; 
Samoyedes, 228 ; Saxons, 4.58 ; Scotch, 
496; Shangallas, :581; Siamese, 98; 
Society Islanders, 20 ; Solomon Island- 
ers, .37 ; Somali, .372 ; Spaniards, 478 ; 
Svans, 417 ; Swabians, 4.57 ; Swedes, 
431; Swiss, 463; Tajiks, 222; Tas- 
manians, 68; Tibbus, 386; Tibetans, 

677 



161; Timni, .362; Todas, 186, 189 
Tongans, 12 ; Tuaregs, 388 ; Turkana, 
354 ; Turks, 433 ; Usbegs, 222 ; Veddas, 
172; Wadoa, 316; Wagiryama, 318 
Wagogo, 317; Wahuma, 324; Warn 
buttu, 275, 276; Wanyamwezi, 314 
Wanyoro, 327 ; Wapokomo, .320 
Wasagara, 316; Welsh, 494; Wito, 
384 ; Yakuts, 231 ; Zulus, 304 

Ara tangativ, 20 

Aral)ians, 241, 393 

Arabs of North Africa, 404—408 

Aragonese, 478 

Aranyakas (a division of Brahmanas), 205 

Araucanians, 570 

Arawakans, 559 

Arctic America and Greenland, 505 — 528 

Arecunas, 500 

Argentina and Southern Chili, 589 — 575 

Armenians, 260 

Armlets {see Ornaments) 

Arm)/ of: — Abyssinia, .381 ; Germany, 458 ; 
Montenegro, 448 ; Switzerland, 466 

Aroeis of Society Islands, 22 

Art of: — Abyssinia, 380 ; Arabia, 246; Bush- 
men of South Africa, 269 ; Japan, 150, 
151 

Aryan family, 422, 468 

Aryan Hindus, 178 

Aryan inviision of Dravidians, 180 

Asgars, 386 

Ashango, 340, 342 

Ashanti, 3(i3, 364 

Ashira, 337 

Asia Minor, 254, 264 

Asiniboins, .540 

Assyria {sec Syria), 247 

Asturian, 478 

Athabascan and Algonquian stocks, 514 
534, 5.36, 537, 538 

Attoh (a ceremoni,al sacrifice), 367 

Atua, 11 

Austral Islands, 20 

Australia, 49—67 

Austria-Hungary, 453, 456 

Azandeh {sec Niam-niam), 344 

Aztecs, 529, 554, 555 



Bafiort (or Bafiot), 332 

Baiame, 62, 64 

Biijans (or Sea Gypsies), 74 

Bakabae, 271 

Bakanaka, 271 

Bakatla, 302, 304 

Bakete, 334 

Bakhtians, 2.38 

Bakise, 271 

Bakongo, 330, 331 



4 



73 



57« 



The Living Races of Mankind 



Bakuba. XM 

liakwando, 270 

Bakwpna, :<02, 304 

Balemiw, am 

Balolo, :«2 

Balulm, :«4 

Baluchis, 216 

Baluchistan, 213 

BaUinda, SSO 

Bamangwato trilx-, 302, 30t 

Baiigola, Xa 

ii&ngvraketsi, 304 

Bantu, 265, 286, 204, 296-299, 332 

„ of British Central Africa, 309, 312 

„ „ l>Ast«rn Afri(:i, 31:5—330 

„ „ Frcmli Congo, :«7— 343 

„ and Hottentot Negroes*, 294—296 

„ of Stnith Africa, 2!Ki— ;«» 

„ „ West Africa, 330-33G 

Banvai, 308, 312 

Bara, 28.3, 284 

Barabra, 402 

Barolong, 304 

Barotai, 302, .304 

Bari, 350, 3.>4 

Bashilange (or Tushilange), 334 

Basques, 476, 478 

}ia8Uto, 304 

BaUvia, 83 

Bateke, &32 

Batlapi, 303 

Batlaro, 302, 303 

Battas (inland hill people of Sumatra), 84 

ISatwa, 271, 275 

liatwana, 304 

Bayansi of Bolobo, 330, 332 

Bazimba, 286 

Bear worship, 231 

Bechuanas, 'MO, 302 

Bedouins, 245, 248 

Begging 13rahmans, 210 

Beia, 374, 401—402 

Belgium and Belgians, 485 — 487 

Bellates (slaves), 390 

Bena-Kiaml>a (a secret society of Congo 
district), :»» 

Bcni-Amer, .374 

Berber tribes, 265, 361, 370. 388, 303, 403— 
404 

Berikimo, 281 

Betsileo, 28.3, 286 

Betsiniisaraka, 283 

Bhils, 184 

Birth of Children among the: — Abys-sinians, 
.380; Chinese, 1.^5, 136; Chins, 112; 
Dutch, 489; Jikimo, 525; Kellahin, 
.398; Greeks, 4.34, 4,35; Giiianas, .'Mil; 
Hottcnt<jts, 290 ; Kirghi/.-Kazaks, 220; 
Nilotic group, MO ; '1 urks, 438 

Bisayan (one of the chief tribes of Phili|>- 
pine Islands), 84 

Bishari, 402 

Bismarck Archipeh.go, 31 

Bison of North America, 520 

Blood-bnitherhood rite among the Kikuyu, 
344 

Blow-pi lie of South Americans, 063 

Bod-yul. 161 

Bogo, .376 

liokhara, 221, 222 

Bolivian Aymaras, 068 

Boloi. 310 

Ik>n, or lionlja (an early Tibetan creed), 
164, 166 

Bongo, 300, 3S2 

B<imeo, 28, 77 

Bomuea& 394 

Bosnia-Herzegovina, 449, 463 

Bourgeoisie of France, 472, 473 

Brahmanas (a division of the Veda), 204, 
206 

Br»hnwna' caste, 182, 203, 212 

Br»hui^ 216 

Brazil, 006, 067 

Brooke (Kajah) in Sarawak, 80, 82 

Brunei, .Sulun of, 77 

Buddhism, 138 



Bugis (inhabitants of Celclws), 77 

Bulgaria, 439, 441 

BuMen of an Australian woman, 54 

Burial Customs of the: — Abyssinians, .380; 
Arabs, 247 ; Ashira, 337, .3.38 ; Batwa, 
280; Bongo, 353; Bosnians, 4,50; Chins, 
113, 116; Dutch, 489; Dyas, 80; 
Dyur, 352; East African natives, 312; 
Eskimo, 525, 526; Fans, 350; Fijians, 
7; Giliaks, 2.34; Greeks, 435, 4:«) ; 
Gui<iniv4, 564, 566; Hottentots, 296; 
Hova, 288; Irish, 502; Karens, 119; 
Kirghiz-Kazaks, 220 ; Latuka, 354 ; 
Liu-kiu, 160; Masai, 357; New 
Guinea people, 28; Niam-niam, .'?47 ; 
Nilotic group, .359; North American 
Indians, 549 ; Obongo, 272 ; Philippine 
Islanders, 86; Sakais, 93; Sakalava, 
287 ; Shans, 103 ; Siamese, 100, 1(11 ; 
Somiili, .373, .374; Tanala, 287; Ti- 
betans, 165 ; Tongans, 14 ; Turks, 439 ; 
Upi«r Congo natives, 334, 335; Ve<l- 
das, 170; Wadoa, 316; Wanyamwezi, 
.315 ; Wanyoro, 327 

Buriats, 223, 224, 225 

Burma, 110—120 

Bushmen of South Africa, 265, 206 

Buttons (as an insignia of rank of Man- 
darins), 129 



Cachalot teeth (used for necklets), 2 

Caledonia (or Scotland), 495 

Calendars of South American Indians, 556 

Cambodia, 97, 98, 108 

Cangue (a Chinese instrument of torture), 
1.32 

Cannibalism among the: — Andaman Island- 
ers, 171 ; Ashanti, 363 ; Australians, 
58 ; Battas, 84 ; Celebes Islanders, 77 ; 
Fans, .350 ; Fanti, :«)3 ; Fijiaiis, 4, 6 ; 
Maoris, 46 ; Monlnittu, 328 ; Negroes, 
292, 293 ; New Caledonians, 41 ; New 
Ireland natives, 32 ; Niam-niam, 347 ; 
Pygmies, 278 ; Solomon Islanders, 37 ; 
South Americans, 554 ; Tasmanians, 
70 ; Ui)ix!r Congo i)eople, 334 ; Wayao, 
313 

Canoes of the : — Admiralty Islanders, .36 ; 
Andaman Islanders, 170; Australians, 
.56; Bantu, 3.3.3; fekinio, 514, 516; in- 
hal>itants of Madagascar, 287 ; Mon- 
buttu, 328 ; North American Indians, 
516; Solomon Islanders, 37; Tas- 
manians, 70 

Capital punishment of Chinese, 134, 135 

Caril)ean group of South American Indians, 
.559 

Citssube, 458 

Caste (meaning of), 180, 182 

Catalonians, 478 

Caucasians, 26,5, 417 

Cayugas, 538 

Celelies 77 

Celtic races, 458, 469, 470, 472, 476, 490, 498 

Central America, 554 — 5.58 

Ceylon {see Vftddas), 172 

Chaldeans, 2.38 

Character (see Disposition) 

Characteristics of Belgian citifx, 486 

Chassad Kukis (or 'I'aksatte), 116 

Chekhs, 453, 4:54, 4,58 

Cheuwe {see Tshi), .363 

Chiampa, 104 

Chief of Bakhtians (former), 238, 240 

Chif'f of Hairy Ainu, 154 

Children of Maoris, 46 

China, 121, 140 

Chinese national cohesion, 122 

Chins, 112 

Chip|>ewyans (or Ojibwas), 636, 537, 546 

Chinuitos, 587 

Chukchis, 234, 006 

Cicatrisation (we Tattooing) 

CincaU^ 281 



Circassians, 42<l, 422 

Clans of Scotland, 496 

Chvsses of Arabian society, 245 

Vlassifiealion o/.— Afriean types, 265, 266; 
Australian triU's, .58 

Click language, 27", 282 

Club-houses of Papuans, 28 

Clothes {see Dress) 

Cochin-China, 104 

Coffee (discovery of), 245 

Coinage (sec Money) 

Confucianism, 137 

Congo tribes, 330, 3151 

Cook (or Hervey) Islands, 20 

Copts, 396 

Corroboree, 59 

Courtship {sec also Marriage Customs) 
a mom/ the .— Barabra, 402 ; Berbers, 
404; Ikirmese, 110, lU ; Dyas, 79; 
Karens, 119 ; Sakais, 96 

Couvade custom, 564 

Creeks, .540 

Crees, 537 

Cremation {sec Burial Customs) 

Croats, 453, 454 

Cultivation among the : — Abyssinians, 378 ; 
Andamans, 170 ; Ai)ono,'339 ; Ashango, 
342 ; Bongo, 3i53 ; Danes, 482 ; Dinka. 
351; Druses, 249; Dyas, 79; Finns, 
423 ; Gallas, 370, 371 ; Hottentots, 295 ; 
Ishogo, 338; Kaffirs, 300; Kanuri, 
394 ; Karens, 119 ; Kikuyu, 344 ; 
Malagasi, 287 ; Mashonas, ,308 ; Maoris, 
44, 46 ; Monbuttu, .328 ; Negritos, 88 ; 
Negroes, 293 ; New Guinea iwople, 28 ; 
Niam-niam, 347; Nilotic jieople, .359; 
Nyasaland natives,312; Solomon Island- 
ers, 37; Sumatra natives, 83; Tas- 
manians, 70 ; Turks, 257 ; Wagiryama, 
318 ; Wakamlia, 321 ; Wankonde, 314 ; 
Wanyamwezi, .315 ; Wapokomo, 320 ; 
Wasoga, 320 ; Wazaramo, 316 

Customs {see Habits) 

Cynnic race, 490, 494 

Czar of all the Rus8i;vs, 410 



D,icoits (Burmese), 111 

Dahomevana, ;<64 — 368 

Dakka, 290 

Dakotas, 5.38, .546 

Dalai Lama (the head of Buddhism), 138, 
165 

Danakil, .371, 372 {see Afar) 

Daners of the :—A\K>no, 3:59; Batwa, 278, 
280 ; Chins, 112 ; F,skimo, 528 ; Guianas, 
.5(H) ; Hairy Ainu, 1.54 ; [X'ople of India, 
178 ; ix'oplc of Java, 83 ; Khasis, 197 ; 
Latuku, ;!.54 ; Malays, 75 ; Matabili, 
306 ; Kumanians, 443, 444 ; Sakais, 90, 
91 ; Society Islanders, 20 ; Solomon 
Islanders, .38 ; Somali, 373 ; Tas- 
manians, 71 ; Wayao, 312 

Dazas, .394 

Death {sec Burial Customs) 

Death-rate o/<Ac,— Australians, 51 ; Maoris, 
42 ; New Caledonians, 42 ; North 
American Indians, .530; Titsmanians, 
70 

Deer-hunting among the Ostiaks, 231 

Dela wares, 537, .5.38 

Denmark and Danes, 481, 485 

Dhurainoolan, 62, 64 

Dinka, 3,50, :»1 

Dinner (larty of Moors, 408 

Discovery of Australia, 07, 68 

Disposition of <A(r .— Admiralty Islanders, 
36; Afghans, 212: Afridis, 214; Akka, 
274; Albanians, 4;iO; Amharans, 377: 
Anamites, 106; Andaman Islanders, 
170; Apono, .3;!9; Arabs, 241, 242; 
Armenians, 260, 261; Ashango, 'M'2; 
Ashanti, 1563 ; Australians, 66, 67 ; 
Austrians, 453 ; Bakhtians, 238 ; Ba- 
kongo, 331 ; Baluchis, 216 ; Bantu, 332 ; 



Index 



579 



Barabra, 402 ; Batwa, 278 ; Bechuanas, 
302; Berbers, 403; Bhils, 184; Bos- 
nians, 44U ; Brahmans, 200 ; Bulgarians, 
440; Burials, 224; Cambodians, 1U8 ; 
Cliekhs, 454 ; Chinese, 120, 128 ; Chins, 
113; Circassians, 420, 422; Congo 
tribes, 3;!1 ; Croats, 454 ; Danakil, 371 ; 
Danes, 482, 483 ; Uinka, 351 ; IJruses, 
248 ; Dutch, 488 ; Dyur, 352 ; Knglish, 
4'Jl, 492, 4'J4 ; Eskimo, 522, 524 ; Fans, 
348 ; Fijiaus, 0, 7, 8, 17 ; Finns, 
423 ; French, 472, 473, 474 ; Fulah, 3!)1 ; 
Fur Negroes, 394 ; Gadabursi, 374 ; 
Georgians, 420 ; Germans, 400 ; Greeks, 
200, 434 ; Guianas, 559 ; Gypsies, 450 ; 
Hairy Ainu, 155 ; Haussa, 392 ; Hebrews, 
250 ; Hereros, 298 ; Herzegovinans, 
452 ; Hill people of India, 179 ; Ice- 
landers, 432 ; Irish, 499, 500 ; Isa, 374 ; 
Italians, 409 ; Japanese, 147, 148 ; 
Jats, 192; Kaffirs, 2!»9; Kafiristans, 
216 ; Kalmuks, 224 ; Kamchadales, 
235 ; Kanuri, 394 ; Karens, 119 ; Kash- 
miris, 196; Khas, 104; Khasis, 197; 
Kikuyu, 343 ; Koreans, 150 ; Koriaks, 
234 ; Lango, 360 ; Lapps, 426 ; Les- 
ghians, 419 ; Liu-kiu, 100 ; Luris, 238 ; 
Magyars, 455; Makua, 313; Malays, 
26, 74 ; Mandingo, 361 ; Mashonas, 
308 ; Mongols, 144 ; Montenegrins, 
447, 448; Moors, 405; Negritos, 87; 
Negroes, 293 ; New Guinea natives, 
20; New Ireland natives, 45; Niam- 
niam, 346; Njempsians, 358; North 
American Indians, 547 ; Norwegians, 
428 ; Farsis, 196 ; Persians, 236 ; Foles, 
454 ; Polynesians, 10 ; Portuguese, 480 ; 
Kajputs, 192; Rumanians, 441; Rus- 
sians, 409, 410, 411, 412; Sakais, S8; 
Samoans, 17 ; Samoyedes, 229 ; Scotch- 
men, 496 ; Servians, 444, 446 ; Shan- 
gallas, 38; Shans, 102; Siamese, 98; 
Somali, 372, 373 ; Spaniards, 476, 478 ; 
Suahili, 290; Svans, 417; Swiss, 463, 
404; Tajiks, 222; Tibetans, 161; Todas, 
188; Tuaregs, 388; Tunguses, 225; 
Turki, 217; Turks, 256, 257, 438; 
Usbegs, 221 ; Veddas, 174 ; Wagogo, 
317; Wakamba, 321; Wankonde, 314; 
WaiX)komo, 320 ; Wayao, 313 ; Waza- 
ramo, 316; Welsh, 494, 495; Yakuts, 
231 

Divuion of: — Borneo people, 77 ; Eskimo, 
508 ; Guianas, 558 ; Indian races, 177 ; 
Italian nation, 468 ; Malay races, 73, 
74 ; North American Indians, 534 ; 
Swiss nation, 462 

Dobos (or tree-houses), 28 

Doko, 280, 374 

Dongolawi, 402 

Dravidians, 177, 178, 180, 186 

Dress of the : — Ababdeh, 402 ; Abyssiniaus, 
377, 378; Admiralty Islanders, 35; 
Albanians, 430 ; Andaman Islanders, 
170 ; Aralw, 242, 244 ; Amienians, 202 ; 
Ashira, 337 ; Australians, 52 ; Bantu, 
333 ; Batwa, 270 ; Bechuanas, ;!03 ; 
Berbers, 403, 404 ; Berikimo, 281 ; 
Bongo, 352 ; Bosnians, 449 ; liul- 
garians, 440 ; Bushmen of South Africa, 
2(a; Chinese, 124; Chins, 112; Copts, 
390 ; Croats, 454 ; Dahomeyans, 304 ; 
Danakil, 371 ; Dinka, 351 ; Dyas, 78 ; 
Dyur, :«2; Egba, .■508; Eskimo, 510, 
511, 512, 510; Fanti, 303; Fellahin, 
397; F'ijians, 2; Finns, 423; French 
I>eahant, 474 ; Fuegians, 570 ; Gallas, 
370 ; Gauchos, 370 ; Giliaks, 232, 2:54 ; 
Gonds, 180; Gri'cks, 434; Guianas, 
560; Hairy Ainu, 154^ Haussa, 392, 
393; Hereros, 298; HeAegovinans, 452; 
Hill people of India, 179 ; Hottentots, 
295; Icelanders, 432; Ishi^go, 3:« ; 
Japanese, 148, 150 ; Juangs, 184 ; 
Kaffirs, 299; Karens, 119; Khasis, 
198; Kikuyu, 343; Kirghiz-Kazaks, 



218 ; Koreans, 158 ; Kotas, 189 ; Lango, 
360 ; Lapps, 426 ; Latuka, 354 ; Les- 
ghians, 419 ; Liu-kiu, 160 ; Magyars, 
455 ; Malagasi, 286; Masai, 350; Mata- 
bili, 306 ; Monbuttu, 328 ; Moors, 405, 
400 ; Negroes, 290 ; New Caledonians, 
41 ; New Guinea natives, 26 ; New 
Ireland natives, 32 ; New Zealand 
Maoris, 42, 44 ; Niamniam, 346 ; 
Nilotic grou]), 359 ; Njenii)sian», 
358 ; North American Indians, 541, 
542, 513; Norwegians, 428; Nyasaland 
natives, 312 ; Obongo, 271 ; Ostiaks, 
230; Patagonians, 573, 574; Persians, 
236; Philippine Islanders, 86; Ru- 
manians, 441, 442; Russians, 415; 
Saetersdal jjeople, 430 ; Sakais, 88 ; 
Samoans, 17 ; Samoyedes, 228 ; Shans, 
102 ; Society Islanders, 22 ; Solomon 
Islanders, 37 ; Sumatra natives, 84, 86 ; 
Svans, 417 ; Swedes, 431 ; Tibetans, 
162, 164; Todas, 188; Tuaregs, 388; 
Tunguses, 225 ; Turks, 258, 438 ; Ved- 
das, 173 ; Waganda, 325 ; Wagiryama. 
319; Wagogo, 317; Wakamba, 321; 
Wankonde, 312 ; Wanyamwezi, 315 ; 
Wanyoro, 327 ; Wapokomo, 320 ; Wasa- 
gara, 317 ; Wasoga, 326 ; Wazaramo, 
316 ; Welsh, 495 ; Zulus, 304 

Drinking -Habits among the: — Abyssinians, 
378, 380; Admiralty Islanders, 34; 
Apono, 339 ; Australians, 53 ; Berbers, 
404; Bulgarians, 440; Buriats, 224; 
Dutch, 488 ; Fijians, 4 ; Georgians, 
420 ; Icelanders, 432 ; India natives, 
178; Ishogo, 338; Kotas, 189; Mon- 
gols, 144 ; Moors, 408 ; New Cale- 
donians, 42; New Guinea people, 
28 ; Niam-niam, 347 ; Rumanians, 
412; Russians, 415; Samoyedes, 230; 
Siamese, 98; Society Islanders, 20; 
Todas, 180 ; Wapokomo, 320 

Druses, 248 

Duke of York Islands, 31 

Dutch, 488—490 

Dwellings of the: — Ababdeh, 402 Abys- 
sinians, 378 ; Admiralty Islanders, 35 ; 
Andaman Islanders, 170 ; Aix)no, 339 ; 
Arabs, 244; Ashanti, 363; Asia Minor 
peoples, 258 ; Australians, 56, 57 ; 
Bantu, 333 ; Bechuanas, 303 ; Berbers, 
404 ; Bhils, 186 ; Bongo, 352 ; Bosnians, 
450 ; Bulgarians, 440 ; Bushmen of 
South Africa, 269 ; Chins, 112 ; Dinka, 
351; Doko, 280; Dyas, 79; Egb.-., 
'M)A, 369 ; Equatorial pygmies, 277 ; 
Eskimo, 518, 520, 521; Fans, ;M8; 
Fanti, 363; Finns, 423; French jxjasant, 
474 ; Fuegians, 576 ; Gallas, 370 ; Gui- 
anas, 503 ; Hairy Ainu, 153, 154 ; 
Haussa, 393 ; Hereros, 298 ; Herzego- 
vinans, 452 ; Hottentots, 295 ; Ishogo, 
3;{8; Juangs, 184; Kaffirs, 300; Kanuri, 
394 ; Kikuy\i, 344 ; Koreans, 156 ; 
Kurumbas, 190 ; Lapps, 427 ; Latuka, 
.■554 ; Malagasi, 286 ; Masai, 357 ; Ma- 
shonas, 308; Mataliili, ;iO(;; Monbuttu, 
328; Mongols, 142, 143; Montenegrins, 
447; Moors, 400; Negroid, 292; New 
Guinea natives, 28; New Ireland 
natives, 32 ; Niam-niam, 346 ; Njemp- 
sians, 358; North American Indians, 
542, 543; Oliongo, 271, 272; Pata- 
gonians, 575; Riunanians, 442; Sakais, 
91 ; Servians, 444 ; Hhangallas, .'Wl ; 
Tasmanians, 68 ; Tibbus, 386 ; To<l;is, 
188; Tuaregs, 390; Tunguses, 226; 
Turks, 4:W; Veddas, 173; Waganda, 
325 ; Wagiryama, 319 ; Wagogo, 317 ; 
Wakamba, 321 ; Wankonde, 314; Wan- 
yamwezi, 315; Wanyoro, 327; Wasoga, 
326; Wazaramo, 316; Wito, 384; 
Yakuts, 232 

Dya head-hunters, 75; 70 

Dyas, 78 



E 



Ear ornaments [see Ornaments) 
Education among the : — Belgians, 487 ; 

Danes, 483, 484; French, 473, 474; 

Germans, 258, 259, 260 ; Servians, 440 ; 

Swiss, 463 
Egba (or Egbado), 368 
J:gg (or life), 64 

Egypt and Egyptians, 390—400 
Elephant-hunting among the Mashonas, 

308 
Emperor of China, 129 
England and Englishmen, 490 — 494 
Equatorial Negroes, 265, 294, 343 
Equatorial pygmies, 277 
Erromanga (New Hebrides), 39 
Eskimo (or Innuit, Yuit, or Karalit), 505 — 

528 
Eskimo dogs, 518 
Eskimo sledges, 518 
Ethiopia, 374 

Ethnological division of mankind, 122 
Etiquette of the : — Andaman Islandei'S, 170, 

171 ; Arabs, 242; Eskimo, 528; Fijians, 

4 ; Koreans, 150 ; Malays, 74 ; Moors, 

408 ; Norwegians, 430 ; Siamese, 98 ; 

Solomon Islanders (Tahiti), 22 
Etruscans, 468 
Evil eye and Turks, 438 
Ewe tribes, 363, 364—368 
Eyes of Mongolians, 124 
Eye-tooth (extraction of, in Formosa), 158 



Fakirs, 211 

Falam chiefs, 113 

Falashas, 374, 382 

Fanaticism, 210, 211 

Fans (Negroes), 294, .343, .347- -.■?50 

Fanti, 363 

Feasts of Chins, 112 

Features (see Appearance) 

Fellahin, 396, 397 

Fetishism, 200, 293, 312, 314, 319, .3.32, SSI 
339, 342 

Fiji Islands, 1 — 8 

Finger-rings (gee Ornaments) 

Fingo, .300 

Finland and Finns, 422 —424 

Finnow, king of Tongans (death), 14, 15 

Fire- worshippers, 196, 263 

Fishing by Hairy Ainu, 155 

Flemings, 485 

Folk-lore of : — Bushmen of South Africa, 
270 ; Hottentots, 296 

Food of the: — Ababdeh, 402 ; Abyssinians, 
378 ; Admiralty Islanders, .35 ; Anam- 
ites, 106 ; Andaman Islanders, 170 ; 
Arabs, 244 ; Ashira, 337 ; Australians, 
56, 58 ; Bantu, 3.34 ; Bechuanas, .303 ; 
Berikimo, 281 ; Bongo, 353 ; Bosnians, 
449 ; Bushmen of South Africa, 269 ; 
Dinka, 351; Doko, 280; Dutch, 488; 
Eskimo, 513, 514 ; Fellahin, 398 ; Fijians, 
4 ; French ])easant, 474 ; Fuegians, 576 ; 
Gallas, 370 ; Giliaks, 232 ; Guianas, 
.5,59; Icelandei-s, 432; Irish, 502; 
Italians, 470; Kanuri, 394; Kirghiz- 
Kazaks, 218 ; Kotas, 189 ; Kurumbas, 
190; Malagasi, 287; M.-voris, 44, 46; 
Masai, :$57 ; Monbuttu, 328 ; Mongols, 
142; Moors, 406, 408; Negritos, 87; 
Negroes, 292; New Guinea jieople, 28; 
Niam-niam, 347 ; Njemixsians, 3,58 ; 
North American Indians, .546, .547 ; 
Norwegians, i'M ; Ostiaks, 2.30 ; Pata- 
gonians, 575 ; Persians, 237 ; Portu- 
guese, 480 ; Pygmies, 278 ; Rumanians, 
442; Russians, 415, 410; Sakais, 90; 
Sakalava, 287 ; Shangallas, ;i81 ; Society 
Islanders, 22 ; Somali, 373 ; Swedes, 
431 ; Tibbus, ;i80 ; Turks, 2.57 ; Veddas, 
173 ; Waganda, 325 ; Wakamba, 321 ; 
Wanyamwezi, 315 ; Wajxikomo, 320 ; 
Wasoga, 326 



58o 



The Living Races of Mankind 



Formosa, 158 

Foeter-hrotliering (a Swedish custom), 4.'?1 

Kraiiei' and FriMicli, 4'>S, 470—475 

Friendly Islands (sec Tonga) 

Fuegianu, &7ti 

Fulah, 391 

Funeral rites [see Burial Customs) 

Fur Negroes, 3iM 



Gadabursi, 374 

Galician, 478 

Gallas (or Oromo), 205, 370 

Oamblimj amont/d : — Malays, 75 ; Philip- 
pine Islanders, 86 

Games {:tee Amusements) 

Ganguella, 33U 

Gauchos, 570 

Gauls, 470, 490 

Gaza, 308, 309 

Gelele (king of Dahomey), 304 

Georgians, 419, 420 

Germans, 453, 457—462 

Gersau (annual ceremony in), 466 

Ghegs, 436 

Ghez (a Semitic language), 376 

Ghoorkas, 196 

Ghost dance (religion of North American 
Indians), 550 

Giao-shi (or Anamites), 106 

Gilbert Islanders, 11 

Giliaks, 232 

Gonds, 180 

Gondwana, 180 

Government of: — Abyssinia, 381 ; Ashanti, 
363; the Berbers, 404; Burma, 110; 
the Bushmen of South Africa, 269 ; 
China, 128; Germany, 458, 459; Isle 
of Man, 504 ; Italy, 409; Lango nation, 
360; the Masai, :«7, 358; the Mon- 
buttu, 328 ; Montenegro, 447 ; the 
Moors, 408 ; Sjiain, 476 ; Switzerland, 
403, 464, 406 ; Uganda, 325 ; Wanyoro, 
.•527 ; WakamlM, 322 

Great BriUin and Ireland, 490, 504 

Grebo (or Kru), 362 

Greece and Greeks 258, 433—436 

Guadaleanar Island, 37 

Guaranian, Ml 

Guebres, ancient fire-worshippers, 238 

Guianas, 5">8— 500 

Guinea Negroes, 205, 292, 294, :«53— 369 



Hababs, 376 

Habits of the : — Admiralty Islanders, 36 ; 
Afghans, 212; Akka, 274 ; Albanians, 
4;!6 ; Anamese, 106 ; Andaman Island- 
ers, 170; Apingi, 339; Arabs, 241; 
Armenians, 202 ; Bakwando, 271; Beri- 
kimo, 281 ; Betsileo, 284 ; Bosnians, 
449 ; Brahmans, 206, 208 ; Buriats, 224 ; 
C<-lel)es, 77; Circassians, 420, 422; 
Doko, 280; Drusee, 248 ; Knglish, 491 ; 
Ktkimo, 521, 622, 524, 528 ; Falashas, 
:«J2; Fellahin, .398; Fijians, 1; Finns, 
423 ; French, 472, 473 ; Fulah, 391 ; 
Georgians, 420; Germans, 400; (jret^ks, 
200, 434 ; Guianas, 561, 564 ; Gyjwies, 
456 ; Hebrews, 250 ; Herzegovinans, 
462; Hill people of India, 179; Ice- 
landers, 432; Italians, 470; .lainnese, 
l.^O; Kamchadales, 23,5; Klias, 104; 
Kirghiz-Kazaks, 218, 220 ; Koreans, 
V*;-, Kurds, 238; I^ngo nation, .TiO ; 
Ijipi*', 42ti ; I>e«gliians, 419 ; Liu-kiu, 
100; Magyars, 4.55; Maoris, 42; Mon- 
■oU, 142, 144; Montenegrins, 447, 448; 
il<H)r8, 405 ; Negritos, 87 ; NegriK*, 
293; New Guinea nativiw, 28, 30; 
New Ireland natives, 32; North Ameri- 
can Indiaim, 649; Norwegians, 428; 
OboDgo, 271 ; Polynesians, 10 ; Porta- 



I 



gue 

Sak 



lese, 480 ; Russians, 409, 410, 411, 412 ; 
!akai8,!K);S«>rvianH, 444— 44(!; Siamese, 
98; Sioux, .5:W ; S|)aniards, 478 : Swiss, 
403, 404 ; Tasmanians, 70 ; Tibbus, 
mi; Todas, 180, 188; Tong-ins, 10; 
Tunguses, 220; Turki, 217; Turks, 
257 ; Usbegs, 222 ; Veddas, 174. 

Habr Awal, 374 

Habr Gahr-Haji, 374 

Hadendowa, 402 

Uaggars, 380 

Hai (chief god of Gilbert Islands), 11 

Hai, Haik, or Haiken (national name of 
Armenians), 200 

Hair of the ; — Ababdeh, 402 ; Abyssinians, 
.370, 378; Admiralty Islanders, ;«; 
Akka, 274 ; Anamites, 100 ; Andaman 
Islanders, 170 ; A|X)no, 339 ; Arabs, 
241; Armenians, 200, 202; Australians, 
49, 50; Bakongo, 331; Bantu, 332; 
Bar.a, 284; Battas, 84; Batwa, 270; 
Berl)ers, 404 ; Betsileo, 284 ; Buriats, 
224 ; Burmese, 110 ; Bushmen of South 
Africa, 208 ; Chinese, 124 ; Chins, 112 ; 
Croats, 454 ; Dahomeyans, ;<04 ; Dinka, 
:551 ; Doko, 280 ; Dyur, .•«2 ; Egba, 
308; Kskimo, Cm, 510; Fanti, 303; 
Fellahin, 397 ; Fijians, 1 ; Fulah, 391 ; 
Gallas, 370; Giliaks, 232; Gonds, 180: 
Guianas, .500; Guinea natives, 363; 
Hairy Ainu, 153 ; llamrans, 400 ; 
Haussa, 393; Hereros, 2!)8 ; Hottentots, 
295 ; Hova, 284 ; jjeople of India, 176 ; 
Irish, 499 ; lahogo, 3:!8 ; Italians, 409 ; 
JajxHiese, 147 ; Kaffirs, 299 ; Kanuri, 
394; Kikuyu, 343 ; Kols, 184 ; Koreans, 
150 ; Magyars, 4.55 ; Malays, 73 ; Maori.s, 
42 ; Masai, 350, 3.57 ; Melanesians, 25, 
20 ; Monbuttu, 328 ; Negritos, 87 ; 
Negroes, 289 ; New Caledonia, 41 ; 
New Hebrides, 40 ; New Ireland, 32 ; 
Niam-niam, 340 ; North American 
Indians, 530, 532; Nyasaland natives, 
312; Oljongo, 271; Persians, 2:!G ; 
Polynesians, 10; Sakais, 88, 89; 
Siamese, 98 ; Solomon Islanders, 37 ; 
Somali, 372 ; Tajiks, 222 ; Tasmanians, 
08; Todas, 180; Tuaregs, 388, 390; 
Wahuma, 324 ; Wanyamwezi, 314 ; 
\Va|X)komo, 320 ; Wasagara, 317 ; 
\Vaz.iramo, 316 ; Wito, 384 

1 lairy Ainu, 147, 152—158 

I lakas, 11.3— 117 

Uamitcs, 322, 344, 353, 360, 361, 372, 401, 
403 

Ilamitic (division of Caucasian race), 205 

Hamrans, 400 

Hantus, 92 

Ilaratin (or Black Berbers), 301, 403 

I {are Indians, 530 

Hasiya, 374 

Hassanich, 401 

Haussa, .392, 393 

Hawija, 374 

Ilcad-huntinfi among the: — Celebes, 77; 
Dy.-w, 70 ; Malays, 75 ; Maoris, 40 

Hebrew.s, 249-254, 4.58 

Height of South African Bushmen, 208 

Hellenic, 248 (see also Greeks) 

Hereros, 290, 298 

Hervey (or Cook) Islands, 20 

Herz(>govinans, 452 

Hiding capacity of the BhiLs, 184 

High Germans (or Swabians), 457 

Highlanders of Scotland (or Celts), 495 

Hill Damara, 290 

Hill IXiople of India, 179 

Hindus, 178, 180 

Hiro, a sea-god, 11 

History o/.— the Armenians, 261 ; the 
Hebrews, 251, 2.52 ; Holland, 488, 4.S9; 
Ireland, 500— .502 ; Italy, 408; the 
Mongols, 140, 141 ; Sjjain, 470 : Swit- 
zerland, 400 ; the Tasmanian blacks, 
08, 09, 70 ; Wales, 4!H 

Hitomo (a Jaiumese under-garment), 150 

Holland and Dutch, 488—490 



Honolulu (capital of Sandwich Islands), 24 

Hopi, 551 

Hora (a Rumanian dance), 443, 444 

Horses of North .\merican Indians, &17 ; 
Argentina iK'ople, 570, 572 

Hottentot Negroes, 294—296 

Hottentots, 208 

House-horns of Malagasi houses, 287 

House-moving among Berber, 404 

Houses (see Dwellings) 

Hova, 205, 283, 284 

Hungarians, 454 

Hunting aiiwny the: — Bongo, 353; Bush- 
men of South Afric.1, 209 ; Kskimo, 
522 ; Fans, .'550 ; Forest pygmies, 277 
Guianas, .562, 503 ; Hamrans, 400, 401 
Hottentots, 295; Jungle folk, 190 
Obongo, 272 



Iberians, 408, 470, 476, 490 

Iceland and Icelanders, 432 

Ikongo, 280 

Incis, 554, 509 

India, 176-211 

Indian Armenians, 262 

Indios, 84 

Industries (see also Manufactures) of the: — 
Abvssinians, 380 ; Ajwno, 339 ; Bantu, 
333; Bechuanas, 303; Belgians, 487; 
Berbers, 404; Bongo, .353; Danakil, 
.371; Eskimo, 617; Falasluuj, 382; 
Fans, 348, 350 ; Gallas, 371 ; Gypsies, 
456; Hereros, 298; Hottentots, 295; 
Ishogo, 338 ; Mashonas, 308 ; Negroes, 
293; Nilotic group, 359; Portuguese, 
480 ; Russians, 412 ; Swiss, 404 ; Wan- 
yamwezi, 315 

Infieles, 84 

Initiation of Australian youths, 62, 64 

Intoxicating drink (see Drinking Habits) 

Inxwala (a Matabili dance), ;iOO— 308 

Iranians (or Persians), 190, 235, 238 

Ireland and Irish, 498— 501 

Iroquoians, 537, 538 

Isa, 374 

Ishogo, 3.38 

Islam, 247 

Italy and Itilians, 408—470 



.lakuns, 88 

Jalin of Khartum, 401 

Jaimn and Japanese, 144 — 152 

Jats, 192 

Java, 83 

Jews (sec Hebrews) 

Joshiwara, 148 

Juangs of Oriss.i, 184 

Jungle folk, 190 



Kabinda, 330, 331 
Kabras (a peace cei-emony), 359 
Kabyles (see Berl)er»), 403 
Kaehins, 111, 112 
Kaffirs, 29<.», :{00 
Kafiristan, 210 
Kalmuks, 223, 224 
Kamasia, 'XA 
KamclLadales, 2;$5 

Kamilaroi tril)e of New South Wales, 00 
Kanakas, 24, 41 

Kandjur (the Lamaist sacred book), 160 
Kanuri, 394 
Karamoyo, 354 
Karens, 118, 119 
Karons, 25 
Kashmiris, 196 

Kavirondo (ix-ople of), 290, 326, 330, 361, 
358—300 



Index 



581 



Kayak (an Eskimo canoe), 514, 516 

Kelowais of Air, 386 

Kethuba (a Hebrew marriage institution), 

253 
Khama (a chief), 302 
Khas, 101, 104 
Khasis, 196 

Khoi-Khoi {or Hottentots), 294—296 
Khonds, 191 

Kikuyu Negroes, 294, 343 
Kimono (a Japanese flowing robe), 150 
Kirghiz-Kazaks, 218 
Kismet, 439 

Kite-flying by New 2!ealanders, 10 
Kolarians (or Kola), 177, 183, 184 [see also 

Juangs and Bliils) 
Korea, 15C 
Koriaks, 234, 506 
Kotas, 189 
Koumiss, 144, 218 . 
Kraals, 295 
Kru (or Grebo), 362 
Kshatriyas (caste), 182, 183 
Kuchins, 536 
Kuki (hill men), 112 
Kurds, 235, 2:W, 201 
Kurumbas, 190 



Lala (a Hawaiian game), 10 

Lamaiserai, 1G6 

Lamaism (a form of Buddhism), 138, 144, 

164 
Iiand tenure in Hebrides, 496 — 498 
Lango nation, 300 

Ltiiiffuacje :—Aha.bdeh, 402; Afghan, 213; 
Ashango, 342 ; Australian, 58 ; Basque, 
478; Belgian, 480; Bulgarian, 440; 
Bushmen of South Africa, 270 ; Celelies, 
77 ; Chekh, 453 ; Cymric, 495 ; Doko, 
281; Erse, 500; Eskimo, 525; Finn?, 
423 ; Eormosan, 158 ; Fuegian, 576 ; 
Fulah, 391, 392; Gallic, 496; Ghez, 
376 ; Greek, 434 ; Gypsy, 456 ; Habab, 
376; Haussa, 392; Hottentot, 296; 
Iceland, 432; Irish, 500; Ishogo, 
338 ; Kikuyu, 344 ; Lango, 300 ; Lapi), 
426; Malagasi, 288; Magyar, 455; 
Manx, 504 ; Maori, 48 ; Monbuttu, 
328, 330 ; Njempsian, 358 ; North 
American Indian, 500; Palestine, 
250 ; Philippine, 84 ; Rumonsh, 463 ; 
Sakais, 88; Scotch, 496; Shan, 102; 
Sorb, 458; Spanish, 479; Suahili, 
318 ; Sumatra, 84 ; Swiss, 463 ; 
Tajiks, 222 ; Tasmanian, 70 ; Tibbus, 
386 ; Turki, 218 ; Turkish, 257 ; 
Veddas, 176 ; Vei, 361 ; Wankondc, 
314; Watwa, 282; Welsh, 494, 495; 
Wasania, 282 

Lanney, W illiam (a Tasmanian black), 70, 71 

I.aos, 101 

I^apland and Lapps, 424—427 

Lasaa, 164 

Latuka, 351, 353, 354 

Leks, 235 

length of life of Eskimo, 510 

Lepers' Island, 40 

jjesghians, 417, 419 

IjCtto-Lithuania, 458 

Lilieria, 362 

Liku (a Eijian garment), 2 

Li pans, 536 

liiu-kiu Islands, 158 

I><jml)ard», 409 

Loo-choo Islands, 158 

Love story of T(mga, 10. 17 

Low Archiixjlago, 20, 24 

Low Germans (or Saxons), 457 

Ijowlanders of Scotland (or Saxons), 495 

Loyalty Islands, 20 

Luris, 235. 238 

Lushai, 112 



Macusis, 560 

Miulagascar, 82 

Magic {sec Superstition) 

Magwangwara, 310 

Magyars, 453, 454, 455 

Makalaka, 308 

Makassars, 77 

Makololo, 310 

Makua, 313 

Malagasi, the, 280 

Malay Peninsula, 88—96 . 

Malays, 26, 73—90, 265, 266, 282 f> 

Malietoa (a Samoan chief), 18 

Mana, 11 

Manchu stock {see Tunguses), 225 

Mandans, 540 

Mandarins, 129 

Mandars (inhabitants of Celebes), 77 

Mandingo, 361, 302 

Manu (laws of), 180 

Manufactures {see also Industries) of: — 
Anamites, 100 ; Dyur, 352 ; Fijians, 1 ; 
Javanese, 83 ; Kotas, 189 ; Malagasi, 
287 ; Monbuttu, 328 ; North American 
Indians, 546 ; Tibetans, 162 

Manxmen, 504 

Maoris, 42 

Markets of Anamese, 107 

Marquesas, 20 

Marriage Customs ( ee also Courtship) of 
the : — Abyssinians, 380 ; Andaman 
Islanders, 171, 172; Arabs, 240; Ashira, 
338 ; Australians, 53 ; Battas, 84 ; 
Bechuanas, 303 ; Bongo, 353 ; Bosnians, 
450; Bushmen of South Africa, 209; Cir- 
cassians, 422 ; Copts, 397 ; Dutch, 489 ; 
Dyas, 79 ; Eskimo, 525 ; Falashas, 382 ; 
Fans, 350 ; Fellahin, 398 ; Fijians, 2, 7 ; 
Florida Islandei-s, 38 ; French, 474 ; 
Greeks, 435 ; Guianas, 564 ; Hervey 
Islanders, 20; Hebrews, 253, 254; 
Hottentots, 296 ; Hungarians, 455 ; 
Ilongotes, 75 ; Irish, 502 ; Karens, 
119; Khonds, 192; Kirghiz-Kazaks, 
220; Kotas, 189; liurumbas, 190; 
Latuka, 354 ; Masai, 357 ; Negritos, 87 ; 
New Britain people, 31 ; New Guinea 
natives, 29 ; New Hebrides natives, 
40 ; New Irelanders, 32 ; Niam-niam, 
.347 ; North American Indians, 549 ; 
Papuans, 29 ; Queen Charlotte Island- 
ers, 48 ; Russians, 410 ; Samoans, 18 — 20 ; 
Santa Cruz people, 41 ; Shans, 102 ; 
Siamese, 100; Solomon Islanders, 37, 
:<8 ; Somali, 373; Tahiti (Society) 
Islanders, 23 ; Tasmanians, 71 ; 
Tuanjgs, 390 ; Turks, 4:?8, 439 ; Upper 
Congo inhabitants, 3;U ; Veddas, 176 ; 
Wanyamwezi, 315 ; Wanyoro, 327 ; 
Wapokomo, 321 

Masai trilM!, .354 

Mashonas, liOS, 309 

Masi, 2 

Massacres of Annenians, 201 

Matabili, .306 

Mayan civilisation, .555, 556 

Mayas, .529 

Mazurs, 458 

Medicine-men 0/.— Australia, CO ; Poly- 
nesia, 11, 12 

Mekhitar, 263 

Melanesia, 25 

Mendi, 302 

Middle Congo natives {see Bantu) 

Militury Si/sleia {xee also Army) of the :— 
Fulah,'391 ; Tuaregs, 3i)0 

Mining in Bosnia by Gypsies, 4!>C 

Mirdites, 430 

Missionari/ Work amotufthe : — Buriats, 224, 
225; Chinese, 140; Fijians, 8; For- 
mosans, 158 ; Giliaks, 2.34 ; in India, 
li)8 ; Japanese, 152; New Guinea 
people (Papuans), .30, 31 ; New Heb- 
rides jjeople, 39 ; Nilotic group, 359 ; 
Philippine Islanders, 86 ; Sandwich 



Islanders, 24; Society Islanders, 20, 
22 ; Solomon Islanders, 37 ; Tongans, 
10 ; Waganda, 325 ; Veddas, 174 

Mohawks, 538 

Moluche, 570 

Monasteries of Armenia, 203 

Monbuttu Negroes (or Mangbattu), 294, 327 

Money of llie :—Va.n&, 350; Haussa, 393 

Mongolia, 110—144, 170, 205 

Mongols and American Indians, 583 

Monolithic dwellings and columns of Abys- 
sinia, 378 

Montaignais, 537 

Montenegro and Montenegrins, 447 — 449 

Moors and Algerians, 403—408 

Morals of the : — Abyssinians, 380 ; Anda- 
man Islanders, 172 ; Australians, 67 ; 
Chins, 118; Eskimo, 524; GviMies, 
450 ; Irish, 500 ; Maoris, 40 ; Nilotic 
group, 359 ; Veddas, 174 

Moravians, 454 

Moros, 84 

Mortlock Islands, 11 

Moslem religion, 240 

Mostahill (law of), 398 

Mound-builders of America, 551 

Mushikongo, 330 

Music of the; — Admiralty Islanders, 36; 
Bantu, 333 ; Eskimo, 522 ; Germans, 
400-402 ; Mashonas, 308 ; North 
American Indians, 547, 548 ; Sakais, 
92 ; Scotch, 490 ; Siamese, 101 ; Welsh, 
495 

Muskhogean stock, 540 

Muyscas, 508 



N 



Nails (length of, in Siara), 98 

Namaqua, 294, 295, 290, 298 

National cohesion of the Chinese, 122 

Nats (a guardian spirit), 103 

Nav.ijos, 530 

Necklets {see Ornaments) 

Negritos (or Aijtas), aboriginal inhabitants 

of Philippine Islands, 87 
Negro (of Africa), 265 
Negro race, 289 
Negroes (of America), 505 
Negroids, 370 
Neolithic, 458, 490 
Nestorians (or Nasranee), 238, 203 
New Britain, 31 
New Caledonia, 41 
New Guinea, 25 
New Hebrides, 39 
New Ireland, 32, 34 
New Zealand {see Maoris), 42 
New Zealand flax mats, 44 
Niam-niam Negroes (or Azandeh), 294, .343, 

344, 346, 347 
Nilotic Negroes, 265, 294, 326, 350-300 
Nirvana (state of everlasting rest), 164 
Njempsians, 350, 358 
Normans, 472 
North America, 529—552 
Norway and Norwegians, 427—431 
Nuba, 402 
Nubians, 400—403 
Nushegagmuts, 514 
Nuy-ko (or Chinese privy council), 129 



Oath-taking with Chins, 118 

Obongo, 271 

Okanda, 337 

Ohl Aije with the : — Aijtas, 87 ; Fijians, 0, 

7 ; Guianas, 504 ; Koriaks, 2.35 ; 

Siamese, 100 
Oneidas, 538 
Onondagas, 538 

Opium-tmokinff : — Malays, 76; Siamese, 98. 
Drang Benua, 73, 88 
Orang Laut, 73 



582 



The Living Races of Mankind 



Orang Malayu, 73 

Ordeals (trial by) among the Apingi, 340 ; 
Somali, 37;< 

Oriijinof the : — Abyasiiiians, 374,370; Af- 
ghans, 21)2 ; Australians, 50 ; Bt'lgians, 
48o ; liugo, 37(> ; Hrahman», 203 ; Chi- 
n»!se, 122; Chinese pigtail, 12"); 
Danakil, 372; Dutch, 4S8; Knglish, 
4!I0, 4'Jl ; Jjikimo, 50C ; Kalashas, 370, 
382 ; Kreneh, 470; Gy iwies, 450 ; Hotten- 
tots, 2U5 ; Italians, 40i ; Jai)anese, 144 ; 
Kikuyu, 344 ; jjeople of Madagascar, 
282, 28;< ; Maori iialion, 42, 44 ; Njemp- 
sians, 358 ; Parsis, llic ; Portuguese, 
480 ; Russians, 412, 414 ; Somali, 372 ; 
Suahili, 318 ; Tasnianians, 72 ; Tibe- 
tans, 101 ; Turks, 255 ; Wahuma, 322 

Onxatnents of the : — AUiWeh, 402; Abys- 
sinians, 378 ; Admiralty Islanders, 34 ; 
Arabs, 244 ; Aralw of North Africa, 
405 ; Ashango, 342 ; Australians, 52 ; 
Bantu, 333; Bara, 284; Batwa, 270; 
lierbera, 404 ; Berikiino, 281 ; Bongo, 
.352; Bushmen of South Africa, 208; 
Dahomeyans, 300 ; Dinka, ;?51 ; Dyas, 
78; Dyur, 352; Kgba, :iC8 ; Kskimo, 
513; Fellahin, 307; Fijiaus, 2, 4; For- 
mosans, 158 ; Uuianas, 501, 502 ; Hairy 
Ainu, 154 ; Haussa, 303 ; Hereros, 2'.)8 ; 
Hill people of India, 170 ; Hottentots, 
295 ; Ishogo, 3:i8 ; Kaffirs, 209; Khasis, 
198; Kikuyu, 343; Latuka, 354; Ma- 
lagas!, 280; Masiii, .356, 357; Mon- 
buttu, 328; Moors, 400; Nilotic 
Negroes, 359; Negroes, 290; New 
Guinea natives, 28; New Zealand 
natives, 32, 34; Niam-niam, 310; 
Njemjwians, 358 ; North American 
Indians, 544 ; Nyasaland natives, 
312; Patagonians, .575; Sakais, 88; 
Sakalava, 2S6 ; Siamese, 98; Solo- 
mon Islanders, 37; Tibbus, 380; Todas, 
188; Tuaregs, 390; Veddas, 173; Wa- 
ganda, 325; VVagiryama, 319; Wa- 
gogo, 317 ; Wakamba, 321 ; Wapokomo, 
320 

Oronio, 370 

Ostiaks, 2.30 

Ovaniiio, 299 



Painting bodit^ of Sakais, 89 

Palestine, 249 

Panches, 508 

Pantheism. 11 

Pantshen I^iua, 1C5 

Papuans, 25 — 48 (see alto New Guinea) 

Pariahs (or outcjists), 182 

Parsis, 190, 2:58 

Patagonians (or Tehuelehes), 572 

Pathans (or Afghans), 213 

Patuas (see .Tuangs), 184 

Panmota, 20 

Persia and Persians, 235—240 

PeruviaiLS, 529 

Petele (a Bantu ornament), 312 

Philippine Islands, 84, 80 

Pictures (see Art) 

Picture-writingdf Bushmen of South Africa, 

2»!y; of North American Indians, 54(> 
Pigtail or (jueue of Chinese (origin of), 125 
PiUnjana, or |ialan(|uin (a Malagas! 

vehicle), 287 
Pitcairn Island, 23 
Ploiigge (a knotted stick, used as an Aus- 

tralisn magic wand), 01 
Poisoned arrows of Bushmen of South 

Africa, 2G9, 278 
Pokomo {are Wa|x)komo) 
Poh-a, 4.>1, 4.58 
Poti/ffami/ Kith the ;— Abyssinians, 380 ; 

Anamese, IOC ; Bongo, 3.53 ; Fellahin, 

398; H<.ttent<it«, 2<.Ki ; Latuka, Xy\ ; 

Moiibiittu, 328 ; New Ireland natives, 

32; Nilotic group, 359; North American 



Indians, 549 ; Sakais, 91 ; Samoans, 
19; Siamese, 100 ; Solomon Islanders, 
37; Somali, 373; Veddas, 170; Wa- 
soga, 320 

Polynesians, 8 — 24 

Pondo tribe of Katfirs, 300 

ropulittion of. — AljaMeh, 402; Afridis, 
214; Algonquians, 537; Anaui, 101; 
Arabia, 241 ; Armenians, 200 ; Aus- 
tralians, 51 ; Austria-Hungary, 453 ; 
Bakhtians, 2;58 ; Basuto, :i04 ; Belgium, 
483; Bhils, 180; Bokhara, 221; Borneo, 
77 ; Brahmans, 210 ; Bulgaria, 439 ; 
Buriats, 223 ; Bushmen of South Africa, 
200 ; Caucasia, 417 ; Chin.'V, 122 ; Chip- 
pt^was, 537; Chukchis, 234; Circassians, 
420 ; Crees, 537 ; Druses, 248 ; Egba, 
308; Eskimo, 508, 509; Fakirs, 211; 
Falashas, 382; Fiji, 1; Finland, 422; 
Formosa, 158 ; France, 470 ; Germany, 
457 ; Giliaks, 232 ; Gonds, 180 ; Greece, 
433 ; Hairy Ainu, 153 ; Hereros, 298 ; 
Holland, 488 ; Hottentots, 294 ; India, 
177 ; Ireland, 498 ; Isle of Man, .504 ; 
.lajjan, 144 ; Java, 83 ; Kalnuiks, 223 ; 
Kamchivdales, 2.35 ; Kara-Kirghiz, 218 ; 
Khiuiis, 197 ; Korea, 150 ; Koriaks, 
234; Kotas, 189; Lapland, 424; Les- 
ghians, 418 ; Luris, 238 ; Maoris, 42 ; 
Mashoniis, 308 ; Monbuttu, 328 ; Mon- 
golians, 140 ; Montenegro, 447 ; 
Nestorians, 2;i8 ; New Hebrides, 39 ; 
Norway, 428 ; Ostiaks, 223 ; Ovamjx), 
299; Palestine, 250; Persia, 235; 
Philippine Islands, 84 ; Pondo, ;?00 ; 
Portugal, 479 ; Pueblo Indians, 551 ; 
Rumania, 441 ; Russia, 409 ; Sakais, 
88; Samoa, 18; Samoyedes, 223; 
Sandwich Islands, 24 ; Scotland, 495 ; 
Servia, 444; Siam, 97; Siberia, 222; 
Spain, 475; Strait i Settlements, 90; 
Sumatra, 83 ; Sweden, 431 ; Switzer- 
land, 402; Syria, 248; Tahiti, 20; 
Tibet, 101 ; Tonga of South Africa, 
304; Tunguses, 223; Turkestan, 217; 
Turkey, 430; Turkomans, 220; 
Uganda, 324; Wales, 494; Yakuts, 
22:5 

I'orro (or secret societies of West Africa), 
362 

Portugal and Portuguese, 479, 480 

Powhatans, .538 

Praying-wheels of Tibetans, 108 

Present-making of Society Islanders, 22 

Priests of Polynesians, 11 

Proverbs of Malays, 77 

Pueblo group of North American Indians, 
534 

Pueblo Indians, 551, 552 

I'ueblo structures, 551 

Puelche. 570 

Pygmies, 205, 200, 2.S0 



Qajar (see Persia), 235 

tjuei^liuas, 508 

(jueue or Chinese pig-tail (origtin of), 125 



Raids of Angoni, .310 

Raj|)ut caste, 182, 192, 208 

Itaiilc uiiwnii the: — Anamese, 107; Aus- 
tralians, 68; Burmes*', 110; Chinese, 
12<.»; Danes, 484, 485; Jitkimo, 524, 
625 ; Germans, 400 ; Malagiisi na- 
tives, 288; Maoris, 40; Persians, 230; 
Siamese, 98 ; Society Islanders, 22 ; 
Solomon Islanders, 37 ; Swiss, 404 ; 
Tasmanians, 71 

Re<i Karens, 119 

Redeeming the <irst-l)orn (custom of Jews), 
262 

Reincarnation of a Lama spirit, 105, ICO 



Reindeer and Lapps, 427 

Rcliiiioii amony the: — Ababdeh, 402; 
Abyssinians, 380, 381 ; Anamese, 107 ; 
Arabs, 247 ; Armenians, 2()3, 204 ; 
Aryans, 200—212 ; Ashango, 342 ; 
Aslianti, 303; Australians, 04, 65; 
Austro-Hungarians, 455; Aztecs, 555; 
Bakongo, 332 ; Baluchis, 210 ; Batwa, 
280; Belgians, 487; Berbers, 404; 
Bosnians, 452 ; Bulgarians, 441 ; 
Buriats, 224, 225 ; Bushmen of South 
Africa, 270 ; Ciissubs, 458 ; Chinese, 
130—140; Chins, 114; Copts, 396; 
Danes, 485 ; Dutch, 490 ; Druses, 249 ; 
Egbiv, 309; tjikimo, 520; Ewe, 304; 
FaKishas, .•{82 ; Fanti, .303 ; Finns, 423 ; 
French, 475 ; Fur Negroes, 394 ; Gallas, 
371; Germans, 402; Gyi>sies, 456; 
Hairjr Ainu, 155; Haussa, 393; Her- 
zegovinans, 452, 453 ; people of India. 
198, 199; Irish, 504; Italians, 470; 
Japanese, 152 ; Kaffirs, 300 ; Kal- 
muks, 223; Kamehadales, 235; Khonds, 
192; Kikuyu, 344; Kirgliiz-Kazaks, 
220 ; Kols, 184 ; Koriaks, 2;?5 ; Kptas, 
189 ; Lapps, 42 ; Lesghians, 419 ; 
Letto-Litnuanic people, 458 ; Liu-kiu, 
100; Malagas! natives, 287; Masai, 
357 ; Mayan, 550 ; Mazui-s, 458 ; Mon- 
gols, 143; Moors, 408; Negritos, 87; 
Negroes, 293; New Guinea natives, 
28 ; Njempsians, XiS ; North American 
Indians, 550, 551 ; Norwegians, 431 ; 
Obongo, 272 ; Ostiaks, 231 ; Parsis, 
196 ; Persians, 240 ; Polynesians, 10 ; 
Russians, 410; Sakais, 92; Samoans, 18; 
Samoyedes, 229, 230; Scotch, 498; 
Servians, 440, 447; Sliangallas, 381; 
Shans, 103 ; Sikhs, 192; Somali, 373; 
South American Indians, 554 ; Suahili, 
318; Svans, 417; Swiss, 400, 408; 
Syrians, 248 ; T.asmanians, 72 ; Ti- 
betans, 104, 108 ; Tongans, 16 ; Tuaregs, 
391; Tunguses, 220; Usbegs, 222; 
Veddas, 470; Waganda, 325; Wagir- 
yama, 319; Wakamba, 322; Wanyoro, 
327; Wajxikomo, 320, 321; Welsh, 495; 
Yakuts, 232 

Relvjious festivals of the: — Ashango, .342, 
343; Belgians, 487; Kalmuks, 223; 
Tongans, 13 

Rhtetians, 403 

Riffs, 403 

Ring (sec Ornaments) 

Ritual of Armenian Church, 264 

Robinson (Augustus) and Tasmanian 
blacks, 69 

Rosary of Tilx^tans, 108 

Rumania and Rumanians, 441—444, 453 

Russia and Rus.sians, 409—410 

Rus.sian jxist-car, 411, 412 

Ruthenians, 454 



Saans (see Bushmen), 260 

Saba (or North British Borneo), 77 

Sacred animals (killing of, by Hindus), 211, 

212 
Sacrijicea iifUh the: — Chins, 114, 116; 

Dahomeyans, 3tiG, 307 ; Fijians, 0, 7 ; 

K bonds, 1 91 ; Negroes, 29 1; I'oly nesians, 

11; Sakalava, 287; Waganda, 3a); 

Wanyoro, .327 
Saetersdal ([X'ople of valley of, Norway), 

4:jo 

Sakais, 88 

Sakalava, 28.3, 286, 287 

Sahara and Soudan, .385— .394 

Samoa, 17 — 20 

Samoyedes. 220—230 

Sandwich Islands, 24 

Santa Cruz (or Queen Charlotte) Islands, 

41 
Santhals, 190 
Sarakole, 361 



,/ 



Index 



58; 



Sarawak (Raj of), 77 

"Sarongs," 88 

Saxons (or Low Gormans), 457 

Scandinavians, 422, i'lS, 472, 481, 491, 405 

Scars self-inflietwl by the Fijians, 2 {see 

also Tattooing) 
Scotland and Scotchmen, 495 — 498 
Sealing by Eskimo, 516, 522 
Semangs, 88, 94 
Semitic, 248, 250, 206 
Serers of Senegal, 361 
Servia and Servians, 444—447 
Senecas, 538 
Shamanism, 138, 224 
Shangallas, 374, 381 
Shans, 97, 98, 101 

Sheikh (a head of an Arabian tribe), 245 
Shereefs, 245 
Shiah sect, 240 
Shilluk, 351 
Shintoism, 152 
Shoho, 374, 380 
Shojjs in Bosnia, 449, 450 
Shoshonean stock, 540 
Shulluhs, 403 

Siam and Siamese, 97 — 104 
Siberia, 222, 235 
Sikhs, 192 
Singpos, 111, 112 
Siouan group of North American Indians, 

534, 537, 538 
Siva ("the destroyer"), 204, 205 
Siyins, 113 
S/m'cs and Slavery aviong the : — Arabs, 

246; Burmese, 110; Laos, 101, 102; 

people of Madagascar, 288 ; Maoris, 46 ; 

Negroes, 293 ; Russians, 414, 415 ; 

Tuaregs, 390, 391 ; Turkomans, 220 
Slavs, 453, 454, 458 
Slovaks, 454 
Slovenes, 454 
Smoking in Russia, 416 
Society Islands (or Tahiti), 20 
Solomon Islands, 37 
Somali, 205, 372—374 
Sorcery (see Superstitions) 
So-sin (ceremony of sacrifice), 307 
Soudanese Negroes, 361, 362 
Souruka (a Solomon Islander's dance), 38, 

39 
Southern Chili and Argentina, 569—575 
Spain and Spaniards, 475—479 
Stahr (a housetop of Moorish houses), 400 
State of Fulah, 392 
Straits Settlements, 96 
Suahili, 317 
Sudras (caste of), 182 
Suicide among the : — Chinese, 134; Maoris, 

46 
Sumatra, 28, 83 
Superstitions among the: — Australians, 60, 

61; Bhils, 186; Chins, 116, 117, 118; East 

African iX!oplcs, 312; Fijians, 8; Finns, 

423, 424 ; Giliaks, 2:54 ; Hereros, 299 ; 

Irish, 502 ; Kikuyu, 344 ; LapiJS, 427 ; 

Manxmen, 504 ; Mongols, 143 ; Moors, 

408; Niam-niam, 347; North American 

Indians, 550 ; Scotch, 496 ; Spaniards, 

478 ; Svans, 417 ; Tasmanians, 72 ; 

Tuaregs, 391; Turks, 4.'!8; Wagiryama, 

319 
Surf-swimming of Polynesians, 10 
Surgical operations and the Apingi, 339, 

340 
Sua, 403 
Suttee, 202 

Svans (or Svanithians), 417 
Swabians (or High Germans), 457 
Sweden and Swedes, 431 
Switzerland and Swiss, 462—468 
Syria, 247 



Taboo (or Upu), 48, 509 
Xagal (one of the chief tribes of the Philip- 
pine Islands), 84 



Tahiti (Society Islands), 20, 22, 23 

Tai, 98, 101. 

Taisaka, 283 

Tajiks, 222, 235 

Taksatte (or Chassad Kukis), 116 

Tamein (or skirt), 119 

Tanala, 283, 287 

Tanisi, 283 

Taoism, 137 

Tartars, 122 

Tasmania, 67—72; discovery of, 67 

Tattooing and Cicatrisation among the : — 
Admiralty Islanders, 34 ; Apono, 339 
Australians, 52, 53; Bangala and Bateke. 
:«3; Bantu, 332; Bayansi, 333 ; Bet 
sileo, 286 ; Dahomeyans, 364 ; Dinka. 
351 ; Egba, 368 ; Eskimo, 513 ; Fella 
bin, 397; Fijians, 2; Fomiosans, 158 
Friendly Islanders, 12 — 17; Gonds, 
186 ; Guianas, 502 ; Hairy Ainu, 154 
Ishogo, 338 ; Japanese, 150 ; Kanuri. 
394 ; Latuka, 354 ; Liu-kiu, IGO 
Malays, 75; Maoris, 44; Negroes, 290, 
292 ; New Ireland people, 32 ; New 
Guinea natives, 30 ; Niam-niam, 346 
Samoans, 17 ; Society Islanders, 22 
Solomon Islanders, 37 ; Tibbus, 386 
Todas, 188 ; Tongans, 1 2 — 17 ; Wany oro. 
327 

Tehuelches {see Patagonians), 572 

Temples of Admiralty Islanders, 36 

Teutonic, 453, 457, 462, 472, 491, 498 

Thieving among the Bhils, 184 

Tibbus, ;!85, 393 

Tibetans, 101, 196 

Tierra del Fuego, 576 

Tien-Tsze (title of Chinese Emperor), 129 

Tigrians, 376, 382 

Timni (or Timneh), 362 

Timor Laut (Eastern Archipelago), 73, 76 

Tindalos (sorcerers), 39 

Titles in Germany, 460 ; Persia, 236 

Tobas, 576 

Todas, 186 

Tonga, 304, 309 

Tongking, 104 

Tortures and Punishments among the : — 
Abyssinians, 381 ; Chinese, 132 

Tosks 4<'J(J 

Totejiis, 58, 302, 348, 349, 364 

Tow-Tow (aTongan religiousfestival), 13, 14 

Trading of the : — Congo tribes, 331 ; Wa- 
kamba, 321 

Truganina (a Tasmanian black woman), 70 

Tshi, 3C3, 364 

Tsongkapa (one of the heads of Lamaism ), 165 

Tuaregs, 385, :586— 391 

Tubuai, 20 

Tunguses, 225 

Tupi, 567 

Turkana, 1551, 354 

Turkestan, 217 — 221 

Turkey and Turks, 256, 436—439 

Turkomans, 217 

Tuscaroras, 538 

Tushilange (see Bashilange) 

Tynwald (legislature of Isle of Man), 504 

Tziganes, 456 



U 

Uganda (king of), 324, 325 
IJlcd-Nail, 4(»5 

Umiak (an Eskimo canoe), 516 
Usbegs, 221 



Vaishyas (caste of), 182 

Valencians, 478 

VaiKjur baths of Russians, 409, 410 

Vaudois, 4(»4 

Vazimba, 28<) 

Vedas (hymns), 200, 202, 203 

Veddas of Ceylon, 172 



Venezuelan ix!ople, 558 — 566 
Vishnu ("the preserver"), 204, 205 
Vodka (a Russian drink), 415 



Wadai jM'ople, 394 

Wadoa, 316 

Waganda, 265, 324, 326 

Wagiryama, 318 

Wagogo, 317 

Wahuma, 322, 326 

Wakamba, 321 

Wake (an Irish funeral custom), 502 

Wakhutu, 316 

Wakisesa, 359 

Wakwafi, 358 

Wales and the Welsh, 494, 495 

Walloons, 458, 485 

Wambuttu, 275 

Wanderoblx), 282 

Wangindo, 310 

Wankonde, 313, 314 

Wanyamwezi, 314, 315 

Waiiyoro, 326 

Wapianas, 558 

Wapokomo, 319 

War Customs tcith : — Australians, 54 ; 
Samoans, 18 {sec also Army and Mili- 
tary system) 

War With Tasmanian blacks, 69 

Warraus, 558, 559 

Wasagan', 316 

Wasania, 282 

Wasoga, 326 

Watuta, 310 

Watwa, 282 

Wayao, 312, 313 

Wazaramo, 315, 310 

Wazimba, 266 

Weapons of the : — Abyssinians. 378; Apono, 
339 ; Arabs, 244 ; Ashango, 342 ; Aus- 
tralians, 54, 55 ; Bakwando, 271 ; 
Bantu, 333; Bara, 284; Bechuanas, 
303; Berbers, 404; Berikimo, 281; 
Bongo, 352; Bushmen of South Africa, 
268 ; Dinka, 351 ; Dyas, 79 ; Dyur, ;!52 ; 
Eskimo, 516, 517 ; Fijians, 1 ; Gallas, 
370 ; Guianas, 563 ; Haussa, 393 ; 
Hereros, 298 ; Hottentots, 295 ; Ishogo, 
338; Kaffirs, 300; Kanuri, 394; Ki- 
kuyu, 343, 344; Lapps, 420, 427; 
Latuka, 354 ; Malagasi, 286 ; Ma.sai, 
357; Monbuttu, 328; Negi-itos, 87; 
Negroes, 292 ; New Caledonians, 41 ; 
New Guinea natives, 28 ; New Ireland 
natives, 32, 34; Niam-niam, 346; Ni- 
lotic Negroes, 359 ; Njempsians, 358 ; 
North American Indians, 544, 545, 546; 
Obongo, 272 ; Papuans, 28 ; Pata- 
gonians, 575 ; Sakais, 90 ; Solomon 
Islanders, 37 ; Somali, 373 ; Svans, 
417 ; Tasmanians, 70 ; Tibbus, ;586 ; 
Tuaregs, .390; Ve<tdas, 174; Waganda, 
325 ; Wagogo, 317 ; Wakamba, 321 ; 
Wanyamwezi, 315 ; Wanyoro, 327 ; 
Wapokomo, 320 ; Wazaramo, 316 ; 
Zulus, 306 

Widows in : — Australia, 53 ; Fiji, 7 

Wito, 384 

Wolf-reared children, 193 

Women of : — the Anamites, 106 ; the Araljs 
and Arabia, 245, 246 ; the Aralw of 
North Africa, 405, 406 ; the Armenians, 
260, 262, 263 ; the Ashango, 342 ; Aus- 
tralia, 54 ; the Batwa, 278; the Berters, 
403; the Bongo, :»2 ; Burma, 110; 
China, 124 ; the Chins, 1 12 ; the Croats, 
4.54 ; the Dinka, 351 ; the Druses, 249 ; 
the Dyur, X>-2 ; the Fellahin, .397, 398 ; 
Fiji, 7 ; Formosa, 1.58; the Galla-t, 370 ; 
Germany, 4(52 ; the Giliaks, 234 ; the 
Golds, 2;i4; the Gonds, 186; the 
Guianas, 563 ; India, 198 ; Ireland, 
600; the Juangs, 184; Kashmir, 196; 
the Khasis, 197 ; the Kirghiz- Kazaks, 



584 



The Living Races of JVlanI<ind 



220 ; Korea, 156 ; the Kotas, 18» ; the 
I^ngo, .%0 ; the Latuka, 354 : the 
Malays, 76 ; the Muiilnittii, :<28 : the 
Mongols, 142 ; MoiiK'iiopro, 447, 448, 
449 ; the Moortt, 405, 406; New Guinea, 
29 ; Persia, 'XYi ; Rumania, 442 ; Samoa, 
18; Siani, 100; the Somali, 37S ; Si>ain, 
478 ; SquawB of North American In- 
dians, 547 ; the Todas, 188 ; Tonga, 14 ; 



the Tuaregs, 388-390 ; Turkey, 438 ; 
the Wamlnittu, 275; the Wapokomo, 
321 ; the Wito, 384 



Yahcans. 576 
Yakkos, 172 
Yakuts, 231 



Yao, 310, 312, 313 
Yoruba people, 363, 3C8 



Zamtx«i tribes, 292 

Zandey (ice Niam-niam), 344 

Zulus, 30-J— 306 



NOTE 

The Editor (Rev. H. N. Ilutcliiiison) wishes to offer his sincere thanks to those travellers, ethnologists, and 
others who have helped him to carry out his scheme. Without their kind co-operation the work 
of collecting photographs from all parts of the world could not have been done in the time. The 
pictures reproduced in this book are but a selection from the large collection which has been formed — 
probably the most complete collection at present existing in Great Britain. By submitting proofs of 
photographs to ethnologists before going to press, the Editor has been able to eliminate not a few 
mistakes made by ])hotographers, owing to the careless way in which they put titles to their photographs, 
regardless of scientific accuracy. Half-castes are a trouble to collectors of types. The F^ditor's special 
thanks are due to Professor Keane, F.R.S., for general supervision of much of the text and titles of 
l)hotograplis, and to Mr. William Crooke, author of "The Tribes of the North-west Provinces," etc., for 
similar kind help in the chapters dealing with India. 

When travelling abroad in search of photographs, the Editor received much kind help from travellers, 
professors, and others. In Paris Prince Poland Bonajjarte was kind enough to show his very fine collection 
of photogi-aphs, and to give permission to reproduce some of his types of North American Indians. In the 
same city Prof. Hamy, Dr. Vernaux, Prof. Gaudry, and Dr. Topinard all rendered valuable assistance. Dr. J. 
Szombatby, of Vienna, most kindly sent the Editor a number of his valuable photographs of Samoyedes ; 
Drs. Paul and Fritz Sarasin also sent some of their unique photogi-aphs of the Veddas of Ceylon ; Prof. 
Gustav Fritsch has sent some rare photographs of Bushmen ; Dr. Paul Hyades (editor of the " Mission 
Scientifique du Cap Horn '') has sent many Fuegian types ; Dr. Ehrenreich, photographs from South America ; 
Dr. A. B. Meyer, of Dresden, supplied most valuable Papuan types from his well-known albums. The 
Editor is also indebted to Dr. von Luschan and Dr. Stuhlmann (Berlin); Dr. Schmeltz (Leyden) ; Dr. Amel 
(Budapest) ; M. Ijibbe and M. le Baron de Baye (Paris) ; and the Anthropological Collection of the Museum 
de Paris ; Dr. Obst (Leipzig) ; Prof. Brinkmann and Herr Karl Hagenbeck (Hamburg). 

In England special thanks are due to the Anthropological Institute, the South American Missionary 
Society, Dr. Grenfell of the Mission to Dccj) Sea Fishermen, the London Missionary Society, the S. P. G., 
and the Universities' Mis.sion to Central Africa. Sir Hugh Low, K.C.M.G., most kindly lent his unique 
collection of Dyaks from Borneo. The Royal Geographical Society kindly gave permission to make use of 
their large collection, from which the Editor selected a number of valuable types from Central Asia, collected 
by E. Dclmar Morgan, Esq., F.R.G.S. Messrs. Spencer and Gillcn kindly allowed the Editor to select some 
examples from their largo and unique collection of Central Australians. Dr. R. W. Felkin, F.R.G.S., 
kindly lent the whole collection of invaluable photographs taken by the late Mr. Richard Buchta in 
the region of Khartum. Mr. Henry Balfour, of Oxford, has also helped the Editor in many ways. 

The following ladies and gentlemen have all contributed photograjjlis. In the case of professional 
photographers their names are all given under the photographs reproduced i — 



Admiral Sir William Acland, Bart. 

Mr. J. Alldridge. 

Mr. Stowell Ashwell (Antananarivo). 

Mr. James Baker (Clifton), F.R.G.S. 

Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 

Mrs. Theodore Bent 

Mr. W. R. Bland. 

Mrs. E. T. Cook. 

Mr. Thomas Child. 

Mr. H. Z. Darrah. 



Rev. A. B. Fisher. 

Mr. Ernest Gedge, F.R.G.S. 

Dr. F. H. H. Guillemard, F.R.G.S. 

Sir W. C. Hillier, K.C.M.G. 

Mr. H. C. V. Hunter, F.R.G.S. 

Sir Harry Johnston, K.C.R. 

The late Miss Mary Kingsley. 

The Rev. W. G. lAwes (New Guinea). 

Mr. J. J. Lister (Cambridge). 

Mr. O. C. Morant, F.R.G.S. 



Rev. E. E. Nickisson. 

Miss Palmer. 

Mr. R. Phillips (Bristol). 

Mr. J. G. Reid (Lima). 

Mr. E. J. Robertson. 

Mr. W. J. Roland. 

Mr. H. W. Rolfe. 

Colonel Sir Edward Ros.s K.C.M.G. 

Mr. H. Warington Smyth, F.R.G.S. 

The Bishop of Tasmania, 



BINDING LiST JUL 1 1931 



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